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Fair Fla(r— on Sudeley'!» tower unrolled, 
While icy storms are hurtliof by ; 
We hail across the cold grey sky 

The gleaming of thy bright red fold 

m&sms^ (SijissmtB. 

England's broad Banner here did wave. 
And one sad Queen within these walls. 
Whereon thy shadow idly falls. 

Found quiei resting-place and grave. 

And many a Banner floated (ree. 
In days when Chandos held his state 
Within the ancient Castle-gate, 

And woke the courts with revelry. 

Then prouiily float, fair Flag, once more 
From towers that, strong and stately still. 
Rise up and overlook the hill 

And vale as in the days of yore I 

And let thy presence speak to all 
Of welcome wann, and hearts as true. 
As in the olden summers drew 

The rich and poor to Sudeley's hall. 









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IT is said that all history, both ancient and modern, is a mosaic 
made up of fragments of single authorities. 

If this is true of standard works of history, how doubly so 
of my humble effort in the following pages, wherein I have en- 
deavoured to bind into something like one harmonious whole, the 
interesting facts which cluster so thickly round Winchcombe, once the 
Capital of Mercia, and the thousand historic associations with which 
Sudeley Castle, our beautiful home, abounds. 

Few residences can boast a greater antiquity, or have witnessed 
more striking changes. A mansum, or manor-house, before the 
Conquest, a baronial castle in the time of Stephen, then alternately 
going to decay, or rising into additional magnificence, with stately 
towers to overlook the vale — again suffering from neglect, and once 
more right royally restored and beautified to receive the widowed 
Queen as Seymour s Bride, with all her lordly retinue. 

Passing to the noble Chandos, thrice in his time were Sudeley 's 
gates thrown open wide, to receive the " Great Gloriana," for whose 
royal entertainment were prepared tournament, joust, and pageantry, 
with all the quaint revelry of the period. 

Another change of scene presents to us Sudeley's pride laid low by 
the cruel hand of rebellion. True to his king did the last Chandos of 

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Sudeley fight, and spend his might in that most righteous cause He it 
was, who at the battle of Newbury, had no less than three horses 
killed under him ; he it was, who called forth Charles's burst of honest 
commendation, when urged by the surrounding courtiers to check his 
impetuous bravery — ** Let Chandos alone ! his errors are safe." But 
when the excitement of the war was over, the noise of the cannon 
hushed, and the winds of heaven had dispersed the smoke from the 
last burning embers, Sudeley Castle was a ruin ! her noble owner too 
impoverished to realise his dream of restoring her stately pile ! 

For more than two hundred years thus she lay. Moss and ivy, wall- 
flowers and roses seemed to vie with each other in throwing a tender 
veil over her decay ; and not in vain ! The time arrived, and your 
worthy Uncles, with reverent care, once more raised her beautiful head 
to delight the heart of the antiquary, and the eyes of all beholders. It 
has been your happy privilege to add much to their interesting work, 
and mine to cull from your choice collection of old Histories, such remi- 
niscences as belong to the Castle and neighbouring Abbey town. 

Would that I could do them justice in arranging them for the 
perusal of those less favoured than ourselves with leisure to search the 
originals. You will read these chronicles with the partiality of a 
husband's eye ; of others I only crave that they may be regarded as 
materials lovingly collected for some future and abler pen than mine. 

To the memory of the former noble owners of Sudeley Castle, 
among whose peaceful shades I have passed so many happy hours, and 
to the not less Sacred but more tender remembrance of those whose 
kindness cast our lot in this pleasant heritage, with loving reverence I 
dedicate these Annals of a historic neighbourhood and of a happy 


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IT has been my desire, in preparing this Work, to consult all the 
best authors who have treated of any of its various subjects, and 
the following List may serve to show that I have bestowed some 
trouble in endeavouring to carry out my intention. My task has been 
materially lightened by the fact, that many of the books required are in 
the Sudeley Library ; these are indicated by an asterisk. But beside 
these, several MSS. preserved in the British Museum, or the Bodleian 
Library, witTi others supplied by the kindness of friends, have been 
employed ; and Mr. Cripps and others have drawn my attention to 
papers preserved in the Public Record Office, which have enabled me 
to trace the career of the seven Lords Chandos of Sudeley in more 
detail than has heretofore been done. 

•Ames's Typographical Antiquities, by 
Herbert London, 1785, 3 vols. 

Annales de Winchcomb. Cottonian MS. 

•Annalia Dvbrensia. London, 1636. 


* Atkyns', Sir R. , Gloucestershire. London, 
1 7 12, folio. 

•Ballard's Memoirs of Eminent Ladies of 
Great Britain. Oxford, 1752, 4to. 

•Barksdale's, Clement, Nympha Libethris 
and other works. 

•Bentley, Thomas, Monvment of Matrones. 
1582, 4to., 3 vols. 

•Bibliotheca Gloucestriensis. 1825, 4to. 

•Bigland's, John, County of Gloucester. 
1 791-2, 2 vols., folio. 

•Brydges, Sir Egerton, Speeches delivered 
to Queen Elizabeth at Sudeley Castle. 1 8 1 5. 

•Burghley State Papers, by Haynes and 
Murdin. London, 1749-50, 2 vols., folio. 

•Camden's Britannia, by Gough. London, 
1789, folio, 3 vols. 

•Chambers' Book of Days. 1863, 2 vols. 

•Chronicles of Florence of Worcester. 
Translated from the Latin by Thomas 
Forester. 1854. 

•Chronicles of Roger of Wendover, 
formerly ascribed to Matthew Paris. Trans- 
lated by Giles. 1849, 2 vols. 

•Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon. 
1858, 2 vols. 

•Chronicon Abbatise de Evesham. 1863. 

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Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, 
^Cooper's Chronicle. 1560. 
*Cripps' Royal North Gloucester Militia. 
*CromwelI iana. Westminster, 1 8 1 o, folio. 
*Dibdin*s Bibliographical Decameron. 
>^'7» 3 vols. 

* Doyle's Chronicle of England . 1864. 

* Drayton's Polyolbion. London, 1613. 
*Dugdale*s, Sir \V., Baronage. London, 

^ 675-6, folio. 

*Dugdale's MonasticoQ Anglicanum, 
Caley, Ellis, and Bandinel's Edit London, 
1817-30, 6 vols., folio. 

" Dugdale'sWarw'ickshire. MDCLVI,folio. 

^^Erasmiis' Paraphrase of the New Testa- 
mente, with an Epistle dedicatory to the most 
vertuous Ladie Quene Katherine Dowager. 
I^ndon, 1548, folio. 

*Evans' Stone Implements. 1872. 

*Fabian's Chronicle, continued by John 
Kyngston. London, 1559, folio. 

*F'osbroke's Encyclopedia of Antiquities. 
London, 1823-5, * vols, 4to. 

*Fosbroke's History of Gloucestershire. 
Gloucester, 1807, 2 vols., 410. 

*Foxe's Book of the Martyrs. London, 
1631,3 vols. 

•Froissart's Chronicles, PvTison's Edition. 
London, 1523-5, 2 vols., folio. 

Froude's History of England. 

* Fuller's Church History of Britain. 
London, 1655-6, folio. 

* Fuller's Worthies. London, 1662, folio. 
*Gifrord's Dialogue between a Protestant 

and Papist London, 1582, 4to. 

*Godwin's, H., Worthies of Newbury. 

*Gough's British Topography. London, 
1780, 2 vols., 4to. 

^Grafton's Chronicle. H. Denham, Lon- 
don, 1569, folio. 

•Griffiths' History of Cheltenham. 

*Grose's Antiquities. 

*Halle's Chronicle. London, 1550. 

Higden's Polycronycon, by Peter Treveris. 
1527, folio. 

•Holinshed's Chronicles. London, 1586, 
2 vols,, foiio. 

*Horae Subseci\-ae, by Grey Br}'dge, Lord 
Chandos. London. 1620, 8vo. 

*Huraes History of England. 1796, 
8 vols. 

•Jameson's (Mrs.) Monastic Orders. 

Jordan's, Rev. J., Parochial History of 
Enstone. 1857. 

King's Vale Royal (Cheshire). London, 
1656, folio. 
, Knight's Encyclopaedia. 1S54. 

•LacroLx's Militiuy and Religious Life. 
I •l^timer's Sermons, MDXLIX. 

•Leland's Itinerary, by Heame, 3rd 
' Edition. Oxford, 1768-70, 9 vols., 8vo. 
' *Letters of the Mart>TS, by ^L Coverdale, 
John Day, London, 1564, 4to. 

Lubbock's, Sir John, Antiquity of Man. 
j ♦Lysons* Gloucestershire Antiquities. 

Lysons' Our British Ancestors. 

Lysons' Romans in Gloucestershire. 
, *Macaulay's, Lord, Histoiy of England 

1854, 3 vols. 
j Maclean s. Sir John, Life of T. Se}'mour. 
> 1869. 

•MS. Notes by E. T. Browne, Esq., and 
Mr. Lapworth. 

•Mercurius Rusticus. London, 1647, 

•Milles' Catalogue of Honor. London, 
1 6 10, folio. 

•Murray's Handbooks for Rome, and for 

•Nash's Worcestershire 1799, « vols., 

•Naunton's, Sir R., Memoirs of Robert 
Gary, Earl of Monmouth, and Fragmenta 
Regalia. Edinburgh, 1808. 

•Nichols' Progresses of Elizabeth and 
James L London, 1 788-1807, 3 vols., 4to. 

Ormerod's History of Cheshire London, 
1 81 9, folio. 

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*Parr*s, Queen Katherine, Prayers. 1547, 
1 6 mo. 

Planches Conqueror and his Companions. 

Royalist Composition Papers. Public 
Record Office. 

*Rudder's Gloucestershire. Cirencester, 
1779, folio. 

*Saxon Chronicle, Ingram's translation. 
1823, I voL 

•Speed's History of England. 1627. 

•Stanley's, Dean, Westminster Abbey. 

•Strickland's (Miss) Queens of England 

*Strutt*s Saxon Antiquities. London, 1775, 
3 vols. 

•Tanner's Notitia Monastica. 

Thomason's Collection of Tracts, in the 
British Museum. 

*Tytler*s England under Edward VI. and 
Mary. London, 1839, 2 vols. 

•Upcott's English Topography. 18 18, 
3 vols. 

•Voragine's Golden Legend. W. de Worde. 
1527, folio. 

•VValpole's History of Painting. 1828. 

•VVarburton's, Eliot, Memoirs of Prince 
Rupert. 1849, 3 vols. 

•Wermylierus, Otho, Spirituale and most 
precv'ous Pearle. London, 1550, i6mo. 

•Willis's History of Mitred Abbeys. Lon- 
don, 1 7 19, 2 vols., 8vo. 

•Willyams, Cooper, History of Sudeley 
Castle. 1 791. 

•Winchcomb Cartulary. 

•Wood's Athenae Oxonienses, Bliss's 
Edition. London, 181 3, 4 vols., 4to. 

In the Sudeley Collection of Coins and Tradesmen's Tokens found 
in Winchcombe and Sudeley, are : 

Roman Coins, separately mentioned at p. 15. 

Saxon Coins of Offa, Kenulf, -^thelred IL, Canute, Harold L, and Edward the 

English Coins of William L, Stephen, Henry III., Edward L, Edward H., Edward HL, 
Richard IL, Henry IV., Henry V., Henry VI., Edward IV., Richard III., Henry VIL, 
Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, Elizabeth, James I., Charles I., Charles IL, James H., 
William and Mar>', William III., Anne, George I., George IL, George III. 

Tradesmen's Tokens issu^ in Bristol, Campden, Cheltenham, Cirencester, Gloucester, 
Tewkesbury, Winchcombe, Chipping Norton, Alcester, Evesham and Worcester. 

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vWest View of Sudeley Castle, from a photooraph by Marianne 


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vVale of Evesham, Winchcombe, and Sudelev, from a Watercolour by 

H. Pearsall I 

V Belas Knap Barrow 4 

V Stone, Flint, and Bronze Implements 8 

/ Roman Pavement, from a drawing by G. Makgill, Esq 13 

V Roman and Saxon Ornaments, &c 15 

V King Offa, copied from the MS. by James A. Burt 19 

V King Kenulf, copied from the MS. by James A. Burt .... 28 

v^ Charter of Winchcombe Abbey, copied from the MS. by James A. Burt. 33 

/King Kenelm, copied from the MS. by James A. Burt . • . . 37 

y Kenelm's Church and Well, from drawings by Edmund T. Browne, Esq. 53 

/Old Oak, and Inner Park Wall, from a drawing by J, Rushton . . 58 

>/ Visions of Henry I., copied from Dibdin's "Bibliographical Decameron," 

BY Miss Edith L. Wedgwood 75 

•/ PosTLip Chapel and Doorway, from a drawing by J. Rushton . . 79 

n/' Stanley Pontlarge Church, from a drawing by J. Rushton . . . 105 

V Greet Chapel, from a drawing by Ed. T. Browne, Esq. . . . . 106 

V Gretton Church, from a drawing by J. Rushton 106 

/ The Portmare Tower, from a photograph by Marianne Brocklehurst . 118 

Winchcombe Church, two views, drawn and lithographed by J. Dray- 

ton Wyatt . . . ' 121 

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^ Label Terminations on Sudeley Chapel, from sketches by Marianne 

Brocklehurst 125 

^Richard, Duke of Gloucester . . . . 126 

4 Marriage of Henry VII., from an old engraving 133 

>i Children of Henry VII., from an old engraving 133 

^Richard Kidderminster, Abbot, copied from the MS. by James A. 

Burt 137 


< Barge Board on old House in Winchcombe, from a drawing by Edmund 

T. Browne, Esq. 143 

^ Doorway and Fragments of Winchcombe Abbey 145 

v^Whipping Post, from a drawing by Miss Mary J. Booth . . . 147 

/Ducking-Stool, from a drawing by J. Rushton 147 

y Parish Stocks, Winchcombe 148 

y Abbey House, Winchcombe, from a drawing by Edm. T. Browne, Esq. . 149 

> Stone Coffins of Kings Kenulf and St. Kenelm 150 

V John Winchcombe, painted by Holbein, from a drawing by J. Rushton . 156 

V Henry VIII. carved in Boxwood, by Holbein, from a drawing by Edith 

L. Wedgwood 158 

V Katherine Parr's Letter to Seymour of Sudeley 163 

y Miles Coverdale 168 

V Exterior of Katherine Parr's Nursery Window, from a photograph by 

Marianne Brocklehurst 171 

V Interior View of the same, from a painting by Pearsall . . . 172 
^ Katherine Parr, from a miniature by Holbein 180 

V Katherine Parr's Seal and Jug 183 

^ Katherine, Duchess of Suffolk 191 

y Marquis of Northampi'ON 196 

V Arms of former Owners of Sudeley 209 

s Execution of Lady Jane Grey, from a painting by Paul Delaroche, 

WITH the permission OF THE PUBLISHERS, GOUPIL & Co. . . . 2IO 

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^SuDELEY Castle, from a tapestry map 216 

/Window surmounted with Leopard's Head, initials and date, E. C, 1572, 

FROM A drawing BY J. RUSHTON 219 

«/Chandos Almshouses, from drawings by Miss H. Broadmead . . . 222 

^ Giles Brydges, 3RD Lord Chandos 224 

^ Queen Elizabeth, painted by Zuccaro, from a drawing by Edith L. 

Wedgwood 228 

^ Henry VHL and his Family, painted by Sir Antonio More, from a 


^Cumnor Bedstead, from a drawing by J. Rushton 232 

"/Chandos Buffet, from a drawing by J. Rushton • 246 

^Frances Brydges, Countess of Exeter, from a scarce engraving . . . 248 

•Doorway, with initials and date, G.'C, 1614, from a drawing by J. 

Rushton 250 

/ George, Lord Chandos, from a drawing of the original portrait, by 

Mrss Edith L. Wedgwood 254 

yST. Mary's, Sudeley Manor, from a photograph by Dr. Tothill .261 

/ Charles L's Letter on the original board from Philleigh Church, 

Cornwali 264 

fJ Bead-work representing Charles I. at Sudeley Castlp .... 266 

/Octagon Tower, Sudeley Castle, from a drawing by J. Rushton . . 270 

/Charles L's Bedstead, from a drawing by J. Rushton . . . .274 

/ General View of Sudeley Castle, drawn and lithographed bv J. Dray- 
ton Wyait 278 

^ Ruins of Sudeley Castle from the West, from a drawing by J. Drayton 

Wyait 284 

/ Caricature of a Roundhead, from a sketch by Edm. T. Browne, Esq. . 288 

v' The Bridge of Life, by Hogarth, drawn by Marianne Brocklehurst . 291 

V Rowell Manor House, from drawings by J. Rushton ..... 298 

^ Portion of Queen Elizabeth's Charter 301 

y Communion Table, Pulpit, and Font, Winchcombe Church . . . 305 


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J Doorway of an Old House in Winchcombe, from a drawing by J. Rushton 308 

vGround-Plan of Sudeley, from a drawing by Fred. Simmons 
/ George IIL's Visit to Sudeley 

• Inscripi'ion on the Leaden Coffin of George, Lord Chandos . 
/Inscription on the Coffin of Queen KAtherine Parr . 
/Tomb of Queen Katherine Parr, sculptured by J. B. Philip . 





Ground-plan, Belas Knap, from a drawing by L. Winterbotham, Esq. . 6 

Skull found in Belas Knap Barrow 7 

Stone found at Child/s Wickham, frOxM a drawing by Marianne Brockle- 


Ground-plan of Roman Villa, from a drawing by G. Makgill, Esq. . 13 

Huddlestone's Table, from a drawing by Henrietta Wedgwood . . . 31 

Stone Coffin, from Winchcombe Abbey 36 

Clent Church 46 

King Kenulf's body caj^ried to Winchcombe, from a drawing by Mari- 
anne Brocklehurst 50 

Window of St. Kenelm*s Chapel, from a drawing by J. Rushton . . • 54 

West View of low Embattled Tower, from a photograph by M. Brockle- 
hurst y5 

Seal of William de Tracy 86 

Seal of Otuer de Sudeley gy 

Seal of Ralph de Sudeley 05 

Piscina, Winchcombe Church 120 

Processional Cross, from a drawing by Miss Edith L. Wedgwood . . 123 

Spur, from Tewkesbury Battle-field 126 

Alms Chest, Winchcombe Church 134 

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WiNCHCOMBE Abbey Seal 135 

Seal of Richard Ancelme, Abbot of Winchcombe 141 

Initials of Richard Kvderminster on George Inn 151 

Clock from Hailes Abbey 162 

East View of low Embattled Tower 165 

Katherine Parr's Effigy, from the "Monument of Matrones" . . . 177 

Fragment of Queen Katherine Parr's Monument 17S 

Sir Thomas Seymour, from a copy by Lady Lucan of the original minia- 
ture BY Holbein 184 

Lady Jane Grey 201 

The Old Pleasaunce . 207 

John Brydges, first Lord Chandos of Sudeley 212 

The Chandos Mantel-piece, from a drawing by Marianne Brocklehurst. 218 

The Chapel Bell, from a drawing by Fred. Simmons 222 

Frances Clinton, wife of Giles, Lord Chandos 227 

Elizabeth, Lady Kennedy 239 

Katherine, Countess of Bedford, from a painting by C. Jansen . . . 242 

Lantern, XIVth Century work 244 

Ruins of Sudeley Castle 253 

Prince Rupert, from a scarce engraving by Hollar 259 

Charles L, from an original miniature 263 

Sir William Waller, from an old engraving 268 

Sword found on Dunn's Hill, from a drawing by Marianne Brocklehurst 269 

Sir William Morton, from a photograph lent by the Rev. T. Bulkeley 

Owen 271 

Colonel Edward Massey 272 

Old Pewter Communion Plate 277 

The Grange, Sudeley , , , , I'^i 

The March of Intemperance, by Hogarth, from a drawing by Mariannf. 


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Clement Barksdale's Autograph, copied from one of his books at 

SuDELEY Castle, in which his name is wriiten 293 

East view of Sudeley Chapel 300 

Interior of Winchcombe Church, from a photograph taken before its 

Restoration ' . . 305 

Remains of Cross in Winchcombe Churchyard 309 

Hagioscope in Sudeley Chapel 311 

The Bu'itery Hatch 313 

Lead Coffin ^f Queen Katherine Parr 315 

Maces belonging to the Borough of Winchcombe 324 

Warming Pans, 1642 and 1645 34' 

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•* As free as Nature first made Man, 
Ere the base laws of servitude began, 
When wild in woods the noble Savage ran." 


DEEP in a beautiful vale near the northern base of the lofty 
Cotswold range stands the small stone-built town of Winch- 
combe, now a ** decayed borough," but once the abode of 
royalty, and more lately the seat of a mitred abbot. The hand of time 
has passed roughly over it, and centuries have rolled on since the 
plumed warrior and the cowled monk were to be found within its walls, 
since the convent bell ceased to sound, or the hills to re-echo the bugle 
note or the falcon's cry, but the attentive observer can yet discover 
many traces of its former importance in and around it The object of 
the following pages will be to bring before the reader, incidents 
referring to the locality, and so much of general history as may be 
needed to make that of Winchcombe and Sudeley more interesting 
and clear. 

The year 787 appears to be the first date that can be certainly 
connected with the history of Winchcombe ; or Wincelcumbe, as it is 
spelt in Domesday. At that time a nunnery was built in it by King 
Offa of Mercia, afterwards the founder of St Albans Abbey. Not- 
withstanding its present unpretending appeairance, Winchcombe, ac- 
cording to •* The Golden Legend,^' a work of the thirteenth century, 
which will hereafter be more fully quoted, was at that period " the chief 


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city of all the counties then comprised in Mercia." Although prior to 
the founding of the nunnery the name of Winchcombe is seldom or 
never met with, from its proximity to Gloucester, Cirencester, Evesham, 
and Oxford, it no doubt shared in many of the most stirring events of 
the early days, even as in later times it bore marks of the ravages 
made by the civil wars of Stephen s reign, and again a few centuries 
later of those of King Charles I. The ancient history of Winchcombe 
naturally brings forward that of Sudeley, its near neighbour, and then 
like our little river Isborne joining the Winchcombe stream and flowing 
on together till both are lost in " classic Avon," so, henceforth, our two 
histories, in happy combination, flow on together till, as a tiny tributary 
trickling down from the Cotswold Hills, they are merged in the 
broader stream of the national annals. 

Before, however, entering on the authenticated incidents recorded of 
the eighth century, it will be interesting to trace back, briefly, (so far 
as is practicable through so long a vista of remote ages) some of the 
facts presented to us by the discoveries of ancient British and Roman 
remains which we have had the good fortune to witness in Sudeley 
during the last few years. 

Sir Francis Palgrave writes, that, according to an ancient tradition, 
which, although not possessing scriptural authority, is grounded upon 
Scripture, the Cymri, as they are still called in their own language, arp 
descended from Gomer, the common ancestor of all the Celtic tribes, 
Britain having fallen to their lot when the " isles of the Gentiles " were 
divided among the children of Japheth, " every one after his tongue, 
after their families, in their nations," (Gen. x. 5.) If this was so, it may 
be supposed that they brought with them the history of our common 
origin, and from which might have sprung the tradition of the first 
inhabitants of Britain having emanated from the soil. 

The popular idea of our British ancestors is ordinarily taken from 
the account which Caesar gives of them in his Gallic War, but this 
is inaccurate, as might be expected from his small opportunities of 
observation. It is briefly as follows : — He allows that they were brave, 
and made a stubborn resistance to his arms. They fought, he says, 
from chariots with scythes fixed to the axle-trees of the wheels, which 

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mowed down their enemies, while, with marvellous dexterity, they 
leaped to and from the ground, urging their horses on to surpassing 
speed down steep hills or on the edge of precipices. Their habitations 
were huts ; their clothing skins of wild beasts ; they tattooed their 
bodies, painting them blue and green. They had no fortifications,* 
and their towns or villages consisted of clusters of huts defended often 
only by their position on steep hills, or in almost impenetrable forests, 
and the brave spirits of their indwellers. It was only the tribes of the 
interior who were in this state, for the coasts were inhabited by settlers 
from Gaul, who are described by Strabo as civilized in their habits ; 
and the gold coins of Tasciovanus and other British rulers, certainly 
not later than the commencement of the Christian era, have come 
down to us. 

Comparatively speaking, little is known of the religion of the ancient 
Britons, owing to their priests, the Druids, making it a rule not to 
commit to writing any of their creed or ceremonies, trusting instead 
to oral tradition. When the Druids were crushed by the Romans, 
most of these traditions perished, but some have been preserved in the 
Triads of the Cymri, so called from " each triad containing t^ree facts, 
precepts, or definitions." 

It is supposed that the Druids were of Celtic origin, and they 
possessed in this country the greatest possible spiritual and temporal 
influence over the people ; administering laws, and exercising the 
power of excommunication, by which they cut off offenders from their 
friends and families, as well as from participation in the sacrifices. 
In their religious ceremonies they made use of the mistletoe when 
found growing on the oak ; t and Augustine, even in the sixth century, 
is said to have found the Britons worshipping iEsculapius under the 
name of Heale ; the mistletoe was called " All Heale " (hence our 
word healthy, and " the healing art "). 

The Druids were allowed many privileges, such as being excused 

* This is a mistake ; our best informed antiquaries now ascribe a pre- Roman date to the mighty earth- 
works of Dorsetshire and Somersetshire, and the same is probably true of the camps on the Cheviot Hills. 

t A few years ago we saw mistletoe growiftg on au oak in Eastnor Park, and which, from its rarity, 
attracted much attention. 

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from war and exempt from taxes. Apart from the human sacrifices 
which marked their great ceremonies, and which are thought by some 
modern authors to have been much exaggerated, there was much 
in their teaching worthy of admiration. Their three principal subjects 
of instruction were, *' Piety towards the gods ; '* " Charity towards 
men;" *' Fortitude in death;" precepts worthy of an apostle, and 
justifying the remark of Deutsch on the Talmud, that many things 
taught by those inspired teachers were old truths gathered up from 
ancient writings, and oral sayings then familiar to the people. 

Of the British funeral rites and sepulchral mounds much has been 
written, and many contending opinions formed. The one now generally 
received is, that the various mounds which contain their burial places, 
represent by the remains found in them three different periods ; viz., 
1st, the Stone age, stretching far back into prehistoric times, before 
metals were known or used, and when implements were made only 
of bone, flint, or stone ; the 2nd, the Bronze, when their implements 
were of that metal or of gold ; and the 3rd, the Iron. 

There seems no doubt that our British forefathers were worshippers 
of Baal, or fire ; Baal, Bel, or Belus, all signifying the same. Many 
places in England point to this fact by names associated with the god 
of fire, and one occurs in our immediate neighbourhood. Belas Knap 
tump, tumulus, tomb, or barrow (all signifying a " little hill "), is an 
interesting example of this, and of what may be called the stone age. 
This barrow, otherwise called Hamley Hough, lies just beyond the 
boundary of our Humblebee Wood, in the parish of Charlton Abbots, 
and carries with its name ideas of solar superstition ; * in Belas we 
recognise Bel or Baal, and in Hamley we have " a place of Ham, solar 
heat, the sun.'' 

Belas Knap barrow was opened in 1863. It presented all the 
interesting features of the long tumuli of the Britons ; the cromlech to 
the north, and sepulchral chambers at the east and west ; also a single 
sepulture, in a grave constructed of rough stones, at the south, possibly 
a later interment. The walls leading to the entrance of the barrow 

Lvsons' "Our Briii&h Ancestors." 

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Beller's Nap, Barrow. 

Cbll,~Northern Side, and Western Entrance. 

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were constructed of stones unhewn and unchiselled ; the stones of the 
entrance also were without any mark of instrument upon them. It 
seems as if the sacredness of the spot was esteemed to be enhanced by 
this absence of workmanship with metal, as in Scripture times: "An 
altar of earth thou shalt make unto me ... . and if thou wilt make 
me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone : for if thou 
lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted it." Exod. xx. 24, 25. 

Flint implements were found in the barrow ; the one represented in 
the opposite Plate in all probability was the sacrificial knife ; and from 
its calcined condition most probably was thrown into the fire with the 
sacrifice. Flint knives are frequently mentioned in Scripture ; the 
priests of Baal cut themselves with flints ; they shaved themselves 
with them as a sign of mourning ; and both in the true and the false 
religions of primitive times such implements were constantly used in 
their religious or superstitious ceremonies. Unfortunately no trouble 
was bestowed on the preservation of this barrow ; consequently the 
principal cromlech on the N, side was broken and the sepulchral 
chambers destroyed ; but a valuable collection of skulls gathered there- 
from is preserved in the College Museum at Cheltenham, of which a 
very interesting description is given in " The Proceedings of the Society 
of Antiquaries, April 19, 1866,'' where the progress of the excavations 
is described, from a report by L. Winterbotham, Esq. ; but we must 
content ourselves with a slight notice of the results. 

Beginning with A in the ground plan, on a large flat stone nearly 
eight feet square and two feet thick, was discovered a massive lower 
jaw, and under the stones, the bones of five children from one to seven 
years of age. There were no remains of an adult, but one remarkable 
male skull, which might pass for a well-developed modern head. In 
cell B were found human bones, with the bones and tusks of boars, a 
bone scoop, some pieces of rough sun-dried pottery, and a few flints. 
C represents an area of about five feet, originally roofed in with large 
slabs of stones, but which had given way and fallen upon twelve 
skeletons placed round in a sitting position on flat stones — these were 
partially pressed into the ground from the weight above them. In the 
nostrils of the skulls were parts of the fingers, as if, in the sitting 

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posture, the fingers had so been placed as to keep the head erect 
D contained fourteen human skeletons, with no other remains but the 
bones of mice, found chiefly in the skulls. E contained part of a 
human skull and bones of a wild boar, both bearing marks of cremation. 
F was a broken circle of stones, seven feet in diameter, but with no 
remains. The soil around was deeply impregnated with wood ashes, 

Ground-plan, Belas Knap. 

and here was found the calcined knife. In all, thirty-eight skeletons 
were found. 

Among the skulls, the most remarkable is the one here delineated, 
showing how the upper incisors were broken off, or ground down even 
with the gums. Other lower jaws exhibited the same peculiarity. It 
remains for future archaeologists to ascertain whether this was but a 
fashion, or a badge of distinction among the men who tenanted our hills 
in those far-off prehistoric times. In ** Crania Britannica," by Davis 
and Thurnam, these skulls are tabulated and described, as they are 
considered to form a valuable and complete collection of very interest- 
ing ethnological specimens. Many of the arrow heads and flint imple- 
ments in the Sudeley Collection were found in the immediate vicinity 
of this barrow. 

Geologists tell us the stone age takes us back thousands, perhaps 
millions, of years, when the configuration of the globe differed from 
what it is now ; when mankind dwelt on the earth with animals long 

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ago extinct, with the mammoth and the woolly-haired rhinoceros, and 
innumerable others. The study of those remote periods has become a 
science ; and the earnest searchers after truth, doubtless having found 
" some foot-prints on the sands of time," will gradually so track them 
back, that fields of knowledge will yet be discovered of which we of 
to-day have no idea, and when possibly even the connection between 

Skull found in Belas Knap Banrow. 

history and geology will be made clear. It is easy to imagine that the 
philosophers of future ages may smile at ours of to-day, even as we 
smile at those of early times, when it was believed that fossils were 
serpents and such like turned to stone by saints — at least such was the 
teaching of the monks ; and Fuller, some centuries later, is almost as 
extravagant He says,* " Who knows not, but at Alderly, in Glouces- 
tershire, there are found stones resembling cockles or periwinkles in a 
place far from the sea, which are esteemed by the learned the gamesome 
work of nature, some time pleased to disport itself and pose us by 
propounding such riddles to us." 

But to return to comparatively modern times. The worship of Bel 

• " Church History of Britain." 

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originated with the Assyrians, to whom the Phoenicians owed their 
origin ; and as the Phoenicians came here at a very remote period 
trading for tin, it is not difficult to see the connecting link between the 
introduction of their faith into this Island, and the origin of the name 
Belas Knap. This barrow very greatly corresponds with the description 
given by Sir John Lubbock * of the tumuli of Northern Europe, as 
consisting of large mounds, with a passage formed by blocks of stone 
leading into a central chamber in which sit the dead, exactly like the 
arrangements of the hut in which the Esquimaux of the present day 
pass the winter. Professor Nilsson concludes from this, that the graves 
were built after the pattern of the dwelling-houses, or that in some 
cases the very house in which the dead man had lived was converted 
into his grave. He says that some of the ancient tribes of the North, 
unable to imagine a future altogether different from the present, showed 
their respect and affection for the dead by burying with them those 
things which in life they had valued most ; with ladies their ornaments, 
with warriors their weapons. When a great man died, he was placed 
on his favourite seat, food and drink were arranged before him, his 
weapons were arranged at his side, and the house was closed and the 
door covered up, sometimes, however, to be opened again when his 
wife or children joined him in the land of spirits. 

Though more rare in England than in Scandinavia, our tumulus by 
Humblebee Wood must have been of this kind. Some antiquaries 
have gone so far as to suppose that the contents of these barrows 
indicate " a belief in a future state, and of some doctrine of probation 
and of final retribution," but to this Sir John Lubbock, in the lecture 
before quoted, does not assent Yet as we turn from contemplating 
these bones so recently brought forth from the long-forgotten and 
unnoticed barrow, what a mysterious and sacred atmosphere seems to 
veil their history from our eyes ! 

" That mighty heap of gathered ground I " Who can tell what love 
and devotion may not have worked to raise that mound ; what grand 
religious rites and ceremonies may not have accompanied its comple- 

• ** Antiquity of Man." 

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Stone, Flint, and Bronze Implements. 

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tion ; how may not the workmen have thought their work would last to 
all eternity, and the names of those so reverently placed within could 
never be forgotten ! 

" The mound is now a lone and nameless Barrow, 
Dust long outlasts the stoned stone ; 
But thou — thy very dust is gone ! " 

Some writers are of opinion that the stone and the bronze age were 
identical, the stone being used by the poor, the bronze by the rich ; 
but this is probably only partially true, for the barrows where we find 
stone implements are usually of more stately dimensions than those 
that furnish bronze.* Flint, on account of its hardness, and of the 
peculiar facility with which the flint flakes could be formed by a blow, 
was well adapted to the wants of savage life. It was formerly thought 
that the Romans introduced the bronze implements into this country, 
copying in metal what they already found in common use ; but this has 
given way to the opinion that they are of far greater antiquity. The 
bronze celts here engraved were found by some workmen in 1856 
between Winchcombe and Prestbury,. on Cleeve Hill, and were brought 
to us soon after we came to Sudeley. About the same time a lump of 
copper was found by a workman in one of our Sudeley quarries. This 
metal being quite foreign to the oolitic stone of the district, its presence 
can be only attributed to those same far-off times when the bronze celts 
were moulded by the inhabitants of these hills, and the metal, in a 
liquid state, must have percolated through the soil into the quarry. 

Another antiquity, which seems to belong to those times, is the stone 
represented over leaf, and which was found a little below the surface 
of the soil at Child's Wickham, near Evesham, and kindly presented by 
the rector, Mr. Hartley. No antiquary has yet been able to throw 
any light on its singular form, and twelve small cavities. Sir James 
Simpson wrote a work upon stones of a similar character in Scotland, 
and from his description we might suppose this to be one of them. 
Some of these have channels communicating between the cavities ; 

• See Worsaae*s **Primaval Antiquities." 

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they are supposed to have been receptacles for rain and dew, the 
purest of all fluids, and therefore deemed fit for the religious service 
of the Druids in their ablutions and purifications ; or, as in this 
instance, where there are no lips or channels, for the dew to be mixed 
with the expressed juice of the mistletoe. 

Stone found at Child's Wickham. 

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** I doe love these ancient mines ! 
We never tread upon them, but we set our feet 
Upon some reverend historie." 

HAVING thus briefly touched upon our British antiquities, we 
may pass on to that portion of our national history, which 
explains how it is we have so many Roman remains on the 
Sudeley property. 

Julius Caesar invaded Britain in the year 55 B.C., but achieved no 
permanent conquest * The Britons, when pressed by the Roman power, 
occasionally made some slight acknowledgment, but it was not until 
the reign of Claudius (a.d. 43) that the subjugation of our island was 
begun in reality. Aulus Plautius and Vespasian (who afterwards 
became emperor) having gained a footing in it, invited the emperor to 
come over, which he did, and though he remained only sixteen days, 
he decreed himself a triumph at Rome, as the conqueror of Britain. 
After his departure they pursued their conquest until they crossed a 
great river in the western part of the country, which Horsley supposes 
to have been the Severn. Ostorius Scapula warred with the Silures 
beyond the Severn, but though he captured their king, Caractacus, he 
was at last unsuccessful, and died; For some years the more remote 
British tribes maintained themselves against the Romans, but in the 
year 61 Suetonius subdued Mona (now Anglesey), and' extinguished 
the Druidic worship in blood. He was, however, recalled by a rising 
of the Iceni, a people in the east of Britain, who, headed by their 
queen Boadicea, strove nobly to throw off the Roman yoke. They 
were subdued, and Boadicea perished, but the sad tale does not belong 
to my history. At last, in the year 78, Julius Agricola was appointed 

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to the command in Britain, and to him the establishment of the 
Imperial rule is due. He not only conquered the natives in battle, 
but reconciled them to the loss of their independence by the introduc- 
tion of Roman arts and luxury. " All this was by the simple people 
looked on as a benefit, when it was really part of their bondage/' 
Tacitus tells us. 

As soon as the Romans had secured a footing in the country, one of 
their great works was the formation of military roads, which often 
followed the lines of older British ones, for the purpose of conveying 
their troops and baggage ; and, among others, a chain of fortresses was 
built along the line of the brow of the Cotswold Hills, overlooking the 
vale of the Severn. Of the four great Roman ways or streets (so called 
from strata, a road), it is the Foss which traverses the Sudeley estate. 
Passing from Bath through Cirencester, it is readily traced in many 
places — very distinctly from " the Dead Man's Gate/' by the road 
leading past the Farmcote cottages, and taking a sudden and very 
picturesque turn, where it is so narrow that a cart can hardly pass ; then 
for half a mile all trace being lost, it appears again in a grand road of 
sixty feet in breadth stretching away over the hills. The tradition has 
always been that this part of the road was British, but repaired and 
used by the Romans. These roads were placed under the special 
care of Mercury ; to his honour were erected pillars on which were cut 
figures signifying the number of miles, and from this we derive our 
custom of placing mile-stones on our turnpike roads. * 

Although the occupation of the island may be said to have been purely 
military, a partially Romanized population gradually grew up in the 
southern and western districts, with whom mixed and intermarried the 
veteran legionaries, who received land instead of pensions. Cities thus 
sprung up, in many cases on the site of British towns, adorned with the 
foreign luxuries of baths, hypocausts, frescoed walls and paintings, 
tesselated pavements, temples, and penates or household gods, 
specimens of which we find in our museums. Gloucester and Ciren- 
cester, under the names of Glevum and Corinium, were Roman cities. 

Rudder's "Gloucestershire' 

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Roman Pavement, 

Found on the Wadfield Farm. 
From a Drawing by G. Makgill, Esq. 

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and indeed all this part of the country was classed under the second of 
the four great provinces into which Britain was divided, viz., Britannia 
Secunda, and which, beside Gloucestershire, included Wales, Hereford- 
shire, Monmouthshire, with parts of Shropshire and Worcestershire. 
Sudeley estate is rich in Roman remains, which probably arose from 
its proximity to Cirencester, Gloucester, and the Foss-road Not far 
from the great high-roads were generally placed their military posts, 
such as we suppose ours to have been above Longbarrow bank over- 
looking this vale. Again, not far from these encampments were 
generally situated villas and dwellings of various descriptions, such as 
the villa we discovered on the Wadfield farm in 1863. 

Ground-plan of Roman Villa. 

As usual, this was brought to light through the instrumentality of 
the plough, which struck against a stone ; upon the removal of this and 
other stones which were then found, a Roman villa was discovered 
beneath the surface of the soil, in a perfect state of preservation. 1 1 

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was of the usual form, and, in addition to the reception rooms, with 
hypocaust or bath. The average dimensions of the rooms were about 
fifteen feet square, and they apparently must have been occupied by 
some individual holding a high military appointment The tesselated 
pavement was as perfect as if just completed by the workmen ; but its 
speedy removal was found to be absolutely necessary in order to 
preserve it from the Winchcombe public, who in the space of one 
Sunday afternoon carried off a large portion in small pieces, as 
souvenirs. Thanks to the energy and ability of Mr. Fred. Simmons, 
bailifF, this valuable memento of Roman times was soon safely lodged 
in the green-house of Sudeley Castle : where may it long be preserved 
as reverently as it is by its present owners ! 

After the subjugation of Caractacus, this part of the country ceases 
to afford material for history, but we may fairly imagine that it was 
both peaceful and prosperous, from the remains of luxurious Roman 
dwellings that everywhere abound. In the north it was otherwise, as 
is plainly testified by the visits of the Emperors Hadrian and Severus, 
and the Walls which they raised to keep out the Scots and Picts, but 
which at last failed to do so. 

By degrees the incursions of these tribes became very formidable, 
and still more so when their forces were joined by the Saxons in the 
fourth century. The jealous policy of the Romans had disarmed the 
Britons, and the people afterwards known as the Saxons had little 
difficulty in establishing themselves on the coast from Northumberland 
to Thanet Mutinies occurred among the troops, the Picts burst 
through the Wall, and at last, in the year 4ro, the Roman emperor 
formally released the Britons from their allegiance, and withdrew every 
soldier for the defence of the empire, which was now assailed on 
all sides by the barbarians. Some Roman settlers remained behind, 
but in the year 418 they also departed. Then, says the Saxon 
Chronicle, " the Romans collected all the hoards of gold that were in 
Britain, and some they hid in the earth, so that no man afterwards 
might find them, and some they carried away with them into Gaul." 
For 1400 years these treasures have remained hidden in the earth, 
in our neighbourhood at least, for arable land was till recently little 

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Roman Kings 

AND Beads 

found on thk 

Wadfield Farm. 




Glass Pendant, 

Saxon Iron Spear, 


Bronze Fibula. 

Fragment of Roman Tomb 
found in Stancomb Wood. 

Fragments of Roman Statue 
found on the Wadfield Farm. 

Roman and Saxon Ornaments, &c. 

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CHAP, il] ROMAN remains, 15 

known in the Cotswolds. It has been the work of the ploughman in 
this century, in turning over the soil, to bring some of them once 
again to the surface. In this manner Roman coins are often discovered 
on our hills, and we have the following at Sudeley, but many more have 
been lost by the cottagers. 


Consular — Cestianus. Severus Alexander, Valentinianus I., Con- 

ImpericU — Domitian, Hadrian, Antoninus stantius 1 1., Magnus Maximus. 
Pius, Faustina junior, Septimus Sevcnis, 


Ztfr^— Marcus Aurelius, Commodus. 3, various, Constantine the Great 8, various, 

Sa»»/— Vespasian, Domitian. Crispus, Constantine IL, Junior 2, various. 

Third — Gallienus 5, various, Victorinus Constans 4, various, Constantius II., 2, 

3, various, Tetricus Senior 6, various, various, attributed to Constantine the Great 

Tetricus Junior, Claudius II., 2, various, 6, various, Magnentius, Gratian, Valens. 

Numerianus, Carausius 4, various, Allectus 

In Spoonley coppice we have found great quantities of tesserae, and 
the remains of what must have been various apartments, each painted 
in different coloured frescoes, coins, bones of animals, tusks of the wild 
boar, and wood ashes. Owing to the roots of the trees having reached 
the pavement, all form and pattern have been destroyed. Tesserae 
have also been found in the garden of Sudeley Lanes farm, adhering 
to the roots of vegetables — and in the field opposite the keeper's lodge. 
In Stancombe Wood also there must be Roman remains, as there was 
found the monumental stone of the Roman soldier. It is to be hoped 
all these places will some day be carefully examined. 

The departure of the Romans was the signal for further inroads by 
Picts and Scots, soon followed by the subjugation of South Britain by 
the Saxons, Jutes, and Angles. With these last we have most to do ; 
for while the Saxons and Jutes gradually established themselves in 
other parts of the country, the Angles settled in the midland region, or 
Mercia, the capital of which Winchcombe soon became. The name by 
our county historians is derived from the Saxon Wincel, a corner, but as 
combe is a mere corruption of the British word cwniy a valley, it is an 
open question whether it may not really be of older date than the 

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coming of Hengist and Horsa. Nothing like it, however, occurs in 
the lists of British towns given by Nennius and other early authors. 
Hitherto, this part of the country had been the chief seat of the 
Dobuni, a people who, inhabiting for the most part a plain and 
valleys encompassed with hills, derived their name from the British 
word Dwfn, deep or low. When the Saxons became masters of 
Britain the name of Dobuni was lost, the conquerors attaching to the 
people of this country that of Wiccii, which, as Wic in the Saxon 
tongue signifies the creeks of a river, is supposed to have been derived 
from their dwelling in the vicinity of the Severn. It soon came to be 
called The March or Boundary, and was the sixth and last formed 
division of the Heptarchy. 

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** What do you call the place? 
A plague upon *t, it is in Gloucestershire." 


THE Mercian kingdom seems to have been founded about a.d, 
584, by Crida, an Anglian chief, whose descent is traced from 
Woden. Penda, his grandson, appears to be the first con- 
nected with the history of this particular neighbourhood, and we may 
reasonably suppose that Winchcombe was then the seat of royalty. 
Not only when Penda fought at Cirencester with the West Saxons 
(a.d. 628), but after many more of his constant strifes and battles, it 
is not difficult to imagine him triumphantly returning to his Mercian 
capital ; still it is almost impossible to realise that our present quiet little 
town, though still retaining marks of its Anglo-Saxon origin, should ever 
have witnessed those semi-barbarous, regal, and warlike triumphs.* 

We read that Winchcombe was once a distinct sheriffdom or county 
within itself, which was probably the work of the great Penda, till united 
to Gloucestershire in the reign of Canute. In 655 Penda was slain in a 
memorable battle at Wingfield, on which occasion, it is said, no less 
than thirty royal persons perished with him, some of whom were kings. 
After this, adds the Chronicle, the Mercians became Christians. The 
first fruits of their new religion were remarkably manifested in the 
next few years by the sons of Penda combining with his conqueror, 
Oswy of Northumbria, to erect a minster to the glory of Christ and the 

♦ Near Sennen Church, in Cornwall, a few yards from the roadside, is a stone called the Dining-table 
of the Saxon Kings ; it is three feet high and seven long. The tradition says that seven kings once met 
there to see the Land's End, and that one of the seven was Penda, of Mercia : Merlin, escaped from the 
oak, appeared among them, and prophesied that a still larger number would assemble there one day ; but 
the meeting has not occurred yet. 


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honour of St. Peter. The building is now represented by Peter- 
borough Cathedral. This was accomplished with much regal and 
ecclesiastical pomp in the presence of innumerable grandees and the 
Northumbrian and Mercian kings. Christianity had now taken firm 
root, and was spreading in the land. Paganism was waning before the 
light of Christianity, and the gods of the heathen were giving place to 
the saints of the Eastern world. Canon Lysons in his Lecture on " The 
Romans in Gloucestershire," gives good reason to believe that the great 
Apostle to the Gentiles was the first to sow the seeds of Christianity 
in Gloucester. When Aulus Plautius was vice-emperor at Gloucester, 
a noble Christian lady married Pudens Rufus, who was converted 
to Christianity.* In Rome they lodged the Apostles Peter and Paul, 
and it was at their suggestion that St Paul first visited Britain. 
Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem, and Theodoret affirm that '^ the 
tent-maker " with others revealed the Gospel to the Britons, and as 
Gloucester was then the seat of government. Canon Lysons naturally 
concludes St. Paul would there reside and preach. If such was the 
case, may we not go a little further, and imagine that he may have 
extended his work even to Winchcombe, within so short a distance of 
Gloucester; and which, to judge from the numerous surrounding Roman 
villas and stations, must have been a place of no small importance } 

When Christianity was fully established, Rome, Constantinople, 
Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria had each a patriarch, or pope. 
But Rome being the capital of the whole empire, claiming the greatest 
antiquity and the chair of St. Peter, assumed supreme power over the 
others, and so, gradually, over the whole of Christendom. Rome in 
those days appeared to hold in her hands the keys of life and death ; 
blessings and anathemas emanating from the Eternal City carried with 
them a power for weal or woe not to be realised in the present day. 
He who could accomplish a pilgrimage to Rome, kneel at the shrine 
of St Peter and receive the Benediction from the Pope, was ranked 
among the highly favoured of heaven, and envied by his fellow men. 
So it came to pass that many churches and religious houses were 

* A monumental tablet, ascribed to Pudens, was discovered near Gloucester in 1825. Lysons, p. 24. 

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Copied from Cottenham MS., Claud. D. vi. F. 3. (14TH Century). 

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erected in the land for the benefit of those who could not attain to such 
high privileges; and so meritorious was it then considered to do honour 
to St. Peter, that we find nearly all the principal churches of those 
early centuries were dedicated to him, as was, later on, our own Church 
of Winchcombe. 

As before stated, it was to King Offa, in a.d. 787, that Winchcombe 
was indebted for the founding of a nunnery. In those days the 
greatest benefit was conferred on a town or neighbourhood by him who 
established there a religious house ; for round it soon clustered other 
dwellings. Encouragement was given to industry and agriculture, 
followed by further advantages which only in later years were super- 
seded by the prosperity accompanying trade and commerce. As Offa 
was considered the most powerful of the Mercian kings, it will be 
interesting here to gather together such of the records of his life and 
reign as are to be gleaned from the ancient Chronicles. 

The first notice that we shall give stands thus : " a.d. 757. Bernred, 
king of Mercia, reigned but a short time and unprosperously, for King 
Offa put him to flight and assumed the government, which he held 
thirty-nine winters.'" This Bernred is described as deserving the title 
of " tyrant " in the worst acceptation of the word, as he ruled Mercia 
according to his will and not according to law ; so when the whole 
population rose against him, Offa, who was of the right royal line, was 
joyfully acknowledged as king.* The nobles rallied round him, and 
the usurper Bernred was expelled. It was not without much blood- 
shed that Offa established himself in the kingdom of Mercia, and 
when this was accomplished, in about the sixteenth year of his reign, 
he turned his attention to his neighbours, and " Offa the Terrible " soon 
subjugated the people of Sussex and Kent. 

In 774 he gained a complete victory over the Kentish king at 
Otford, and this was followed by his obtaining the papal sanction to 
raise Lichfield to the dignity of an archbishopric, in violation of the 
rights of Canterbury; but this was set aside in the reign of his successor 
Kenulf. Offa was almost constantly at war ; his acquisitions were 

• Offa's pedigree, copied from ** Annales de Winchcomb," appears in the Cottonian MS., Tiherius, 
E. iv., fo. 13. It is also given in the Saxon Chronicle, a.d. 755, 

D 2 

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numerous^ and to render them secure the celebrated E>}ke, which bears 
his name, was cast up« He caused his son Ecgfridi (who is also called 
Egbert) to be anointed during his own lifetime, and he was called King 
of Mercia as long as OfTa lived ; this was doubtless in the hope of 
securing the succession, which in those days belonged not by right 
to the eldest son, but was decided frequently by the election of the 

The Chronicles supply us with stories which give a terrible insight 
into the character of Offa's wife and daughter, revealing deeds of 
treachery and murder which read more like fiction than reality. A 
peculiar interest is added to the incidents, when we bear in mind that 
the Mercian kings had then a royal residence in Winchcombe, and that 
therefore we may suppose most of those personages must have actually 
resided here ; and who can tell how many of those stirring events may 
not have been enacted in the streets of Winchcombe, and on the very 
spot where stood, according to tradition, the Palace of the Mercian 
kings ? 

Of Quendrida, his queen, the story goes, that when Ethelbert, the 
king of East Anglia, was a guest at their court, having come to ask 
their daughter in marriage, she, Jezebel-like, suggested his murder, at 
which Offa was very indignant. The day was passed in music and 
dancing, but at night when the young king retired to rest, he was 
precipitated into a pit-fall and smothered by her treacherous servants. 
Offa, on hearing of the murder, " shut himself up in a certain loft, and 
for grief, tasted no food for three days." Nevertheless, though he 
wished to be counted guiltless of the king's death, he sent out a great 
expedition and united the kingdom of East Anglia to his own. 

Eadburga, his daughter, was the wife of Brihtric, king of Wessex, 
whom she poisoned. Being in consequence driven from Britain, she 
repaired to the court of Charlemagne, and was by him placed as abbess 
of a nunnery, but being expelled for her profligacy, she ended her life 
as a common beggar in the streets of Pavia. 

The murder of Ethelbert was committed a.d. 792, and soon after, in 
the hope of expiating the foul deed, Offa turned his thoughts and 
liberality to the Church. It was about this period of his life that he 

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founded the Abbey of St Albans, raising the buildings out of the ruins 
.of the old Roman town of Verulamium. The story runs that Offa had 
been specially warned by an angel to seek for and disinter the body of 
the saint, which had been out of sight and mind for three centuries and 
more. This was accomplished, and the shrine of the martyr, which 
was placed behind the High Altar, was richly adorned with gold and 
silver ornaments and with precious stones and gifts from Offa. Nearer 
home we find him making various grants to the Church of St. Peter at 
Gloucester, "when Eva was abbess, the last of the three Mercian 
queens, who in succession presided over that monastery." In Bishop's 
Cleeve, a small fraternity of monks was established which became 
subject, and their revenues annexed to the see of Worcester ; and in 
Winchcombe he had already founded a nunnery. 

Among other pious acts of Offa must be mentioned his two pilgri- 
mages to Rome ; the first took place in 790, and he died on his way 
back from the second in 796. One tradition says that he expired 
in Sheppey among those Kentish men to whom his ravages and 
tyranny had rendered him so odious ; another, that he died at Offley, 
in Hertfordshire : the place of his burial also is disputed. He so 
liberally endowed the English School at Rome, that he is often spoken 
of as its founder ; but this honour really belongs to Ina, king of 
Wessex, who died in 728. Pilgriniages to Rome probably began 
soon after the conversion of the Saxons by Augustine, and the 
impression made on their simple natures by " the glories of majestic 
Rome" is well stated by the Venerable Bede, in a passage thus 
paraphrased by Lord Byron : — 

" * While stands the Coliseum, Rome shall stand ; 

When falls the Coliseum, Rome shall fall ; 
And when Rome falls — the World.' From our own land 

Thus spake the pilgrims o'er this mighty wall 

In Saxon times, which we are wont to call 
Ancient; and these three mortal things are still 

On their foundations, and unalter'd all ; 
Rome and her Ruin past Redemption's skill, 
The World, the same wide den — of thieves, or what ye will."* 

* Childe Harold," canto iv., p. 145. 

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For the support of the school * Offa granted a tax of one penny on 
every household in his dominions — called Peter-pence in after times, 
and he also gave one-tenth of his property to the Church on the 
approach of death. This liberality has caused the monkish author (rf 
the ** Lives of the Two Offas " to extol him unduly ; but we may 
charitably hope that our Winchcombe benefactor, if indeed guilty of 
the blood of Ethelbert, did not die with his sin unrepented of. 

Unfortunately Winchcombe cannot lay claim to having found him a 
quiet resting-place, as she did to his successors, Kenulf and Kenelm. 
Some think he was buried in a chapel on the Ouse, at Bedford ; but a 
Gloucestershire tradition favours the idea that he was entombed in this 
county, and Rudder gives a description of the camp near Almsbury, 
which is considered to be the work of Offa. In 1650 a huge stone 
coffin was dug up at Over, in the same parish ; it contained a skeleton 
of unusual size, and was so cleverly cemented together, that no jointing 
was discernible. This coffin tradition claims to have held " all that 
could of him die," our first known benefactor, the great and powerful 
King Offa! 

According to the Chronicler, Florence of Worcester, " Ecgfrith 
succeeded to the glory of his father Offa's kingdom, but only reigned 
141 days." Ecgfrith was a worthy successor to the great Mercian king ; 
pious and noble, he followed his father in all that was good, confirming 
and adding gifts to St Albans, and restoring to other religious houses 
whatever had been wrongfully withheld for the secular advantage of 
the kingdom. Among these we may reasonably include Winchcombe, 
and infer that he gave his warm support and patronage to the nunnery 
so recently established by his father. It is also very probable that he 
was buried in Winchcombe, as there has always been a tradition to that 

After Ecgfrith reigned Kenulf, king of Mercia, and as he, perhaps 

* It was burnt about fifty years after, and was rebuilt by Ethel wulf, the father of Alfred, who added to 
its endowments. **This school still exists in Rome and is known by the name of S. Tommaso degl» 
Inglesi. The church, which was also founded by Offa, was destroyed and afterwards restored by King 
Egbert. The present college is for the education of young Englishmen for the Roman Church, and 
attached to it is an institution for receiving clergymen who have seceded from the Church of England and 
preparing them for that of Rome." — Murray's " Handbook for Rome." 

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even more than his predecessor Offa, was connected with Winchcombe, 
it will here be interesting to collect together all that can be gleaned 
from history, and extract all we can from the romantic, but too often 
vague and contradictory pages of the ancient Chroniclers. Historians 
all concur in describing Kenulf as a magnificent prince — son of Cuth- 
bert, great-great-grandson of King Wibba, and married to Alfritha, 
Offa's daughter, by whom he had a son Kenelm, afterwards king and 
martyr, and two daughters, Quendrida and Burgenilda.* Speed thus 
writes of him : " Kenulf, not so neer in blood to King Egfryd as he 
was like him in all virtuous conditions, by him was ordained to succeed 
in his dominions, whereby he became the thirteenth King of the Mer- 
cians, and the eighteenth monarch of the Englishmen, a.d. 797 

At home hee was an example of pietie, peace; and religion, and set the 
scales of justice without respect to all alike ; abroad temperate, humble, 
and courteous; in warres he was stout and victorious; in peace studious 
to enrich his subjects ; briefly, at all times so carrying himself that 
envy could not touch him with her tongue." Kenulf is also thus 
described : " Religious at home, and victorious as a lion in war, 
thereby adding a lustre to the diadem of his kingdom. Then came 
to him Athelhard and Eanbald, archbishops of Canterbury and 
York, to confer with him respecting the lost dignity of the church of 

As at that time Winchcombe was in the zenith of her power and 
magnificence, it is very much to be regretted that no faithful record 
tells us of all the illustrious personages who must in those stirring 
times have enlivened this ancient town with their presence. It is not 
easy now, as we saunter through its quiet streets, to realize that there 
on one hand, stood a Mercian Palace, fitting residence of kings and 
queens ; and on the other, an Abbey, stately, and worthy of those reli- 
gious times when even the workman laboured as much for devotion as 
for profit Nor is it easy to change the quiet scene of to-day with its 
few unpicturesque passers-by, to that of soldiers hurrying to and fro, 
the coming and departure of the king, grand religious ceremonies, 


♦ Saxon names are very variously spelt by different authors ; thus the Cwendritha of the Chronicle 
is called Quendrida, Quenride, or Quendred, and Burgenilda, Borwenilda, in some MSS. 

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monks in their Benedictine robes ever and anon gliding on through the 
Abbey gates on errands of mercy to the poor or suffering. Supposing 
Winchcombe to have been the scene of the conference, great must have 
been the excitement when the two dignitaries of the Church arrived 
after their long and tedious journeys from York and Canterbury, and 
how must their hearts have rejoiced,* when Kenulf, on learning from 
them what great wrong his predecessor, King Offa, had done in muti- 
lating the province of Canterbury, with ready zeal restored it to its 
ancient standing. Sending letters from himself and all the English 
bishops to Pope Leo,| Adrian's successor, and Archbishop Athelhard 
personally discharging the office of envoy, he obtained his request ; 
wherefore it is recorded, far more to the praise and glory of that arch- 
bishop, that he restored the ancient dignity of the see, than that he 
merely maintained it in the condition in which he found it. 

The attention of Kenulf was next directed to the state of Kent 
More than twenty years prior to this, the Mercians and the men of 
Kent had been at war, "even in the year 774. when a red cross 
appeared in the heavens after sunset, and wonderful serpents were 
seen in the land of the South Saxons." J They had ever since 
borne the Mercian yoke uneasily, and when the terrible Offa was 
"dead, they made a determined effort to shake it off. The throne was 
by the popular voice adjudged to Eadbert, surnamed Pren, one of 
the royal blood, who had been ordained, but who forsook his holy 
calling in answer to the appeal of his countrymen. Athelhard the 
archbishop beheld this elevation with sorrow ; and Eadbert, treated as 
an apostate, resented the archiepiscopal opposition. The discipline of 
the Church was at stake, and to prevent further confusion the clerical 
king was excommunicated by Leo III., who also threatened that if he 
did not return to his priestly profession, he would exhort all the inhabi- 
tants of Britain to unite in punishing his disobedience. . Kenulf, taking 
advantage of these circumstances, marched into Kent, and ravaged the 
country called Merscwarum (supposed by Camden to be Romney 
Marsh). Eadbert, seeing that resistance was useless, endeavoured to 


* Roger of Wend over, 
t ** Annales de Winchcomb," Cottonian MS., Tiberius, E. iv., fo. i8, X Saxon Chronicle. 

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hide himself and escape the pursuit of the enemy, — but in vain. He 
was captured and led bound into Mercia, where, according to one copy 
of the *' Saxon Chronicle/'* Kenulf permitted them to pick out his eyes 
and cut off his hands. Dr. Ingram, in his translation of the *' Saxon 
Chronicle," denies this wanton act of barbarity, asserting that it only 
existed in the depraved imagination of the Norman interpolator of the 
Saxon annals — that others had repeated the idle tale, but he had not 
hitherto found it in any historian of authority. f Independently of this 
lack of historical authority, we cannot impute to Kenulf the acting so 
cruel a part by one, usurper though he was, to whose crown he himself 
could lay no claim. True it is, he was brought bound and detained a 
prisoner in Mercia, that Kenulf seized the crown, caused himself to be 
proclaimed King of Kent, which henceforth became tributary to and 
part of Mercia, and that the government of the same was placed in the 
hands of his brother Cuthred ; so far all was fair in war, but, as the 
sequel will prove, Eadbert was brought, not to grace a Saxon holiday, 
but to exhibit to the Christian and heathen world one of the most 
splendid deeds on record, considering the semi -barbarous spirit of the 
times, of generous magnanimity. 

♦ Cottonian MS., Domitian, A. viii., apparently written in the twelfth century. 
t See note, p. 82, of his edition of the Sax. Chron. 

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•* In order due, 
The holy Fathers, two and two, 

In long procession came ; 
Taper and host, and book they bare, 
And holy banner, flourish'd fair 

With the Redeemer** nanje." 


AS before stated, Offa had founded a nunnery in Winchcombe. 
Indeed, at that time religious houses for both sexes abounded 
in the land, the monks hardly exceeding the nuns in number, 
for '* the weaker sex hath ever equalled men in their devotion ; " but 
those troublesome and warlike times afforded little protection to nuns ; 
their holy precincts were so often violated, and became the scenes of 
such sad and scandalous events, that though laws were enacted of the 
most severe and searching character, in many instances it was thought 
advisable to abolish their religious houses, which were of the Benedic- 
tine Order or Black Nuns, and the wealth appertaining to them, for 
they were richly endowed, was transferred to other foundations, in 
some instances for the maintenance of secular priests, and in others of 

These latter were chiefly of the most ancient Order, taking their 
name fropi St. Benedict, their head, who was born in Italy, a.d. 480, 
and educated in Rome, but retired while quite a youth to live the life 
of a recluse, disgusted as he was with the vices of the age. From this 
seclusion he was withdrawn by the monks of a neighbouring monastery, 
who elected him as their abbot ; but their lives not agreeing with his, 
he again retired into solitude, where he was followed by. many persons 

• See Fuller's "Church History," p. loi. 

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wishing to place themselves under his direction. He founded no less 
than twelve monasteries. The history of his life, disfigured though it 
is with miracles and legends, is the most interesting of that period. 
During the fourteen years he lived at Monte Cassino he wrote his 
" Regula Monachorum," and gave to the monastic world the rules 
which stamped a definite form on his Order, and which comprised the 
vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. Added to these was that of 
manual labour ; and the vows once taken were binding for life. With 
marvellous rapidity did the Order spread through the length and 
breadth of Europe. The Benedictines were the missionaries of their 
age and the light of the world. They stood with the people and the 
poor against the tyranny of the feudal system ; they were the sole 
depositories of learning and the Scriptures, the preservers of great 
portions of the works of Pliny, Sallust, and Cicero, the originators of a 
school of music, the first intelligent agriculturists, carrying the plough 
wherever they planted the cross. When this Italian monachism took 
such a firm hold in the English Church, the rich vales of Gloucester- 
shire offered great inducements to the enterprising Benedictines, and no 
doubt the little river Isborne had its attractions as well as the greater 
streams to which it is but a tributary. To their credit also it must be 
added they cultivated waste places, and such poor lands as were often 
bestowed upon them because they were not worth the keeping. All 
these good works enable us more readily to understand the great 
benefit. conferred upon Winchcombe when King Kenulf abolished the 
nunnery and substituted in its stead a monastery of this high religious 
order. It has been said that all the churches and monasteries of 
that time were built of timber, or at least that those of stone were 
only of upright walls without pillars or arches ; this latter, however, 
is a disputed question* That some at least had glass windows in 
the seventh century we learn from the statement of the Venerable 
Bede, that Benedict Biscop brought from Italy workers in stone and 

In A.D. 789 Kenulf laid the foundation of a stately Abbey, wherein 
at its first foundation no fewer than 300 monks were maintained. In 

811 it was dedicated with great pomp to the Virgin Mary, and was 

E 2 

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consecrated by Wulfrid, archbishop of Canterbury, and twelve other 
bishops, in the presence of kings, dukes, and many noblemen. The 
munificence of Kenulf on that occasion seems to have been unbounded, 
and never in the annals of Winchcombe can there have been so great 
a festival as this. All who had any petition to prefer were received, 
and their requests granted ; gifts were showered on all, according to 
their rank or need : upon the nobles, steeds, raiments, utensils of 
precious metals ; to all who had no lands a pound in weight of gold ; 
a mark of gold to every presbyter ; a noble to every monk, a shilling 
to every priest, besides innumerable gifts to the people who had ho 
other claim upon the royal bounty than that of dwelling 'neath the 
shadow of the Palace, or within hearing of the Abbey bell. So the 
church resounded with plaudits, and the streets with the rejoicing 
voices of the multitude ! 

But the greatest and most acceptable gift is yet to come. There is 
a pause in the holy ceremonies, voices are hushed, the crowd hustles 
still closer together — heads are eagerly bent forward, and all eyes 
strained towards the High Altar, whither the king is leading his once 
royal captive, and there in the presence of the King of kings &nd of 
his own subjects he presented the subdued Eadbert ; and on that most 
holy occasion solemnly restored to God, to the Church, and to the. 
communion of his fellow men the unfortunate priest, who, lured from' 
his cell by worldly ambition, so soon found his brilliant success followed 
by defeat and excommunication. This power of absolving from ex- 
communication shows what great authority in ecclesiastical matters 
must in those times have appertained to royalty. This is further 
proved in a very remarkable manner by Kenulfs charter to Richine, 
abbot of Abingdon, wherein he acquitted him from all episcopal juris- 
diction, and promises that the inhabitants of a certain place specified, 
should thenceforth be never oppressed by the bishop or his officials. 
This charter was quoted in the time of Henry VHI. to prove that in 
those earlier days ecclesiastical jurisdiction was invested in the imperial 
crown of England, and that, therefore, the statute made in his reign 
(25 Henry VHI., c. 21), concerning the king's spiritual authority, was. 
not the introduction of a new law, but only the;, declaration of an ol4 

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^n 6ffl n^ 

no u^tlice' 


Portrait of Kenulf King of Mercia, 

Attached to a Grant of Lands given by him to the Abbey of Abingdon. An Enlarged Copy 


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) 9b« J 


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one.* Even before Kenulf's time, so early as a.d. 758, the king, 
Ethelbert II. of Kent, authorised Cuthbert, archbishop of Canterbury, 
to revoke an ancient custom of the Church relating to the burial of the 
dead. Up to that time no prince or prelate was permitted burial 
within the precincts of the church ,- but Cuthbert gaining this sanction 
from the king, was himself buried in the church he had built f '^ Thus 
began corpses to be buried in the churches, which by degrees brought 
in much superstition ; especially after degrees of inherent sanctity were 
erroneously fixed in the several parts thereof : the Porch saying to the 
Churchyard, the Church to the Porch, the Chancel to the Church, the 
East-end to all, * Stand farther off, I am holier than thou.' And, as if 
the steps to the High Altar were the stairs to Heaven, those souls 
were conceived in a nearer degree to happiness whose bodies were 
mounted there to be interred."^ At this time another great change in 
monasteries had been made by the sole authority of the king, viz., in 
the diet, and King Ceolwulf (formerly a monk) sanctioned ale and 
wine to his convent, as substitutes for milk and water originally ordered 
by the founder. So when the Winchcombe monastery was established 
the less austere rules in these respects were allowed. Doubtless the 
new regime, and St Paul's admonition to Timothy, ** Drink no longer 
water, but use a little wine for thy stomach's sake, and thine often 
infirmities,*' found willing disciples in the monks of our cold, bleak 
Cotswold district It is well known how famous the cellars, and 
kitchens too, of the monasteries afterwards became; but in the 
beginning it was not so, and these good things were received with 
religious moderation. King Kenulf endowed the monastery with great 
revenues* He gave to it the manors of Sherborne, Stanton, Twining, 
Cow-Honibom, Snowshill, Charlton Abbots,§ and many others. 

And now, .the great day of dedication over, the religious ceremonies 
ended, which probably included the public baptism of Kenelm, the heir 
to the throne, and then but an infant of a few months old, the bishop 

♦ Fuller's "Church History," p. i8i. 

t Thus also Kenulf and Kenelm were interred in the Abbey church of Winchcombe. 
X Fuller*s "Church Histor>'," p. 103. 

§ The chapel was afterwards devoted to the use of any monk of Winchcombe who became a leper, and 
he had a house, with a leper's curtilage, given him to dwell in. Reg. Magn. de W^inchc 127, 

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having knocked at the Abbey door with his pastoral staff, emblem of 
his authority, the procession having passed within and without, the 
Altar consecrated, the precincts purified with holy water, the eucharist 
administered, the list enumerated of the lands with which the church 
was endowed, and the gifts from high and low presented, the hospi- 
talities peculiar to those times commenced. For three days, accord- 
ing to custom, the festival lasted, and curious it is to think that the 
religious festivities of to-day date their origin from those early times, 
when Gregory the Great instructed St. Augustine not to destroy the 
Pagan temples of the people among whom he taught, but the idols 
only; the feasts hitherto held in honour of their gods were to give 
place to festivals in honour of the Saint to whom the church was 
dedicated, so that the people might assemble as before in green bowers 
round their favourite edifice and enjoy something of their former 
festivity.* This was the origin of our country wakes, rush bearing, 
and Church ales. 

All this accomplished, the king naturally turned his attention, for the 
amusement of his royal, noble and ecclesiastical guests, to more exciting 
entertainments. Readily, in the mind's eye, the scene changes ; what is 
still the most open and spacious part of Winchcombe, " The Abbey 
Terrace," becomes thronged and alive with preparations for the chase. 
The neighbourhood of Winchcombe was at that time extensively 
wooded — for in the Saxon period forests were preserved adjacent to 
cities and to their chief residences, not so much for hunting, as for the 
better security in case of incursion or defence : the forest in one 
direction alone extended from Sudeley to Charlton— and such woods 
even in more peopled localities abounded in wolves, boars, bulls and 
even bears. Hunting and hawking were indispensable accomplish- 
ments — it was hardly possible for a man of rank to stir out without a 
hawk upon his wrist. So highly esteemed was the wild boar for the 
chase, that "the young nobles were trained to hunting after their school- 
days of Latin, and kings and princes would endanger their persons in 
the pursuit" Wolves were the terror of the sheep and shepherd ; and 

' Archoeologia," vol. xxv. 

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that the brown bear was an inhabitant of this country, at least in early 
times, is proved by its having been exported to Rome for the cruel 
amusement of gladiatorial shows. And so, according to the custom of 
those times, hunting terminated this great event ; forth streamed from 

Huddlestone's Table. 

the Palace and Monastery gates guests and followers. Tradition says 
Kenulf accompanied his guests ; that they finally parted on Cleeve 
Cloud, he returning to his Winchcombe Palace, and they to Kent; 
Sired to act as king, or rather viceroy of Kenulf, and Eadbert to 
return to holy obedience and monastic life, liberated as he was from 
the Papal anathema, and once more restored to the bosom of the 
Church. A stone was erected to commemorate this event — plain and 
square, as if simply hewn from the quarry — in size about three feet each 
way. Camden describes it as having a rude inscription nearly in the 
middle of the upper side. On the same side, and seemingly not long 

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since, has been cut with a tool, in Roman characters : *' Huddlestone's 
Table." The situation is magnificent, commanding the most extensive 
and glorious view of the neighbourhood, comprising hill and valley, 
towns and villages, stretching far away even to the Welsh hills, and 
the Bristol Channel. 

The monument that marks the spot, though not the original stone 
erected in the ninth century, is at least 300 years old, and was erected 
by the Delaberes of Southam, a facsimile of the one destroyed It is 
much to be regretted there is no protection to this interesting historical 
relic, and which, from its proximity to the Cleeve stone quarries, runs 
every chance of soon meeting with a similar fate to that of its 

Standing on this spot of surpassing loveliness, it is impossible to 
prevent the mind from wandering back to the November day of a 
thousand years ago, and repeopling the scene with that crowd of actors 
— Saxon kings, earls, ecclesiastics, huntsmen, dogs, and slaughtered 
game. And still further back the mind must needs rove to those 
remote and misty times, when it is so probable that the plateau on 
which we stand was the favoured spot of the Druids, and that it had 
already become hallowed by assembled worshippers; such a high 
solitary spot, backed by precipitous rocks, was precisely what was 
deemed the fitting residence of the gods, and the far-spreading prospect 
naturally suggests the appropriateness for the superstitious rites of 
sacrifice and auguries. This is no fanciful hyperbole-^people and 
religions grow. As we of to-day are forming the characteristics of the 
coming generation, and as out of our religion will theirs be moulded, 
so was ours gradually developed from that of the past. The cry of the 
human heart for a God, for a superior mysterious Spirit from whom 
that heart could receive strength and sympathy, has been universal. 

Father of all, in every age 

In every clime adored. 
By saint, by savage, and by sage, 

JeJwvah^ yove^ or Lord, 

So, the stone erected by Kenulf may have been appropriated from 

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Foundation Charter of Winchcombe Abbey, Gloucestershire. 

Copied from an Early Transcript in the British Museum. 

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some ruined temple of a former religion, and the antiquary will cluster 
round it a hundred associations belonging to an age long sunk into 

Little more is known of the history of King Kenulf as connected 
with our locality. The active interest he took in the early English 
Church was not confined to Winchcombe only. We find he was him- 
self present at the second of three religious councils held a.d. 803, at 
Cliff Hoo.^* And he was also a great benefactor to Abingdon, as we 
see from the Chronicle of that monastery, published in the Record series. 
In Vol. I. are to be found the charters of King Kenulf to that 
monastery, and attached to the one entitled ** Privilegium Kenulfi," 
A.D. 821, is an illumination of the king, from which is taken the facsimile 
here given.t On page 18 of the same volume we find a charter 
headed " De Sororibus Kenulfi," giving a description of the piety of 
these two holy virgins, and how they also were benefactors to and 
were connected with the monastery. 

There seems to be no other record of the death of Kenulf beyond 
the mention by Matthew of Westminster that he died a.d. 822, after 
having reigned twenty-five years, and "was solemnly buried in the 
church of the Monastery of Winchcombe aforesaid, which he himself 
had founded." Doubtless the ceremony was conducted with funereal 
pomp worthy of those times and of the great Mercian king whose 
glorious reign was thus terminated. 


The Charter of the most glorious King Kenulph, concerning the first Foundation of the 
Monastery of Winchcombe. 

In the 8iith year of the incarnation of our blessed Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour of 
the world, who reigned in the heavens from all eternity, in the fourth year of the 
indiction, and in the sixteenth year of our reign by the grace of God, and on the ninth 
day of November, I, Kenulph, King of the Mercians, by God's favour and assistance. 

♦ Camden's "Britannia," p. 156. 

t The portion given is to be read thus : " Privilegium Kenulfi. In nomine Dei et Donnni nostri 
Jhesu Christi, veri Redemptoris mundi. Anno vero Dominicae." 
X Alkyns' "Gloucestershire," p. 828. 


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did begin an imperfect work at a place called anciently by the inhabitants Wincel- 
combe, in the province of the Wixes. It is now a noble church, and not inglorious in its 
first design. It was dedicated by Wulfred, Archbishop of Canterbury, to the honour of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, and the blessed Mary, His mother, who held Him in her bosom, 
whom heaven and earth could not contain, where I intend to lay my body to rest in the 
Lord. It seemed good to me to invite all the great men of the kingdom of Mercia, all 
bishops, princes, earls, deputies, and my own kindred, as also Cuthred, King of Kent, 
Sired, King of the East Saxons, with all those who were members of our Synod, to be 
present and witnesses at the dedication of the said church, which church I have built to 
the honour and glory of our Lord Jesus Christ, for the love of heaven, and for the 
expiation of my sins, and for procuring a blessing on my endowment, and to secure those 
privileges which the Roman bishops, by authority of St. Peter, the Prince of flie Apostles 
have indulged to me. 

I, Kenulph, by the favour of God, King of the Mercians, out of gratitude for their 
good will, who by the authority of the Apostles have strengthened and confirmed the 
grants and decrees of my Synods to the security of my endowment, by me granted to the 
Monastery of Wincelcombe, and particularly for the confirmation of my endowment, made 
by the authority of Pope Leo, and afterwards by Pope Paschal, by the authority of his 
power, and farther confirmed in three Synods of the men of Mercia, with their unanimous 
consent, whereby the grant of the endowments by me made for the good of myself and 
my heirs is corroborated ; and also all my gifts, which with a free heart I gave to the ' 
great men of the kingdom of Mercia, and of the other kingdoms, in gold, silver, and 
other utensils ; and also in choice horses given to them, according to their ranks and 
qualities, and a pound of pure silver to those who had no lands, and a mark of gold to 
every priest, and one shilling to every one of the servants of God ; and all these gifts 
were becoming our royal dignity, and were in number so many, and in value so great, 
that they are inestimable. All which I bestowed to procure that the endowment by me 
granted to the said Monastery might be firm and irrecoverable, and might be settled for 
ever for the good of me and my heirs. 

I, Kenulph, King of the Mercians, have also obtained the banner of the holy cross 
on which Jesus Christ our Lord did suffer, that it might be a safeguard and protection of 
my soul, and of all my temporal affairs, and of all my heirs, against the desi^s of the 
wicked one. And if any person whatsoever, be he great or small, shall attempt by 
violence to do wrong to this holy banner, let him be excommunicated and accursed, and 
by God's just judgment let him be severed from any benefit thereof, unless he shall make 
amends to the said Church by full satisfaction. And know ye, that all this is corroborated 
by the favour of the blessed Trinity, and by the protection of angels, archangels, 
patriarchs, prophets, apostles, martyrs, confessors, virgins, and all saints. And I, Kenulph, 
and all the great men who were present, and witnesses hereof, in our great synodical 
councils, do ordain and decree, thit if any person who has forfeited his life, or is guilty 
of any other crime, open or secret, and shall escape to the bounds of my inheritance by 
me granted, and shall enter the church, and demand the holy banner of the cross, such 
person shall find entire safety and protection ; and that no person presume to be so bold, 
or to entertain any wicked thoughts to embezzle anything for fear, or to sell, give, or 
mortgage any of the lands of my endowment, unless for a certain time, and for the life 

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only of one person. But let all things continue inviolably, and remain for ever as we 
firmly decreed the same in three general synods. 

Witnesses of the truth hereof, and confirmed by them under the sign of the cross, as 
followeth : 

I, Kenulph, King of the Mercians, do establish this decree with the sign of the cross. 

I, Cuthred, King of Kent, do agree hereunto, and do affix the sign of the holy cross. 

I, Sired, King of the East Saxons, do confirm the same, and sign it with the holy 

I, Wulfred, Archbishop of Canterbury, do agree and subscribe. 

I, Aldulf, bishop [of Lichfield **], do agree and subscribe. 

I, Denebert, bishop [of Worcester], do agree and subscribe. 

I, Werenbrith, bishop [of Leicester], do agree and subscribe. 

I, Wulfhard, bishop [of Hecanae (now Hereford)], do agree and subscribe. 

I, Tilferd, bishop [of Hexham], do agree and subscribe. 

I, Ethelwolph, bishop [of the East Angles], do agree and subscribe. 

I, Eadulph, bishop [of Crediton t], do agree and subscribe. 

I, Alchbert, bishop [of the South Saxons], do agree and subscribe. 

I, Ethelnoth, bishop [of London], do agree and subscribe. 

I, Wiberte, bishop [of Sherborne], do agree and subscribe. 

I, Beormod, bishop [of Rochester], do agree and subscribe. 

I, Wignoth, bishop [of Exeter], do agree and subscribe. 

I, Eambert, duke. I, Aldred, duke. 

I, Heardberht, duke. I, Wulfred, duke. 

I, Beonoth, duke I, Heahfeth, duke. 

I, C)aihelm, duke, I, Colvearth, duke. 

I, Ceolbert, duke. I, Heatferth, duke. 

I, Plesa, dukei do agree and subscribe, 


The list of Abbots is very imperfect in the earlier part, and the following names, 
abstracted from Dugdale's Monasticon,J are all that have come down to us. 

LiviNGUS, witness to a charter, a.d. 851. 

Germanus, circa 985. 

GoDwiNE (or Eadwine), probably 1044 

to 1053. 
GoDRic, 1054 — displaced and imprisoned 

at the Conquest. 
Galandus, 1066 — 1075. 

Radulphus, 1077 — 1095. 
Gymund, 1095 — n22. 
godefrid, 1 1 22 — ii38 (?). 
Robert, 1138 — 1152. 
William, 1152 — 1157 (?). 
Gervase, 1 1 57 — 1 171. 
Henry, 1171 — 1181. 

* The names of the sees are filled in in a comparatively modem hand, and, in some instances, wrongly ; 
for instance, the see of Crediton was not founded until the tenth century, nor that of Exeter till the eleventh, 
t Probably Bishop of Lindsey. 
X Edition by Caley, Ellis, and Bandinel, folio, 1819, vol. ii., pp. 297-99. 

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Crispin, ii8i — 1182. 

Radulphus II., 1 183 — 1 1 94. 

Robert, 1194 — 1221. 

Thomas, 1221 — 1232. 

Henry de Tudinton, 1232 — 1247. 

John Yanworthe (or Yarmouth), 1247 

— 1282.* 
Walter de Wickwar, 1282 — 1314. 
Thomas de Shireburn, 1314, 13 15. 
Richard de Idebury, 131 5 — 1339. 
William de Shireburn, 1340— 1352 (?). 

Robert de Ippewell, 1352 — resigned 

Walter de Winfortun, 1359 — 1395. 
William Bradeley, 1395 — 1422. 
John Cheltenham, 1423—1454. 
William Winchecombe, 145 i — 1474. 
John Twynnynge, 1474 — 1488. 
Richard Kyderminster, 1488 — 1531. 
Richard Ancelme (or Mounslow), 1534 

— surrendered the Monastery to the 

King, Dec 3, 1539. 

* He then resigned his office, and died in 1284. 

Stone Coffin, presented by Mr. Richard Baker of the Abbey, Winchcombe, in whose 
grounds it was found, 1874 ; now placed on the south side of Sudeley Church. 

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Copied from Cottenham MS., Claud. D. vi. F. 3. (14TH Cbntu&y). 

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" I cannot tell how the truth maybe ; 
I say the tale as 'twas said to me." 

KENULF was succeeded by his young son, Kenelm, too young 
almost to be acknowledged king where children were excluded 
by law from the throne. By some of the Chroniclers his name 
is not even recorded, but that of his uncle Ceolwulf, his father's brother, 
is given as successor to the kingdom of Mercia. Others tell us 
that *' Kenelm succeeded to the Mercian kingdom, but not to the 
monarchy of the English, King Egbert, the West Saxon king, being 
then grown too great, and in the same year that he began his reign 
by the treason of his unnatural sister, he was murdered, and first ob- 
scurely buried, but afterwards solemnly removed and reposed near to 
his father, in the monastery of Winchcombe." 

Several legends of Sl Kenelm are well known ; the one most 
familiar being found in the " Legenda Aurea, or Golden Legend." 
The life of the young king, however, which is here given, is selected 
as not having been hitherto published, and is translated from the 
Saxon MS. in the Bodleian Library.* 


Saint Kenelm, the young king, that good martyr is, 

King was in England of the Marches in Wales ; 

Kenulf was his father, that was king there also. 

And founded the Abbey of Winchcombe, and let monks live there. 

After his death he was there buried, and still he lies there 

In the Abbey that yet stands, that he himself set there. 

• Trin. Coll. MS., No. 57. 

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Great City was Winchcombe then, and rich enough, 
Of all that half in England as far as his land went* 

King Kenulf was a very good and holy man. 
Saint Kenelm was his son and also his heir ; 
Borwenilda and Quenride were his two daughters. 
In the four-and-twentieth year of his kingdom 
Kenulf went out of this world and to the joy of heaven came. 
It was after that our Lord in His mother alighted, 
Eight hundred and nineteen years \ by right counting. 
Saint Kenelm, his young son, in his seventh year. 
Was made king after him, though he were young. 
His sister Borwenilda loved him enough, 
And jn every way to holy life and to goodness drew. 
And Quenride, that other sister, of her manner was not. 
For she turned to crime and wickedness all her thoughts. 

She saw that her young brother was not of experienced years. 
Was made king of all that land that her father had before. 
Of him she had great envy that he should be so rich. 
And heir of her father's land, and richer than she. 
She thought that if she might that child kill. 
That she would be of the heritage queen by lawful right 
All her thoughts, night and day, were to think of some outrage 
That this child should be killed, and she have the heritage. 
She provided for her crime strong poison 
To give the young child, and slay him so with woe. 
Though the poison was given it was all for nought, 
For though that child had drunk it never the worse it was, 
For our Lord would not that he should so easily be martyred. 
If the queen would prosper, other she must be. 
For she thereof cast ambush as she thought another thought, 
When she saw it was for nought that the poison was brought. 
This young child had a master that was his guardian. 
He was called Askobert : great treachery was here also ; 
For no man can to another more treachery do 
Than he that is nearest him and he most trusts to. 
This wicked queen thought of a wicked trick, 
For they say, there is no crime that woman cannot think of. 
With this Askobert she spake to destroy that child, 
And she promised him good reward, and of her his will ; 
So that these two wicked persons were at one counsel, 
And thought how they might best do this wicked deed. 

♦ Sixty-seven lines are here omitted, being irrelevant to the life of St. Kenelm. 

t This is an error, as is shewn by Kenulf 's charter (p. 33) bearing date 821 ; but all through the Anglo- 
Saxon chronology a difference of some years occurs between the various copies of the Chronicle. 

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At the time when they both spoke of killing that young child. 
The dream the young child had, that I will tell you ofl 
He thought that there was a tree right before his bed 
That went right to the stars and well wide spread ; 
This tree was fair and noble, and shined very brightly, 
Full of blossoms and fruit, and many a rich bough 
Burning wax and lamps, very thickly burned and gave light ; 
So noble a tree was there never one, nor that shone so bright. 
He thought he climbed up this tree, and to the highest bough on high, 
And looked about into all the world and prayed enough I saw. 
While he stood upon the tree and looked so about, 
He thought that one of his best friends, that he most trusted in, 
Stood beneath on the ground and smote atwo that tree. 
That it fell to the ground, and that pity it was to see. 
To a little bird he became, no fairer might not be, 
And began with joy enough into heaven to fly. 
He awoke, and was in thought hereof night and day. 
Though that child met thus at Winchcombe it lay, 
It knew not what it was to betoken, the more was his thought 
Before he hear of something new he could not be cheerful. 
His nurse, that had fed him and with her milk brought him up, 
To her that child trusted most, Wolwene was her name. 
That child told her in private of the dream that.he had. 
When the nurse had heard the dream that was told her, 
She began to cry sore and stood in thought : 
" Alas ! " she said, " that I should this day abide, 
That my child, my sweet heart, should such things betide ! 
Alas 1 my child, my sweet food, that I have brought forth. 
Thy sister bespeaketh thy death, and to kill thee hath thought ; 
But the bird that thou becamest to heaven that did fly, 
That was thy soul that thither shall go after thy life's end." 

This dream was true enough, that he found at last. 
For his sister and Askobert bespoke his death very fast 
This Askobert said, one day, that this child should go 
Hunting to play with him near the end of the wood. 
They went to the wood of Klent, as it were to play, 
And he with him to guard him, as was right, by the way. 
As they went by the wood, as God gave the grace, 
A goodwill came on that child to sleep in that place. 
It laid do\vn very gently there, and soon began to sleep. 
Askobert thought not that he would thence go. 
Besides in a dark place he began to dig fast 
A pit, to slay that child, and therein it to cast 
That child began soon to awake, as it were by chance, 
After his master he looked, and saw not where he was ; 

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But our Lord gave him the grace, though he knew not of the deed, 

That he spake to his master, and these words said : 

" Thou workest there for nought, and thy time thou dost waste. 

For in another place I shall die, wheresoever is God's will, 

And the rod that here is the token thou shalt see, 

When thy wicked will may be done that I martyred be.** 

Forth went this wicked master and this child also, 
Until they came to another place where this deed was done. 
Askobert took this rod and set it in the ground : 
It began to bear leaves soon, and to grow in a short time, 
And a great ash became afterwards, and yet stands in that place, 
To show the might of our Lord and Saint Kenelm's grace. 
This wicked man took this child in the wood of Klent, 
And led him, as they do a thief, to receive his judgment 
He led him into a secret place, all out of the way, 
Between two high hills in a deep valley. 

That child through the Holy Ghost, though that other would not tell him. 
Knew well his wicked thought, and that he meant to kill him. 
Then he tarried a little time this in4cked deed to do. 
That child said mildly, " What thou doest, do soon." 
He began to sing what they sing in Holy Church by day. 
That was Te Deurn laudamus^ before he laid down. 
And then he came to a holy verse that therein was, and is, 
All the other was written in Latin, and in English is this : 
" The white company of angels, Lord, they hear thee." 
Right as he had said the verse, as the book tells me, 
This wicked man smote off his head under a hawthorn tree. 
As it was God's will that he should martyred be. 
A dove, white as any milk, out of him did flow. 
And right was even seen into heaven to go. 
He was scarcely seven years old when he was martyred. 
Altogether true was his dream, as you might there see. 

This wicked man th^t slew him began to dig fast, 
And made a deep pit, and therein that child cast. 
And buried it quick enough, that it should not be found, 
And went again forth his way and let him lie there. 
To Quenride, his wicked sister, soon he did go," 
And told her that wicked adventure from the beginning to the end. 
The queen was then glad enough ; about she went soon 
To seize all the land and the manors each one. 
And made herself queen of all the Marches, as her brother was king. 
A shrewd lady she became, and a wicked one in all things, ' 

And went about into all the land to receive her homage, 
And began sternly to hold her men in sorrow and wretchedness. 
Now in the queen's part must she ride from town to town. 

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And falsely as she came on high also she fell there down. 

She gave command in all the land that no man should be so mad 

To mention once her brother's name, for love nor for fear. 

And if they did of any learn that it were not followed, 

He were soon taken and his head cut off. 

Thus went the wicked queen, and stirred her very fast, 

That none durst her brother name, so sore they were aghast 

Ever lay that holy body buried so still. 

That no man dare once mention him against the wicked queen's will : 

So long that it was all forgotten, when they dare not of him speak. 

But it was not so that our Lord would not avenge him at last. 
When no man that was wise would on him ever think, 
Our Lord would not that it were all quite forgotten. 
When no man that was wise had memory of him, 
A dumb beast, without sense, and against nature, remembered him : 
For a widow had a white cow that lived there beside, 
That went daily to fetch her food in the wood's side 
Where Saint Kenelm was buried, in the wood down there. 
Each day would this white cow, when she came from the town 
To fetch her food with other kine, she would go alone 
Into the valley there beneath, and leave her companions each one, 
And sit about this holy body all the whole day till the evening, 
As it were to do him honour, for he lay there alone. 
And so she sat without food all day to that end. 
And when it was evening homeward she would go ; 
And in the evening when she came home fat and round she was. 
And so full of milk that men wonder'd at that circumstance. 
For there was none of all the kine that half so much milk gave ; . 
As full she would be on the morrow though she were milked in the evening. 
Whom so had such kine truly he need not be poor. 
Though his larder were almost empty, and his summer pasture lean. 
The people that the wonder saw, great heed they took with awe, 
And watched well all day where this cow went, 
And they saw her sit all day in the valley there down 
Without food, still in one place, till she went back in the evening to town, 
And when she lay there so much they could not learn an)rthing. 
And in their hearts, they thought well that it was some token, 
For this cow went there so much, and each day drew thereto. 
Cowbacke they call the valley, and yet they call it so. 

In Cowbacke this holy body lay many a year. 
Where they knew not thereof, as I told you before. 
For his sister was so furious, and in such pride brought. 
And such threatening she made, they dare not mention him. 
Though this holy body must not be made known in England, 
Our Lord that knew all things thereto sent his messenger. 

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For as the Pope stood at Rome, and sung his mass one day, 

At St Peter's Altar in church, as all that people say, 

A dove whiter than any milk flew down from heaven, 

A little writing upon the altar laid, and afterwards went to heaven. 

And flew up on high again, as our Lord willed it 

That writing was white and shined brightly, the letters were of gold. 

The Pope took this holy writing when the mass was done, 

And thank'd Jesus Christ, and all that people also. 

He knew not what it did signify, he could not learn. 

For he knew not English, and in English it was written. 

He caused to be called all kinds of men of divers lands, 

If any could of this holy writing anything understand. 

There were three men of England that knew what it said. 

And understood well that writing when they heard it read ; 

That writing was in English as they read it there, 

And to tell it without rhyme these words they were : 

" In Klent, in Cowbacke, Kenelm, King's child, lieth 

Under a thorn, his head taken from him." 

This writing was nobly learnt and kept, 

And held as a great relic, and still it is also 

The noblest relic, it is one of the best in all Rome, 

As it ought to be, who so understood rightly whence it came 

For when it out of heaven came, and from our Lord's hand, 

What more noble relic might there be, I cannot understand. 

Therefore Kenelm's day, as the Pope made his command, 

At Rome they hold highly and make great feast 

Then the Pope knew what was the token. 
He sent his messenger into England with his news ; 
To the Archbishop of Canterbury, who was then Wolfred, 
Letters he sent that he should such things see to, 
And seek out of the wood of Klent, if any man might know 
Such an hawthorn in Cowbacke, as it was in the writing called, 
And seek out that holy body that secretly lay there. 
And do it great honour, that it should be enshrined 
When the letter from the Pope to the Archbishop came. 
Of bishops and clerks his counsel thereof he took ; 
So that in the wood of Klent, that is in the shire of Worcester, 
He let seek this holy body and found it truly, 
Under the thorn of Cowbacke, as the writing said at Rome. 
And for the greater miracle of the cow, the sooner thereto they come. 
For the countrymen there beside that understood the circumstance, 
Knew well where it was, for the miracle was so clear. 

Anon as this holy body they took up, a well sprang up there, 
In the place that he lay on, that still is clear and good. 
For there is a well fair enough, and ever since hath been 

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In the place where he lay, as you may there see, 

And they call it Saint Kenelm's Well, that many a man hath sought, 

That many out of great sickness through that water have been brought 

Of the city of Worcester and the country there beside, 
The men were chiefly that sought to let that body abide, 
For the bishops had looked that it should thither be borne. 
And enshrined where his father lay that founded that house before. 
These men took up this holy body that of Gloucestershire were, 
And nobly towards Winchcombe with procession bore it 
Then the people of Worcestershire that dwelt there beside 
Took them to counsel, many a one, to make that body abide ; 
They swore they would have it, no man should take it from them, 
For in the shire that it was found, there it should be left. 
In the water of Pershore these two shires met, 
They contested for this holy body and fast together set, 
So that they took a form of peace to do God's grace, 
If God would show His will before they went from the place, 
For fatigued they were so sore that they must needs sleep each one, 
They made a form that they should lie down and sleep anon, 
And whichever of these two shires soonest should awake, 
All safe should go forth and that body with them take. 

Still they lie and sleep fast both these two shires, 
And rested for their weariness, our Lord would have it so, 
So that those of Gloucestershire began each one to awake 
At one time, as God would have it, and of Worcestershire not one ; 
In peace they went forth their way, and that body with them took, 
Five miles they were gone before the others awoke. 
These others saw themselves beguiled, anon they began to awake, 
And they began to follow these others fast that they could not them overtake. 
These men towards Winchcombe this holy body bear. 
Before they could it thither bring very weary they were, 
So that they come to a wood a little from the east of the town, 
And rested, though they were so near, upon a high down ; 
Athirst they were for weariness, so sore there was no end. 
For Saint Kenelm's love they bade our Lord some drink send. 
A cold well and clear there sprung from the down. 
That still is there clear and cold, a mile from the town. 
Well fair it is now covered with stone as is right. 
And I counsel each man thereof to drink that cometh there truly. 
The monks since of Winchcombe have built there beside 
A fair chapel of Saint Kenelm that men seek wide. 

Quenride the wicked queen at Winchcombe then was, 
She knew not that her brother was so nigh, nor of that circumstance. 
She sat in Saint Peter's church beside the gate 
On the east side, and looked out thereat 

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Then saw she all that great people up on the down 

Come towards Winchcombe right under the south ; 

She asked what kind of men it was, and what they sought there, 

They said that they to church would go and her brother bear. 

Then was the queen sorry, in great trouble and in fear, 

Her Psalter she took in her hand as she simple were. 

Of the Psalter the first psalm that before even-song is 

Of cursing of wicked men, of cursing made is. 

Deus laudem it is called ; this psalm the queen read, 

For to curse her brother's body and all that him led. 

As she came to the nineteenth verse as the cursing endeth truly, 

That Boc opus eorum in Latin called is, 

That saith what men it should be that should receive their deeds, 

Upon her own head it came when she that verse began to read; 

For right as that verse she read there burst out both her eyes, 

And fell down upon her Psalter as many a man saw, 

And that I think was well done, though what it should mean. 

They sought not out her treachery, hereby it was seen. 

The Psalter is still at Malmesbury, and whoso will come thereto 

Thereiti may see where the deed was done. 

The holy body was borne forth with great honour and fine 
To the Abbey, as it lieth still in a noble shrine. 
This wicked queen died afterwards in wretchedness enough. 
Her body a cursed wretch drew in a foul ditch, 
In the foulest ditch there was near therein they threw it ; . 
But her end was sinful truly, it was \^th woe. 
Now God for Saint Kenelm's love His sweet grace us send, 
That we may come to that joy that he is now in. 

The Golden Legend continues the story, by adding that after the 
miserable death of Quenrida "the holy body of Saint Kenelm was 
layd in an honourable shryne, whereat our Lorde sheweth dayly many 
a myracle."* A chapel was built on Sudeley hill near the Holy Well, 
for the benefit of pilgrims who were attracted thither by the miraculous 
healing property of the water. In course of time, in consequence of 
these miracles and the increased wealth the relics of the young king 
brought to the Monastery, he was canonised. "It is scarcely credible," 
says Camden, "in what great repute this Monastery was, for the sake of 

* Among other authors who refer to this legend are William of Malmesbury, Higden in his ** Polychro- 
nicon,'* Alban Butler in " Lives of the Saints," Tyrrell Cowper in ** Life of St. Werburge," &c 

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the religion of King Kenelm, who was by that age added to the 
number of martyrs." 

In many of the ancient charters the chapel of St. Kenelm is named 
and confirmed to the Monastery of Winchcombe. The words in 
letters of gold on the MS. which fell on the high altar at Rome were 
thus read by the Saxon youths : 

" In Klento coubathe Kenelme kyne beam 
Lith under thorne haevedes bereaved." 

The old Latin translation was : 

" In Clent sub spinea, jacet in convalle bovina, 
Vertice privatus, Kenelmus rege creatus." 

In English : 

" In Clent cowbatch under a thom • 
Lies the young prince of his head off-shorn." 

Clent is in the northern part of Worcestershire, near Hagley. The 
story told is, that the body was discovered by the lowing of a cow on 
the spot where it was buried, and that a spring of water rose, over 
which the chapel or shrine of St Kenelm was built. This church 
stands at the head of a ravine, and within the memory of man a stream 
flowed from the east end down into the hollow. Originally there 
appears to have been a well-house of some dimensions at the spot 
where the water issued from the church ; but no traces of the building 
remain, and it is to be regretted the ravine has been partially filled 
near the church. The water was at once declared to have miraculous 
powers, and pilgrims resorted thither as to the Sudeley Well. The 
Reformation destroyed the belief in the efficacy of the water, and a 
village of considerable size, called Kenelmstowe, which had sprung up 
round this church, also declined when pilgrimages ceased.* The 
church was restored in 1848 by the Lyttelton family, and was made 
the parish church of a township in the parish of Halesowen in which 
it stood The Rev. Howard Kempson, whose information is here 

In Camden's "Britannia," vol. ii., reference is made to St Kenelm's Well. 

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quoted, was the first resident rector, and built the rectory there. 
Before these alterations it was a private chapel, though endowed with 
the great tithes of the township which afterwards became its parish. 

Clent Church. 

During the restoration, the water, which up to that time had flowed 
from the eastern end of the church, was in some way diverted, and the 
well is now some yards from the building, a change which is much to 
be regretted. The rude sculpture of the Saint on the wall is evidently 
of very ancient date, though there is no particular history attached to 
it A view of this chapel is given in the Gentleman's Magazine for 
1797, also mention of a wake held there, called St. Kenelm's wake, 
alias Crab's wake, " at which there is a singular custom of pelting each 
other with crabs, and even the clergyman seldom escapes going to or 
from the chapel." * 

♦ Vol. Ixvii., p. 738. 

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Dr. Plot remarks that, "Half a mile north-north-east of Clent 
church or thereabouts, there is a list of grass greener than ordinary, 
called St Kenelm's Furrow, running up Knoll Hill a great length, 
that still remains, the grass whereof is indeed somewhat more verdant 
and luxuriant than at other places, which they intend for the furrow 
made by the oxen which ran away with the woman's plough, and were 
never again heard of, who in contempt of the feast of St Kenelm 
would make them work on that day, losing her eyes mto the bargain, 
as the legend says.'* * 

Of the wicked Quenrida we may conclude her end was miserable. 
Sometimes in the ancient Chronicles her name appears associated 
with the title of Abbess, which might lead us to suppose she assumed 
the habit of a nun to expiate the murder of her brother ; 

" Some seek devotion, toil, war, good or crime, 
According as their souls were form'd to sink or climb j " 

or we may more probably suppose she died when " her eyes fell out," 
from the shock on finding that her crime had been so miraculously 
discovered. For want of more authentic information we must rest 
content with the description given of her death in the following poem, 
penned by a Winchcombe bard.f 


King Kenulph he died, as kings have died, 
The will of the Lord be done ! 
^ And he left to the care of his daughter fair. 

Queen Quendred, an infant son. 

The daughter gazed at her brother king, 

Her eye had an evil mote ; 
And then she play'd with his yellow hair, 

And patted his infant throat. 

♦ ** Natural History of Staffordshire," p. 413. " Such," says Hugh Miller, "was the odour of sanctity 
which embalmed the memory of St Kenelm, that there was no saint in the calendar on whose day it was 
more unsafe to do any thin^ useful." 

t The original, signed " P. S.," is among Mr. Smith Wood's MSS. 

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And then she muster'd a bloody mind. 

And whispered a favoured slut, 
While patting the infant monarch's throat, 

" It would not be much to cut." 

The favoured gypsy noted the hint. 

And she thought it not amiss ; 
She hied to the infant's governor, 

And gave him a loving kiss. 

The kiss of woman's a wondrous juice 

That poisoneth pious minds, 
It worketh more than the wrath of hell. 

And the eye of justice blinds. 

So they cut the infant monarch's throat : 

They buried him in the wood, 
The Mistress Quendred lived as a queen. 

And they thought the deed was good 1 


Now mark, how ill is a crime concealed. 

Bad deeds will never accord ; 
The murder never beheld at home, 

Was to light elsewhere restored. 

They washed their hands in the monarch's blood. 

And the world roird on the same, 
Till swift to the holy shrine at Rome, 

A fluttering dove there came. 

A dove, a peaceful, timorous bird. 

That carried a parchment scroll, 
And in letters of gold, the crime it told. 

That blasted a sister's souL 

That fluttering dove flew round the shrine. 

Where the Pope by chance was led, 
And he let the scribbled parchment fall 

On his Holiness' bald head. 

Now the Pope was very sore perplexed 

At the words the dove had scrawl'd, 
For he could not read the pig-squeak tongue. 

Which is now Old English called. 

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He questioned the French ambassador, 

The news of that scroll to speak, 
Who, bowing, observed, ** It was not French ; 

He never had leam'd the Greek," 

He ask'd a monk from Byzantium, 

A monk as fat as a tench ; 
He merely remark'd, " It was not Greek : 

He never had leam'd the French/' 

He questioned the grave Lord Cardinal, 

He ordered the monks to prayers ; 
The monks ne'er cared what language it was, 

When they saw it was not theirs. 

But there chanced to be an Englishman 

At Rome, on a trading hope, 
The tale of blood, and the letters of gold, 

He read to the holy Pope. 

'Twas how King Kenulph an infant son 

Bequeathed to his daughter's care, 
And how the daughter slaiighter^d the son 

It dearly mention'd where. 

Then the Pope cried, " Heaven's will be done 1 ^ 

And a loud Hosanna sung, 
The incense fumed to the lofty dome 

Like ray-beam drapery hung. 

And they canonized the holy dove. 

Like the soul of a martyr dead ; 
The deed is still in the Calendar, 

In capital letters red. 

Now when to Britain the tidings came 

Of her island's perish'd hope, 
The monks took hatchets to Winchcomb wood. 

And they glorified the Pope 

And after many a night of toil. 

They struck at the infant's bone 
Beneath a tree, where an awful owl 

Was screeching a midnight groan. 

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They bare the bones, by the moonlight ray, 

To the convent's holy shrine ; 
And from the Psaltry sang a psalm — 

The psalm one himdred and nine. 

The Murdered King carried to Winchcombe. 

The queen she hearken'd the pious tones 

As they pass*d the Palace by, 
It seem'd the saints and the morning stars 

Were chorussing in the sky. 

But when she hearkened the deed was known, 

And her coming hour of strife, 
And how they had found the royal bones, 

From which she had taken the life, 

She got King David's Psalter book, 
And tum'd to the psalm they sung, 

And began to read it contrariwise, 
Though it blistered on her tongue. 

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And she mock'd the monkish melody 

With a heart like boiling pitch, 
And the clouds went shuddering as they heard, 

Like a broom beneath a witch. 

When she had gotten to verse the twelfth, 

'Twas the twelfth verse from the end, 
Her breast upheaved a horrible groan, 

And she gave the psalm a rend 

The lofty turret quiver'd with fear, 
The floor of the chapel shook ; 
. Her eyeballs fell from her burning brow, 
And bloodied the Psalter-book. 

And thrice she groan'd and thrice she sigh'd. 

And thrice she boVd her head ; 
And a heavy fall, and a lightning flash, 

Was the knell of a sinner dead. 

And forth from her eyeless sockets flew 

A furious flame around ; 
And blood streamed out of her spirting mouth 

Like water upon the ground. 

The magpie chatter'd above the corpse, 

The owl sang funeral lay, 
The twisting worm pass'd over her face, 

And it writhed and tum'd away. 

The jackdaws cawed at the body dead, 

Exposed on the churchyard stones ; 
They wagg'd their tails in scorn of her flesh. 

And turn'd up their bills at her bones. 

The convent mastiff" trotting along, 

Sniff'^d hard at the mortal leaven, 
Then bristled his hair at her brimstone smell, 

And howl'd out his fears to Heaven. 

Then the jackdaw screeched his joy, 

That he spum'd the royal feast, 
And keen'd all night to the grievous owl 

And the howling mastiff" beast 

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Loud on that night was the thunder crash, 

Sad was the voice of the wind ; 
Swift was the glare of the lightning flash, 

And the whizz it left behind^ 

At mom, when the pious brothers came 

To give the body to ground, 
The skull, the feet, and palms of her hands, 

Were all that they ever found. 

Then the holy monks, with ominous shake 

Of the head, loak'd wondrous sly, 
While the breeze that waved their whitened locks, 

Bore a prayer for her soul on high. 

Leland says : * " Avery, Parson of Dene, tolde me that he had redd 
that Askaperius, the murtherer of St. Kenelm, was mp^rid to Quindred, 
sistar to St Kenelme, and that he reynid two or three yeres after 
Kenelme, untyll suche tyme that a kinnesman of Kenelmes put him 
downe. But loke bettar for this mattar'' — as if Leland himself 
doubted the fact. 

Kenelm's patronage and influence after his canonization must have 
extended far and wide, beyond Sudeley and Clent, over the midland 
counties. Kenil worth is supposed especially to derive its name from 
this Saxon king, and a palace there is said to have, belonged to him. 
** In after time he was enrolled by the Church of Rome in the calendar 
of its saints — ^wherefore as a martyr it were hard to explain ; since 
none have ever represented that he fell a sacrifice to the steadfastness 
of his faith in Christ, — that he was slain for the word of God, or for 
the testimony of Jesus. But in that day, to prayer for him would be 
added the blind folly and sin of praying to him, and here on this spot, 
(Clent Church) that offence against God must have been committed 
through many generations." f But apart from the error of the Church's 
teaching in those times, it is very pleasant to imagine the picturesque 
groups of devout worshippeirs and gay holiday lads and lasses which 

♦ Vol. viii. p. 98. 

t Archdeacon Hone*s Sermon preached at St Kenelm's church, in the parish of Romsley, Aug. 7th, 

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KENELM'S CHURCH. Digitized by 

From a Drawing by Edm. T. Browne, Esq., before its demolition in 1830. 

KENELM'S Well Conduit House, 1672. 



must have then assembled oh St. Kenelm's day (July 17th) even 
round our Sudeley Well and Chapel. It may be right in this matter of 
fact, prosaic, and scientific age to condemn such superstitions as we are 
now recording, but when there was more of nature and less of dogma 
in religion, it seems hardly surprising that a beautiful fountain of clear 
water,: ever flowing, ever fresh-— no one then knowing whence it came, 
or whither it flowed, should inspire the worship of the people. 

<* There's something in that ancient superstition, 
Which, erring as it is, our fancy loves. 
The spring that, with its thousand crystal bubbles, 
Bursts from the bosom of some desert rock 
In secret solitude, may well be deem'd 
The haunt of something purer, more refined, 
And mightier than ourselves." * 

So thought even the wise of old : " Where a spring rises or a river 
flows," says Seneca, *.* there should we build altars and offer sacrifices.*' 
The reader of Horace will remember " O Fons Blandusiae, splendidior 
vitro," and the traveller to Rome will not forget Egeria, and the 
cave where she was so enthusiastically worshipped ; — 

•* Egeria I sweet creation of some heart 

Which found no mortal resting-place so fair 
As thine ideal breast ; whatever thou art 
Or wert, — a young Aurora of the air, 
The nympholepsy of some fond despair ; 

Whatsoe'er thy birth, 

Thou wert a beautiful thought, and softly bodied forth, "f 

And when Paganism was on the wane, as it was but the natural 
policy of the Christian priesthood not to wrest from the people all their 
former duties without substituting others in their place, so nymphs and 
naiads became saints innumerable — ^and thus, doubtless, Sudeley s 
sacred fountain became St. Kenelm's holy well ! So much was it in 
vogue at that time to associate saints and miraculous healing powers 
with certain springs, that even as late as the tenth century King Edgar 
thought it necessary **to forbid the worship of fountains," Notwith- 

♦ Old Play. t " Childe Harold's Pilgrimage," canto iv., 115. 

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standing this, the custom continued, and must have had a firm hold on 
the people, for we find tv\^o hundred years later the Canoi)s of Anselm 
laying it down as a rule "that no one is to attribute reverence or 
sanctity to a fountain without the bishop's authority.'** But all these 
idle superstitions were swept away from our Church by the glorious 
Reformation, and now, henceforth, may the pilgrim, whoever he may 
be, as he rests awhile in the picturesque conduit house which pro- 
tects and covers our beautiful spring, thank God for our purer and 
simpler faith, and be ready to exclaim : "Oh ye wells, bless ye the 
Lord, praise Him and magnify Him for ever ! " f 

* "Book of Days," vol. ii., p. 6, 

t The following analysis of Sl Kenelm's Well water was made in September, 1863, by Mr. Horsley* 
of Cheltenham: — 

Total of dry solid contents per imperial gallon, 5 grains, consisting of — grains 

Carbonate of lime and iron 0.20 • 

Sulphate of lime 1.30 

Muriate of lime and traces of nitrate 2.25 

Vegetable extractive matter 125 


Window of St. Kenelm's Chapel, preserved in the present Fanii House. 

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*• Those Knights are dust, 
And their good swords are rust ; 
Their souls are with, the Saints, I trust." 


GoDA, daughter of Ethelred II. +c 1052 =j= Walter of Mantes. 

I z ' 

Ralph the Earl, t 1056 =t= 

Harold, t Will. I. =t= Maud, d. of Earl of Chester. 

John, t 1 165 =?= Grace, d. of William Tracy. 
J 1 1 

Ralph, t 1192 =t= Emma, d. of William de Beauchamp. 

r I 

Otuer,* tc 1 1 95 Ralph, tc. 1204 =j= 

» » 

Ralph, t 1267 =t= Ismenia, d. of Roger Corbet 


Bartholomew, t 1274 =t= Joan, d. of William Beauchamp. 


John, t 1336 =f , d. of Lord Say. 

Bartholomew, ob. v. p. =t= Matilda, d. of John de Montford. 

I ' 

John, t 1340 =t= Eleanor, d. of Lord Scales. 

I * 1 

John, t 1367 Joan =t= William Boteler. 

I ' 

Thomas Boteler =t= Alice, d. of John Beauchamp. 

Ralph, created Lord of Sudeley, 1441 ; t 1473 t^ Alice Deincourt 

, — 1 1 

John, ob. V. p. 

AFTER the death of Kenelm, Ceolwulf, his uncle, succeeded to 
the throne ; he reigned but two years, and was then driven 
out by Beornwulf, who, in his turn, was defeated by Egbert 
in a great battle at Ellandune, now called Wilton, and whose 

* So spelt in his deed, mentioned at p. 87, but ealled " Ottiwell " by some writers. 

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victorious arms were rapidly deciding the fate of Mercia : Mercia, 
which in the previous reigns appeared to be taking the lead of all 
the other kingdoms in Britain. This, however, was not to be, and 
henceforth Mercia and her ** chiefe cittie," Winchcombe, began to 
decline and to be ** of very little account;" or, as Fuller in his '* Church 
History" quaintly speaks of Egbert and his successors: "they were 
but petty kings, yet they shined but dimly (as the moon when the sun 
is risen), and in the next age were utterly extinguished/' 

The story of Egbert's battles and his successes, his repulse of and 
defeats by the Northmen, would occupy here too much space. Suffice 
it to say that he nominally united the Heptarchy in one state, con- 
centrating in himself the supreme power, taking, as stated by some, for 
the first time, the title of King of the Angles or of England. * 

Sir Richard Atkyns, in his " History of Gloucestershire," states that 
Egbert was buried in Winchcombe ; but other historians say Win- 
chester received the royal remains.! Atkyns fails to give his 
authority, but assuming him to be correct, we can only suppose that 
Egbert was eventually removed from Winchcombe to Winchester. 
We know that Egbert's Mercian predecessors were buried in Winch- 
combe, and it is easy to conjecture how, a short time later, finding that 
the glory of Winchcombe was departing, and that of Winchester 
increasing, the town, monks, and people woyld eagerly claim the king 
in death. Although Egbert asserted a supremacy over the other 
kingdoms, he did not incorporate the Mercians into his own dominion, 
but they became tributary to him ; he did not even appoint their 
kings, and the reigning family continued in possession, acknowledging 
him as Supreme, or Bretwalda. This was 400 years after the first 
coming of the Saxons to this country. 

It must have been about this time that Winchcombe Abbey suffered 
severely from the sacrilegious hands of the Danes, known as pirates or 
Vikings, who were daily becoming bolder, carrying their cruel devasta- 
tions all over the land, sparing neither age nor sex. The Merdans 
were constantly engaged in fierce and sanguinary conflicts with these 

* According to Hume the title was first assumed by Alfred's son, Edward the Elder. 
J Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, William of Malmesbury, and others. 

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new adversaries, from whose ruthless hands not even the sacred build- 
ings could be saved. It is believed that not only was the Monastery 
greatly injured, but that its spiritual power was considerably decreased, 
from its passing into the hands of secular priests. It was not till 
the reign of Edgar that the restoration of both was effected. Edgar 
was the tool of the monks from the age of sixteen, when he became 
king through the instrumentality of Dunstan, the celebrated primate. 
Edgar has ever been lauded as a saint by the monks, though the 
impartial student of history cannot fail to observe how unscrupulously 
he broke all laws, both human and divine. 

One good custom of Edgar was to take an annual expedition 
through his provinces, in order to redress grievances and see that 
justice was administered. No doubt in one of these excursions he 
must have observed how Winchcombe Abbey needed restoration, for, 
says the king in one of his charters, '*all the monasteries of my realm 
are to the sight, nothing but worm-eaten and rotten timber and 
boards. "^ So, like his royal predecessors with crimes to expiate, he 
forthwith gave sanction to his favourite, Oswald, bishop of Worcester, 
in whose diocese it was, to begin the good work. Oswald was a Dane 
by birth, and obtained the bishopric through the influence of Dunstan, 
who had resigned it for that of London. Speedily then did he set to 
work to reform its discipline and to recover the lands of which it had 
been defrauded ; he also restored the monastery to the Benedictines, 
in whose possession it remained till the dissolution.* 

At this time the religious state of the north of England, says Simeon 
of Durham, was deplorable. After the devastation of that country by 
the Danes, who reduced the churches and monasteries to ashes, 
Christianity was almost extinct ; very few churches (and those only 
built with hurdles and straw) were rebuilt ; but no monasteries were 
refounded ifor almost two hundred years after; the country people never 
heard the name of a monk, and were frightened at their very habit, 
till some monks from Winchcombe brought again the monastic way of 
living to Durham, York, and Whitby, t 

* Germanicus is stated to have been the first Abbot of Winchcombe upon Oswald's foundation ; he had 
before been Prior of Ramsey. t Grose's "Antiquities." 


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From Edgar and the monks we turn to Sudeley and its owner, 
whom we find to be none other than King Ethelred himself. That 
Sudeley had hitherto been royal property we can only surmise, for 
little or nothing is positively known as to particular properties in this 
county till the great register was made by William the Conqueror. 
Ethelred, however, possessed Sudeley, which he granted to his youngest 
daughter, the Countess Goda, whose husband, Walter of Mantes, held it 
in right of the king.* A very important place and valuable property 
was Sudeley in those days, when a forest of oaks extended three miles 
south, and two from east to west. A park also there was, according to 
the custom of the Saxons. We read that parks were in existence 
before the Conquest, and that bishops had them to hunt in ; some were 
fifteen miles round, girt with a " stone wall, and a manor-house in the 
middle.*' Every seat of consequence had two parks, a large one, gene- 
rally consisting of 300 acres, and a small one of about 80. Before 
deer were introduced, studs of horses were kept in them. . So we find f 
*' there had been a manor-place at Sudeley before the building of the 
Castle, and the platte is yet seen in Sudeley Parke where it stode." 

Though the deer-park has long ceased to exist, several very interest- 
ing remains of both the '* outer'' and "inner" park walls are still 
to be traced. Of the former a specimen is to be found in the south 
side of the road leading from Winchcombe to Lower Guiting ; another 
commences in the Lime-kiln Plantation and runs on the south side 
of the horse-road leading to Hawling, to Limehill Wood, where it is 
lost, in all a distance of about one mile. Of the ** inner " park wall a 
relic is to be seen near to the Hollow Barn on the west side of the 
road leading to the Park's Cottages, at the bottom of a field called the 
Round Hill. Another of the remains commences in the boundary of a 
field called the Dog Kennel, which surrounds Sudeley Lodge, continues 
close to the Park Cottages, and thence to Spoonley Cottage, where all 
further trace is lost. 

Leland J also notices a " praty lake which runneth out of Sudeley 
Park, down by the Castle and into Esseburne brook, at the south side 

• Speed, p. 424. t Leland's ** Itinerary." J Vol. iv., p. 76, 

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One of the Last of the Forest, on Sudeley Lodge Farm ; 26 feet 2 inches in circumference. 

{To /ace p. 58. 

Remains of ** Inner Park " Wall, near to the Hollow Bam. 

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of Winchcombe." The spot where the Manor- House once stood (as 
named by Leiand) has always been traditionally indicated in the raised 
broken ground in the field called the Hop-yard, and is distinctly visible 
from the East Terrace. Early in the spring of 1875, under the super- 
vision of Canon Lysons, cuttings were made into the ruins, which 
resulted in the discovery of foundations of house, road, and walls bear- 
ing the stamp of Saxon times. 

There was a beautiful feeling among our forefathers that brave men 
and stalwart arms sufficed for all necessary protection, and they dis- 
dained the idea of falling back upon stone buildings and strong 
fortifications.* Sudeley was not a Castle in those times, but consisted 
only of the Manor-House or Court described above. Indeed in Saxon 
times there were very few defensible places such as we now call castles 
(that being a French name), so that though the English were a very 
brave and warlike people, yet for want of such strongholds they were 
unable to resist the Norman foe. 

But to return to Ethelred, whose reign was marked by the terrible 
inroads of the Danes. He hoped by his marriage with Emma, sister 
of the Duke of Normandy, who for her beauty was called ** the Flower 
of Normandy," to increase his power, and gain a strong protector for 
his kingdom. On the contrary this union laid the foundation for the 
future claims of William the Norman to the English crown, and at once 
brought in Emma's train a troop of fbreigners and favourites who, 
placed in authority and trust, either joined with the enemy or deserted 
their posts. Finally, when Sweyn was received as King of England, 
Ethelred was obliged to quit the country and escape to the court of his 
Norman brother-in-law. 

Many of the troubles of this reign were greatly increased by the 
treachery and perfidy of Edric Streona, whose character must here be 
noticed, inasmuch as under Canute it was he who effected such great 
changes in Winchcombe. Edric belonged to the old royal family of 
Sussex, which had been driven out by Egbert two centuries before, 
and its members reduced to such poverty, that Edric held only the 

* In classic times this feeling prevailed in some places, for Lycurgus raised no fortifications around 
Sparta, avowing that he preferred " a wall of men." 

I 2 

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humble position of a shepherd when he first came under the notice of 
Ethelred. He soon grew into favour, was appointed ealdorman of 
Mercia, and married Edgith, the king s daughter. According to the 
Saxon Chronicle, his life was one long series of rapine ^ and treachery, 
and it seems certain that he was alternately the partisan of Ethelred, of 
Sweyn, and of Canute, as his own interest prompted him. He is said 
to have been gifted with a subtle genius and persuasive eloquence, and 
he is charged with surpassing all his contemporaries in malice and 
perfidy, as well as in pride and cruelty. In short, adds one of the 
Chroniclers, **he was the very dregs of man, the dishonour of the 
English, a wicked destroyer, a subtle knave, whose nobleness had not 
obtained him wealth, but his bold language, — he always lay in wait 
to deceive, was ready prepared to cheat He attended the king's 
councils as a faithful person, but disclosed them like a traitor. Being 
often sent to the king's enemies as a mediator for peace, he kindled 
the flames of war, whose perfidiousness appeared on all occasions in 
this and the succeeding king's days." , 

When Canute obtained the crown of England, a.d. 1017, the govern- 
ment of Mercia was given to Edric Streona. Up to this time Winch- 
combe had enjoyed the distinction of being a county and sheriffdom in 
itself, a distinction which doubtless was conferred upon it for its com- 
manding position and its containing a royal residence. While Edric 
was governor, Winchcombe was deprived of her high honours, and was 
incorporated with the county of Gloucester, and placed under the same 
jurisdiction, t This union was of course highly advantageous both to 
Winchcombe and the county ; though it is easy to imagine the feelings 
of discontent which pervaded the loyal hearts of the Winchcombites 
when they found themselves deprived of their distinguished position, 

♦ His appellation ** Streona" signifies "the Acquirer," so that he maybe uncomplimentarily styled 
"Edric the Phinderer." 

+ The division of England into counties is commonly ascribed to Alfred, but is evidently older, as the 
scyrgerefa (sheriff) is mentioned in the laws of King Ina (about a.d. 700). Whilst the alderman was the 
governor of each county, the sheriff was the king's officer, who had to levy the fines and forfeitures, and to 
account for the rents of the. royal property. The name reeve is derived from the Saxon **ra/&«," to seize. 
It is probable that hundreds and tithings are of even greater antiquity than counties. In Gloucestershire 
there are four great divisions of this description, and, according to the political arrangement of the county, 
Winchcombe and Sudeley were placed in the southern division of the hundred of Kiftsgate, which com- 
prised the north and north-eastern parts of the county. 

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and figuratively reduced to a level with their neighbours, for it is 
recorded that Gloucester had been deprived of its title of ** Cittie " a 
few years before, when Winchcombe boasted that of being the fairest 
in Mercia ! We can hardly give Edric Streona the credit, and we may 
be sure he had none at the time, for making this great change from any 
good motive — it was possibly to humiliate Winchcombe, '* the faire and 
chieffest cittie of Mercia," and to take revenge on her loyal sons, who 
had always proved so true to the king ! 

The end of Edric Streona was worthy of his career. Canute 
ordered him to be slain in his palace, saying with irony, that as Edric 
wished to please him, so he would advance him higher than all the 
noblemen in England, and thereupon ordered his head to be cut off 
and placed on a pole on the highest gate in London, to be seen by all 
beholders. His body was ignominiously cast without the city walls. 

In glowing contrast to this wicked earl stands the noble Leofric, his 
successor, created Earl of Mercia by King Canute, who always treated 
him with great confidence and kindness. 

When the time came (a.d. 1042) for the restoration of the Saxon 
line by proclaiming Edward (afterwards the Confessor), the son of 
Ethelred, as king, Leofric gave him his warm support, as the following 
events testify, which are particularly interesting, as they bring before 
us the first Lord of Sudeley, who was the nephew of the king, and the 
commander of his Norman mercenaries. 

Ralph the Earl,* as the Saxon Chronicler calls him, was the son of 
the Countess Goda by her first husband, Walter (or Drogo) of Mantes. 
The countess's second husband was Eustace L, count of Boulogne, 
who in A.D. 105 1* came to England to visit his royal brother-in-law. 
At Dover, his retinue seeking too roughly for quarters, killed one of 
the townsmen, when a general fray ensued, in which women and 
children were trampled to death ; but at last Eustace and his men had 
to flee for their lives, and with difficulty reached Gloucester, where the . 
king then was. 

* The real name of his earldom is doubtful. He is often styled Earl of Hereford, but Sir Francis 
Palgrave maintains that he should be called Earl of the Welsh Marches, and that the title of Hereford was 
first giyen after the Conquest to William Fitz-Osborne. 

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Godwin, the father of Harold, was Earl of Kent at the time ; and 
Edward, by whom he was both hated and feared, eagerly threw the 
blame on him. Godwin replied, that the foreigners alone were to blame, 
and absolutely refused to take vengeance on the townsmen as ordered 
He was then summoned to appear at a Witenagemot at Gloucester. 
He repaired thither with the forces of his earldom, whilst the king 
called Leofric of Mercia and Si ward of Northumbria to his aid, and his 
nephew mustered all the forces he could command. Once again we 
may be sure Winchcombe re-echoed the martial clamour. A deadly 
combat seemed imminent, when the noble Leofric, considering that all 
the greatest men of the land were there assembled, and would have been 
uselessly destroyed, advised that hostages should be given on either 
side, and the matter left to be settled in London by arbitration. Thus 
did Leofric by his prudent counsel avert the pending evil, and thus 
were the lives of our brave Cotswoldians saved. 

An admirable description of the Witenagemot which assembled in 
the Hall of Westminster to discuss this matter is given by Bulwer in 
his story of " Harold." Ralph was there as one of Godwin's foes, 
and when Godwin stood up with his six sons at his back, "you might 
have heard the hum of the gnat which vexed the smooth cheek of 
Earl Ralph the moment before Earl Godwin spoke." In his eloquent 
defence the whole story is graphically given, a defence which had all 
the greater effect upon an audience already prepared to pardon him. 
'' The memorable trial," continues Bulwer, " ended by the banishment 
of the king's favourites, to whom was imputed the blame of the late 
dissensions — all but a few varlets, and one named Richard, son of 
Scrob, or Fitz-Scrob, as he was called by the Normans. This same 
Fitz-Scrob, who settled in Herefordshire, was supposed to have been 
one of Ralph's retainers, and when the Norman landed in 1066, he 
became one of his chief supporters in that district" 

Ralph appears to have received uniform kindness from the king, 
being appointed on various occasions to posts of importance and trust. 
But the last occasion in which he was thus placed proved fatal to his 
cause and honour. It was in a battle against Alfgar, son of the noble 
Leofric, who more than once was banished from his country for his 

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spirit of rebellion and too great love of adventure. In a.d. 1055 he 
was outlawed, and fled to Ireland, but he soon returned with eighteen 
ships as a pirate, and invited Griffith, prince of Wales, to take part with 
him against the king. Griffith immediately assembled a numerous 
army, and having joined forces, they entered Herefordshire, with the 
intention of laying waste the English marches. 

On the other side, Ralph having assembled an army, fell in with 
the enemy two miles from the city of Hereford (24th October). 
He ordered the English, contrary to their custom, to fight on horse- 
back ; but just as the engagement was about to commence, the earl, 
with his French and Normans, were the first to flee. The English 
seeing this, followed their leader's example, and nearly the whole of the 
enemy's army going in pursuit, four or five hundred of the fugitives 
were killed, and many were wounded. Having gained the victory. 
King Griffith and Earl Alfgar entered Hereford, slew seven of the 
canons who defended the doors of the principal church, and burnt the 
monastery built by Bishop Athelstan, that true servant of Christ, with 
all its ornaments, and the relics of St. Ethelbert, king and martyr, and 
other saints. Having slain also some of the citizens, and made many 
others captives, they returned laden with spoil. Alfgar eventually 
returned to court, and was restored to his earldom ; the king no doubt 
being only too glad to remove all disgrace from the son of his much 
beloved friend Leofric. Ralph died about a year after his flight from the 
field, and was buried at Peterborough. He was succeeded by his son 
Harold as Earl, and as Lord of Sudeley, who lived to enjoy the favour 
of the Norman king, and is, like his father, mentioned in Domesday. 

In the reign of Edward the Confessor, Winchcombe was made a 
borough, presided over by a borough or port-reeve — a system to 
facilitate local government originated by the Romans, who established 
in this country the municipia, or town community. In a few years the 
borough-reeve was changed by the Norman conquerors for bailiffs of 
their own.* Their chief office at first appears to have been to collect 
taxes for the conquerors, and it must have been as unpopular as that of 

♦ Bailiff is from the French word baUli, which signifies a trust or superintendence. 

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the Jewish tax-collector in Palestine in the time of the Romans. But 
this was gradually changed, and when the local authority was vested 
in the hands of two bailiffs and twelve burgesses, as was the case in 
Winchcombe, " they were appointed by the lord of the manor as his 
agents (generally by an authority under seal), to superintend the 
manor; collect fines and quit-rents; inspect the buildings; order repairs; 
cut down trees ; impound cattle trespassing ; take an account of wastes, 
spoils, and misdemeanors in the woods and demesne Ig^nds ; and do 
other acts for the lord's interests."* 

There are still extant charters of the Saxon kings, conferring certain 
privileges on various boroughs, one of which was that of exclusive 
jurisdiction. To these charters was attached the royal seal. The 
earliest known SaXon seals were en placard and lead ; that of Edward 
the Confessor, which must have been attached to the Winchcombe 
Charter, was in wax. In the course of the last eight hundred years 
so many important changes have been made in jurisdiction and in the 
laws of the land, that in the present day the office of our two bailiffs 
and twelve burgesses exists but in name. 

We learn from Domesday that the borough of Winchcombe paid 
a yearly rent of £,(> in the reign of King Edward the Confessor, 
whereof Earl Harold had the third part The borough had three 
Hundreds annexed to it, and thus it paid £2^ yearly in the reign of 
King William. 

About this time (a.d. 1054) the name of Winchcombe Abbey 
appears for a moment on the page of the Saxon Chronicler, in con- 
nection with Aldred, bishop of Worcester. Godwin, abbot of Winch- 
combe, having departed this life, Aldred kept the Abbey in his ow^n 
hands for nearly a year, and then appointed Godric, son of Goodman, 
chaplain to Edward the Confessor, to be Abbot of Winchcombe. It 
was this same Aldred, afterwards archbishop of York, who crowned 
the unfortunate Harold, and again, so soon after, the conqueror William 
The appointment of Godric to Winchcombe Abbey was made on the 
feast of St. Kenelm, very probably at the instigation of the king himself. 

• Bacon's Abridgement, "Bailiff." 

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or that of his sister Goda,* who must, naturally, at her brother's court, 
have often been in the society of the royal chaplain. 

Not only in Winchcombe did the monks flourish, but on all sides in 
our neighbourhood. In Evesham, Pershore, Tewkesbury, Hailes, 
Cleeve, Cirencester, and Gloucester were they sooner or later esta- 
blished. Of all the counties in England, Gloucestershire, says Fuller, 
in his quaint language, was the most pestered with monks, giving rise 
to the common saying : " ' As sure as God is in Gloucestershire,' a 
wicked proverb deserving to be banished out of the country, being the 
profane child of superstitious parents, as if so many convents had 
certainly fastened His gracious presence to that place." f 

* The Countess Goda, as she is called in Domesday, died about 1052. She had lands in Bucks, Mid- 
dlesex, Notts, Surrey, and Sussex, which need not be particularized ; and in Gloucestershire she held Aston 
Subedge, near Campden; Horsley, Yanworth in Haslefon and Hampton, and Hawling, whidi adjoins 
Sudeley ; and I have no doubt that she was also the mistress of Sudeley Manor-house. 

t Canon Ljrsons, in his Lecture, "The Romans in Gloucestershire,'' maintains that the proverb alludes 
Hither to the fact of Gloucester having been one of the first cities in Britain to embrace Christianity, than 
to its numerous monastic establishments in the middle ages. 

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** Over hauberk and helm 

As the sun's setting splendour was thrown. 
Thence they look'd.o*er a realm— 
And to-morrow beheld it their own." 


THE tide of events was now rapidly setting in which was to 
cause so great a change in England. The country, though no 
longer divided as in the days of the Heptarchy into hostile 
states, was, owing to the pitiable weakness of the king, who was only 
fit for a monk, really in the hands of Godwin, his sons, and a few other 
powerful and unscrupulous men. Edward had no child to succeed him, 
and, probably with the hope of averting a civil war at his decease, he 
took the unwise step of promising the succession to the crown to his 
kinsman, William of Normandy, when visited by him soon after the 
quarrel about Eustace of Boulogne. 

It is in his account of this visit that Bulwer in his ** Harold " brings 
together in conversation the Duke, Ralph of Sudeley, and Fitz- 
Osborne, the celebrated Norman knight The three are supposed to 
be standing at an open lattice in the new Palace at Westminster, the 
Duke gazing over the river on to London, when he suddenly interro- 
gates Ralph (or Rolf according to Bulwer) on the wealth of the London 
traders. In his reply he described their riches in glowing terms, and 
how wealth took precedence to rank ; that a ceorl to-day, let him be 
rich, may be earl to-morrow, and the son of princes, if he become poor, 
sinks at once into contempt and out of his state. " Wherefore," con- 
tinued Ralph, " gold is the thing here most coveted ; and by St. Michael, 
the sin is infectious." The Duke again put the question to his " gentle 

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Rolf: " ** This London must be rich ? " '' Rich enow." was his answer, 
" to coin into armed men. that should stretch from Rouen to Flanders 
on the one hand, and Paris on the other." '* When I depart, Rolf," 
concluded the Duke, **thou wendest back to thy marches. These 
Welsh are brave and fierce, and shape work enow for thy hands." 
" Ay, by my halidame ! poor sleep by the side of the beehive you 
have stricken downl" " Marry . then," said William, *Met the Welsh 
prey on Saxon, Saxon on Welsh ; let neither win too easily. Remember 
our omens to-day : Welsh hawk and Saxon bittern, and over their 
corpses, Duke William's Norman falcon ! " And so it came to pass> 
when Edward died, and Harold reigned, the Norman returned to make 
good his claim. 

Fierce raged the battle on the fatal field of Hastings (October 14, 
1066) from early morn till far into the night ; and not till the noble 
Harold fell did the English despair ; with him all was lost, and the 
flower of the nation perished When the Norman retired from that 
Lake of Blood, 16,000 of his men were left dead upon the field ; the 
numbers of the vanquished were not known. 

It is not recorded whether Harold, the Lord of Sudeley,* was 
among the combatants, but his kinsman Eustace of Boulogne was 
there, of course fighting on the Norman side. The English performing 
almost superhuman feats of valour, held their ground so well, that 
Eustace fell back, and was in the act of advising William to sound the 
signal of recall, when he was struck between the shoulders by one of 
the English pursuers,, and was carried dying, as it was believed, from 
the battle-field. Some indeed assert he was then killed. Guy, bishop 
of Amiens, recounts that Eustace was one of the knights who cruelly 
mutilated the wounded Harold. Wace, however, makes no mention of 
it, which, if true, he probably would have done in his celebrated 
" Roman de Rou " (a metrical history of the Dukes of Normandy), and 
which was written when those events were comparatively fresh in 
mens' minds. After the death of the Countess Goda, his first wife, 
which happened about a.d. 1052, Eustace married Ida, the daughter of 

• Milles, in his "Catalogue of Honour," erroneously states that King Harold had by his concubine a 
son of his own name, Lord and first Baron of Sudeley, from whom the rest of the Barons have descended 

K 2 

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the Duke de Bouillon, and received the castle of Bouillon for h^r dower. 
The second of their three sons was the celebrated Godfrey of Bouillofiy 
King of Jerusalem, born a.d. 1060 ! * Thus by marriage was the great 
hero of the eleventh century connected with the then Lord of Sudeley ! 

William Fitz-Osbome also was with William at the battle of 
Hastings. Wace describes him as his greatest personal friend, wh6 
fought with him in his early battles. He it was who, " humming a 
tune," entered the hall where William sat' moodily in the Palace at 
Rouen, after hastily returning from the hunting field, where he heard 
of the death of his kinsman Edward, and of Harold seizing the crown; 
He it was who encouraged the knights to assist William in his enter^ 
prise, he himself undertaking to furnish sixty ships equipped with 
fighting men. No wonder then that the Lord of Sudeley found it but 
prudent to relinquish the earldom of Hereford in favour of the 
Conqueror's friend. Beside this honour, the Lordship of the Isle of 
Wight was conferred upon Fitz-Osborne, the manor of Hanley iii 
Worcestershire, Salperton,t and others in Gloucestershire and else^ 
where, which are not enumerated in consequence of his having died 
before the survey was taken. 

William introduced from Normandy the custom of making estate^ 
hereditary, and the law of primogeniture. As Sudeley descended from 
father to son we may consider it another proof of their sympathy and 
interest lying on the Norman side. Of Sudeley, Domesday \ gives 
the following particulars : — " Herald the son of Earl Radulf holds 
Sudlege of the king, and Radulf his father held it There are ten hides 
taxed, and four plow-tillages in demean, and eighteen villeins, and 
eight bordars, with thirteen plow-tillages. There are fourteen between 
the servi and ancillae, and six mills of 52^. (rent), a wood three miles 
long, and two broad." 

*' The same Herald holds Todington. His father (Earl Radulf) 
held it. There are ten hides taxed. In demean are three plow^ 
tillages, and seventeen villeins, and seven bordars, and two free men, 
having among them all eight plow-tillages. There are ten (plow- 

* "The Conqueror and his Companions." + Atkyns* ** Gloucestershire," p. 633. 

X See also Rudder, p. 66 ; Grose's "Antiquities," vol. i. 

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tillages) among the servi and ancillae, and two mills of 25^. A salt pit 
pays fifty measures of salt These two manors, Sudlege and Todinton, 
are worth and were worth ;i^4o/'* 

Though when the country was reapportioned, the earldom of Hereford 
•was given to the king s favourite, William Fitz-Osborne, Harold still 
retained great possessions ; an account of those he held in Warwick- 
shire may be seen in Domesday Book for that county ; f but " his 
chief seat was at Sudley." Winchcombe, at the time of the Survey, was 
a distinct hundred, and termed Burgum de Wincelcumbe, when Glou- 
cester and Bristol were the only boroughs in the county. J 

By some historians Harold has been suspected of treachery to his 4 
country, as the instances are rare where Saxons were allowed to retain 
their possessions ; whilst others maintain that he must have given 
some great offence to the Conqueror, who deprived him of his earldom. 
We are unwilling to credit the first supposition, although Harold was 
but half a Saxon, and are inclined to look on the seizure of the earldom 
as a mere act of policy, it being wanted to reward a valuable follower. 
It seems more reasonable to suppose that Harold was in favour with 
the new ruler, with whom he became more closely allied by his marriage 
with Maud, daughter of Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester and nephew of 
William. Otherwise William would most probably have taken both 
title and possessions to gratify the demands of the avaricious Normans 
by whom he was surrounded. 

There is no record that William the Conqueror ever visited Sudeley 
— but in all probability he did so, as it was then occupied by his 
half-Norman kinsmen, and naturally it was his policy to strengthen his 
influence in the country by keeping up a friendly intercourse with all 
who could in any way claim affinity with him. William, however, was 

• In aiustration of the record it may be mentioned that Bordars were tenants of cottages and small por- 
tions of land, for which they supplied the lord with eggs and poultry ; Bondmen were copyholding or 
customary tenants of the manor ; Villeins were attached to the soil, being bound to do whatever services 
the lord commanded them ; the Servi and Ancillae were male and female bond people, and Free Men were 
under the purchased protection of some great landholder. Of the measures mentioned in Domesday, the 
Quarentenwas 40 poles, the Hide varied from 80 to 120 acres, and 8 Hides made a Knight's fee. 

t **He was possessed of the lordship of Bockenton, in Berkshire, and Wicke, in Worcestershire*' 
(Dugdale's Baronage) ; also of Ewyas, in Herefordshire, where he founded a small Priory for Benedictine 

X Winchcombe Abbey, Domesday. Rudder, p. 71. 

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often at Gloucester — for it is recorded that* "as often as his affairs 
would permit he kept Christmas there, and to render this assembly the 
more grand and imposing and sumptuous, and that the ambassadors of 
foreign nations might admire the appearance of the company, he, by 
his royal edicts, was attended by all the archbishops, bishops, abbots, 
thanes, and knights. He wore his crown, and made a grand and 
delicate fare. The great men appeared in golden, or very splendid 
robes, ^which were called 'festiva indumenta,* and the town found 
much of his entertainment and clothing, as it did for his successors, 
when at this place. He was at no time more courteous, gentle, and 
kind than at such assemblies, so that those that came might see that 
his bounty equalled his riches." 

On such occasions we can imagine the Lord of Sudeley sallying forth 
with a T)rilliant and becoming retinue to face the wintry winds as he 
crossed the hills, before descending into the vale to receive a cordial 
welcome from the Conqueror. Few among that goodly company 
would rank higher than Harold, representative as he was of both 
Saxon and Norman nobility. 

Notwithstanding the courtesy and affability displayed by the Con- 
queror while holding his court at Gloucester, he . failed not to lay his 
heavy hand on the monasteries, which in those disturbed times were 
often the depositories of great wealth, the owners thereof fondly hoping 
the sacred precincts would afford protection — alas, no ! the treasures 
were ruthlessly swept into the royal coffers. On the slightest pretext 
or suspicion he dispossessed the dignitaries of the Church, depriving 
them of their preferments in order to bestow them upon his Norman 
clergy. Thus the Monastery of Winchcombe, having evinced hostility 
towards the Conqueror, was deprived of a great portion of its lands, f 
which were then very considerable, including Sherborn, Bladinton, 
Twining, Freolinton, Abdrinton, Newton, Stanton, Charleton, Snows- 
hill, Honiburge, Eddminton, Hidcote, ' Winrush, Brad well. Swell, 

♦ Rudder. 

+ Apparently much was restored, as in Domesday the Abbey has set dowTi to it 73i hides in Glouces- 
tershire, 24 hides in Oxfordshire, and 6 hides in Warwickshire, which, at the average of 100 acres each, 
amounts to 10,350 acres. 

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Willersey, Wicwen, Weston, Stock, Hedicote, and Winchcombe.* 
Godricus, their abbot, was made a close prisoner in Gloucester Castle, 
and the charge of the Monastery was committed to Agelwy, abbot of 
Evesham, who governed it for pretty well three years in every respect 
as if it were his own. Then the king gave it to a certain abbot named 
Galand, who dying shortly after, it was once more placed under the 
care of Agelwy, in whose hands it continued for a long time.t A 
delightful description of this worthy man is given in the '* Chronicon 
Abbatiae de Evesham," J of how he relieved starving fugitives from the 
counties wasted by the Conqueror, was a father to the poor, a judge of 
widows, pupils, orphans, strangers, wards, and a most pious consoler 
of all who were in affliction. At his death he left five chests full of 
money, and died of the gout {dolore plangentibus), "as became a wealthy 
prelate ! " 

It was the good Bishop Wulfstan, of Worcester, who reclaimed for 
Winchcombe all of which she had been defrauded ; and then having 
thus braved the danger of the king's anger, he doffed his mitre, donned 
his shield, and did him good service in the field by frustrating the 
intentions of two rebellious earls. § 

We retain at Winchcombe one institution, which dates from the 
Conqueror's time, the curfew, the signal for extinguishing fires and 
lights, which was justly odious to the Saxons, although it might be a 
safeguard against conflagrations ; but they could hardly be expected to 
credit the ruthless and avaricious Normans with kind intentions. In 
most towns the curfew bell has long been discontinued, in others it has 
been retained as an ancient custom ; and sometimes because provision 
has been made for its continuance. In some places it is tolled all the 
year round, in others, only during certain months— as in Winchcombe, 
where it commences at the time of the Autumn Stow fair, and dis- 
continues in May at the Spring fair in the same place. The tolling 
lasts about ten minutes, and is immediately followed by the deliberate 
tolling out of the day of the month. 

* Atkyns, p. 28. f Willis's " Mitred Abbeys." 

X Published under the direction of the Master of the Rolls, p. 90. 

§ Florence of Worcester. 

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Solemnly, mournfully, 

Dealing its dole, 
The Curfew Bell 

Is beginning to toll. 

Cover the embers. 

And put out the light ; 
Toil comes with the morning, 

And rest with the night. 

Dark grow the windows, 

And quench'd is the fire, 
Sound fades into silence, 

All footsteps retire. 

No voice in the chambers. 

No sound in the hall ! 
Sleep and oblivion 

Reign over all ! 

Another bell, but which has long ceased to sound, was the great bell 
of the Abbey, older than the curfew, and with no humiliating associa- 
tions for the people ; in the old days its voice was heard at every hour, 
and to those simple times it was " angels' music/' * 

Harold of Sudeley, as before mentioned, married Maud, daughter of 
Hugh Lupus, first earl of Chester. Turning to Ormerod's " History 
of Cheshire," we find that Lupus had only one legitimate child, Richard, 
who succeeded to the earldom. Ordericus says,f that " Lupus had also 
many base sons and daughters, who were almost all swept away by 
sundry misfortunes." Maud must have been one of these, though her 
name is not mentioned, and there does not seem to be any other who 
married a Harold. 

Among Harold's numerous grants was his noble gift to the church of 
St. Peter at Gloucester, so that there should always be a convent at 
Ewyas serving God. He further granted the tithes of all corn, 

♦ " Sabbaths observe — think when the bells do chime, 
*Tis angels* music." — George Herbert. 

t Lib. iv., p. 522. 

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venison, honey, and of such things whereof good Christians ought to 
pay.* He likewise erected and occupied a castle in that locality, which 
in later times was known as Longtown, of which the keep remains 
frowning over an extensive sequestered valley. f Near to it is an 
ancient church, which tradition assigns as the resting-place of its 
founder, and hence its appellation Ewyas Harold. Harold left two 
sons by Maud — John and Robert, and to this Robert some historians 
ascribe the erection of Ewyas Church. 

John, the eldest, succeeded him in the Sudeley estates, and took the 
surname of Sutlei, under which he is mentioned as a witness to the 
Charter of Margaret, countess of Warwick (widow to Earl Henry), 
made in King Stephen's time to the canons of Kenilworth.J He 
married Grace, daughter of William Tracy, a natural son of King 
Henry I., and had issue Ralph, his heir, and William, his second son, 
who assumed his mother's surname, and became the progenitor of the 
family of Tracy at Toddington. 

Robert, the second son, resided at Ewyas, and assumed his surname 
from that place. He confirmed all the grants which his father had 
made to the Priory, and added the Church of Burnham as his own gift. 
The descendants of this Robert in the female line were the ancestors of 
the family of Brydges, subsequent possessors of Sudeley. 

In the reign of William Rufus (a.d. io9i)§ it is chronicled that 
Winchcombe Church was struck by lightning, on Wednesday, the 
15th of October. A thunderbolt fell with great force on the 
tower of the church, making a large aperture in the wall near the 
summit, and after having riven one of the beams, struck the head from 
a crucifix and threw it on the ground, breaking also the right leg. An 
image of St Mary which stood near the crucifix was also struck down. 
A thick smoke with a suffocating stench then burst forth and filled the 
whole church, lasting until the monks went the circuit of the chambers 
of the Monastery with holy water and incense, and the relics of the 

♦ Tanner's " Notitia Monastica." 

t In Dugdale's ** Baronage," p. 67, the erection of Ewyas Castle is attributed to Fitz-Osbome. 

X See " Regist. de Kenilw.," p. 19. 

§ Florence of Worcester, William of Malmesbury, Lingard. 

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saints, chanting the psalms. Many of the troubles of that time are 
described by the Chroniclers as tokens of the divine displeasure with 
the ungodly Rufus — the unearthly suffocating smell being suggestive of 
the fire and brimstone that awaited him. 

The next occasion when the name of Winchcombe appears among 
the Chroniclers was in the reign of Henry I., a.d. 1125, when the 
abbots of the neighbouring Monasteries met at Worcester to celebrate 
an ecclesiastical event of some importance. It was on a summer day, 
when our hills and vales were decked in the beauty which succeeds 
their May verdure and blossom, that Godfrey, abbot of Winchcombe, 
must have mounted his palfrey, and, accompanied by a few of his 
monks, commenced his journey to Worcester. Probably he rested for 
the night at Pershore, receiving hospitality from Guy, the abbot, and 
he may have been joined there by Dominic, prior of Evesham. They 
too, were doubtless accompanied by some of their brethren, so that 
when they again sallied forth they must have formed a goodly com- 
pany. How many interesting topics of the day must have been 
discussed among them, as they all jogged on together. News was not 
then, as now, readily spread from parish to parish, so it is almost 
impossible to imagine the eagerness with which they would communi- 
cate and receive intelligence. There had been many deaths and 
changes in the Church of late. The king's conduct would be much 
commented upon ; a great alteration in the coinage,* causing food to 
become so expensive that many died of starvation ; the approaching 
great Synod in London, when stricter rules were to be enforced for the 
clergy, and sorcerers and fortune-tellers branded with perpetual infamy. 
Good old souls ! how they must also have interchanged stories of 
miraculous relics, sweating crucifixes and pictures, double moons, 
blazing stars, and mysterious signs in the heavens ! 

But the all-absorbing subject was the object of their visit to 
Worcester ; and if we had been there to see, we should have found the' 
streets thronged with clergy and laity from all parts of the extensive 
diocese, forming into a procession to receive Simon, the newly-elected 

• Henry of Huntingdon. 

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E. L. Wedgwood. 

Visions of Henry the First. 

From Dibdin's Bibliographicax Decameron. 

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bishop, by whom he was conducted with great pomp to the Cathedral, 
there to be enthroned. Again, on the same day, we should have recog- 
nised with friendly eyes and the peculiar pride of seeing one of our own 
town or neighbourhood in the place of honour, our good Abbot of 
Winchcombe, at the installation of his friend Benedict in the Monastery 
of Worcester, he being promoted from that of Tewkesbury, where he 
had been brought up according to the monastic rule from his boyhood. 

The " Chronicle of Abingdon " * associates our adjoining parish of 
Dumbleton with Winchcombe at this time, lands there having been 
given by Robert, earl of Mellent, to the Holy Mary of Abingdon ; 
and when their Abbey chamberlain went to Winchcombe fair, the 
Abbot of Winchcombe was to find him lodgings at Dumbleton, with a 
horse at his service all the year round ; moreover, the Dumbleton men 
were to carry for him his purchases, cloth being particularly mentioned 
as an important item. 

In the MS. of Florence of Worcester which was written about 
1 150, and which is preserved in the library of Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, there are illuminations,! representing visions said to have 
disturbed Henry I. during his abode in* Normandy. These visions 
are ascribed to the year 1130; and the writer of the Chronicle 
reports that he heard Grimbald, the king's physician, relate them to 
Godfrey, abbot of Winchcombe, from whom, it may naturally be 
inferred, the illuminator received descriptions which enabled him to 
depict these visions of the king, and this work exhibits ,some of the 
most burious illuminations of the twelfth century. The following is an 
abbreviated account of the visions from Tre visa's version of *' Higden's 
Polychronicon," according to Caxton's edition of the same, 1482, folio. 

" Mold, the emperyce, was soone forsake of her husband Geffroy, and wente to her fader 
in to Normandy, there the kyng sawe thre wondre syghtes, Fyrste, he sawe in his sleepe 
niany clerkes assayle hym with toles and axe of hym dette, Este, he sawe a Route of 

♦ Vol. ii., p. 102, 300, 327, 393. In the Cottonian MS., Augustus ii., 48, is an early copy (i2th cent) 
of a charter of King Ethelred (a. d. 995), giving lands in Dumbleton to Abingdon. 

t The MS. is marked 1). iv. 5. Facsimiles of the illuminations are given by Dibdin, in his ** Biblio- 
graphical Decameron," p. Ixxvii. In a note he says, among other matters for which we have not space, 
**I am indebted to my excellent friend, Mr. H. Petrie, for the ensuing account of the very curious and 
precious MS. The visions (which have rot occurred in any other MS.) are mentioned as having taken 
place A. D. 1 1 30." 

L 2 

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Men of Armes that wold rese on hym with al maner wepen, the thyrde t)rme he sawe a 
grete company of prelates manace hym with theyre croyses and at every tyme the kyng 
start up of his bed and caught his swerde and cryed help, as though he wold slee somme 
men, but he myght no man fynde. Also a phisician, Grymbald by his name, sawe alle 
these syghts, and told hem to the kynge erly in the morrow," &c.* 

** Liber Septimus," fol. cccxlviij. rev. 

West View of Low Embattled Tower. From a Photograph by M. Brocklehurst 

in 1852. 

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** War is a game, which, were their subjects wise. 
Kings would not play at." 

DURING the civil wars in the following reign of Stephen, 
Winchcombe suffered severely; for, as in those in the time 
of Charles I., it was often the meeting point for the con- 
tending parties. The accumulated treasures of the preceding reigns 
were frittered away in this; 1115 castles, it is said, were built '^ 
Sudeley, up to this time only a Manor-House, was one of them. 
No traces of the original Castle now remain, unless it is the low 
embattled tower under ** Katherine Parr's room," forming part of the 
present cellar, facing east and west, and which Sir Gilbert Scott, when 
planning the restoration of the chapel and the west side of the quad- 
rangle in 1854, considered to be the only part left of the period of 
Stephen ; the stone arch to the west was then quite bare, but now is 
hidden from the antiquary's eye by a thick covering of luxuriant ivy. 

Sudeley must have had its tournament or tilting-ground in those 
days, a fashion just borrowed from the French, and the remains of 
which may be discerned among the uneven and broken ground in the 
vicinity of the old Manor- House, measuring about sixty by forty paces, 
the usual space allotted to the amusement. As the houses of the 
gentry up to this time, and to a much later period, were built chiefly, 
if not wholly, of wood, we were not surprised when excavating, in the 
summer of 1875-, the traditional site of the ancient Manor- House, to 
find only debris of foundations and walls. 

• Most of them were what were styled ** adulterine castles," tliat is, erected without the royal licence ; 
and these were pulled down in the next reign. 

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In T136 Stephen held a council at Northampton, which again brings 
Winchcombe Abbey before the reader. Thurstan, archbishop of 
York, and all the bishops, abbots, earls, barons, and nobles of England, 
took their seats at it ; various ecclesiastical appointments were made, 
and two abbeys also were given away — that of Winchcombe to a monk 
of Clugny, named Robert, a relation of the king, and ordained abbot of 
that monastery by the venerable Simon, bishop of Worcester, to 
whose consecration eleven years before we saw his predecessor and 
others journeying.* Monks of the order of Clugny were of stricter 
discipline than the Benedictines, and doubtless the abbot was then 
appointed to effect a reformation ; all the more needed from the ever* 
increasing riches and power of the Winchcombe Monastery. 

All this occurred while John was Lord, and Grace Lady of Sudeley. 
Owing to this marriage great trouble fell upon Sudeley, a§ will be seen, 
by the sequel. The father of Grace, as before stated, was a natural 
son of Henrj' I. ; so was also the Earl of Gloucester, whose landing 
in 1 1 39 with the Empress Matilda filled the heart of Stephen and all 
England with dismay. The connection on his lady's side would 
naturally cause the owner of Sudeley to favour Matilda The empress 
was for two months at Bristol, receiving homage from all as Queen of 
England, under penalty of the greatest cruelties and tortures. Then 
followed the sacking of the city and cathedral of Worcester, so gra- 
phically told by the Chronicler. Crowds of the citizens, on hearing of 
the enemy's approach, hurriedly carried their goods into the cathedral, 
which became a warehouse of furniture. The chant of the clergy 
mingled with the cries of women and children, the relics of St Oswald, 
their most gentle patron, were carried from place to place in suppliant 
procession ; the men of Worcester made a brave resistance, but all in 
vain — the enemy came in like a flood, burnt, plundered, and carried 
many off into miserable captivity. 

A few days later the earl (Waleran it is supposed, earl of Mellent 
and Worcester), seeing the ravages of the flames, grieved over the 
city, but lost no time in taking his revenge. Having heard that John 

* John of Worcester, who continued the ** Chronicle " after the death of Florence in in8. 

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■ ^.^•l~^ '" '",7,1, (.'■jHwit!'- • -^T— 

PosTLip Chapel and Door-way. 

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Fitz-Harold had revolted against the king and, joined the earl at 
Gloucester, he hastened to Sudeley, where he committed such cruelties 
as, the Chronicler writes, are scarcely fit to record : the story of 
plunder was repeated, people were taken prisoners, and with their 
goods and cattle carried off next day to Worcester. This was in 
November : early in the following year, Milo, constable of Gloucester, 
who had espoused Matilda's cause, assaulted Winchcombe, burnt the 
greatest part of the place, and carried off those whom he had robbed, 
to rob still more by cruelly exacting from them heavy ransoms. 
Thence he diverged to Sudeley, but whilst he was meditating an 
attack, the royal garrison of the place fell on him, and forced him to 
retreat, leaving, as it is reported, two of his men dead on the spot, and 
fifteen taken prisoners. 

From all this we may infer that Sudeley fell during those turbulent 
times into Stephen's possession. Otherwise it could not have been 
designated " a royal garrison." There is no record of how it was 
restored to its rightful owners ; but we may easily imagine with what 
sorrow they returned to their castle, devastated by fire and sword, and 
how the prisoners returned to their Winchcombe homes impoverished 
by the ransom money cruelly exacted for their deliverance. 

It 'was about this time that the beautiful little Norman church of 
Postlip was built by William de Solers at the request of his tenants, 
who hoped to find therein a refuge from the terrible ravages com- 
mitted in the neighbourhood, as also a more secure place of worship 
than Winchcombe or Hailes, the country being then infested by 
robbers and characters of the worst description, such as ever follow in 
the trail of civil war. The church was dedicated to St James ; 
William de Solers gave to the Abbey of Winchcombe the tithes of 
the demesne of Postlip ; his tenants also gave tithes ; and the monks 
in return supplied a chaplain to do' full duty on Sundays, holidays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays. These agreements were confirmed by 
Simon, bishop of Worcester, and Roger, son of the founder.^ 

In .1142 Stephen laid siege to the Castle of Oxford, where Matilda 

• A list is given in Rudder, p. 827, of those who owned lands in Winchcombe, or held them for the 
Abbey, from the reign of Stephen to tliat of James I. 

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was residing, and from the relative position of Winchcombe and 
Sudeley to the eastern and western counties, it may be supposed 
how again and again they suffered from the contending parties, their 
griefs only ending with the wars. During this troublous time Ralph 
de Wircestre, who had seized almost the whole of the country, 
fortified a castle in Hailes, built a church, and sent for the Bishop of 
Worcester to consecrate it To this the monks of Winchcombe 
vehemently objected, because the manor of Hailes was part of their 
parish ; but Ralph deprived them of their necessary supply of 
provisions till they came to a settlement, which they did after many 
long and dry fasts. Then Hailes became a mother church.* 

Winchcombe Abbey Church, like many others in this and foreign 
countries, was soon surrounded by various buildings and cottages. 
In these wars they were considered a protection and fortification ; but 
unfortunately what was deemed a precaution proved its ruin, for the 
cottages being set on fire, burned the church and all the charters, f 
which accounts for all the scantiness alluded to by Willis. \ This 
was on the 4th of the kalends of October (September 28), 1151 ; 
four months later died Robert the abbot, probably heart-broken by the 
destruction of his abbey ; he was succeeded in the same year by 
William, a monk of Christ Church, Canterbury.§ 

In 1 165 (in the reign of Henry H.) Ralph, son and heir of John de 
Sudeley, succeeded to his father's estates, and became a liberal 
benefactor to religious houses. He founded the Priory of Erdbury in 
the vicinity of his lordship of Griffe,|| in Warwickshire, and endowed 
it with lands in Derset, Radway, Chilverscoton, and Herd wick, 
beside which, in the 31 Henry H. (1185), he gave other lands, lying 
in the two last-named places, to the Knights Templars. He also gave 
Toddington to his brother William, upon condition that he should hold 

* An interesting and learned paper on Hailes was read by Mr. Loftus Brock at the Congress of the 
British Archaeological Association at Evesham in 1875. 

t Reference is made to the Winchcombe registers in Fosbroke, vol. ii., p. 345. Later on they are 
referred to as the Winchcombe Cartulary, a copy of which we received from Sir Thomas Phillips, entitled 
"Cartularium Monasterie de Winchcombe in com. Glouc. Abbreviatum per Joh. Prynne, Arm.^ This 
was lithographed at Middle Hill, 1854. 

X "Mitred Abbeys." 

§ For list of the Winchcombe Abbots, see p. 35. il Dugdale's " Warwickshire." 

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henrV ii.] the knights TEMPLARS. 8 1 

it by the service of one knight's fee. Ralph married Emma, the 
daughter of William de Beauchamp of Elmley, in the county of 
Worcester, by whom he had two sons, Otuer and Ralph, beside other 
children. The order of Knights Templars, to whom the Lord of 
Sudeley gave these lands, originated in the Crusades ; they were also 
called the Soldiery of the Temple, as it was their office to protect it, to 
assist against the infidels, and succour pilgrims. They began by 
taking vows of poverty and chastity, but in less than half a century 
they were notorious for their wealth, pride, and licentiousness.* In 
the previous reign Gilbert de Laci had granted to the Knights 
Templars three burgages in Winchcombe. Again Roger de Wateville 
was seized of houses in Winchcombe, which he granted to the Master 
of the Knights Templars in the reign of Edward I. 

In the neighbourhood of Winchcombe they had a grant of a court- 
leet, with waifs and felons' goods, in Greet and Gretton from 
Henry III., which grant was allowed in the proceedings on a writ of 
Quo Warranto, 15 Edward I. (1287). They had very considerable 
property in Temple Guiting, from which the place partly took its 
name. Upon the suppression of their order these lands, as also many 
others, were granted to the Knights Hospitallers, and finally at the 
general dissolution to the dean and chapter of Oxford. At the period 
when Ralph made his grant to the order, the Templars had their chief 
seat in London, as it is supposed in the Old Temple, near the present 
Southampton Buildings.f Ralph also built a Benedictine Priory to 
the honour of St. Mary and St John Baptist at Alcester.J 

Beside owning lands and other property, we find the Knights 
Templars frequently associated with the possession or making of mills — 
fulling-mills. Thus in this county, the earliest mention of them is of 
two which the Templars made, before 1175, at Barton, in Temple 
Guiting, one of which was rented for 325^. and the other for 12^,, very 
high rents, as Fosbroke says, for those times. The use of these mills 

* Dugdale's ** Monasticon ; " Rudder's "Gloucestershire." 

t For further particulars, with interesting woodcuts^ see Lacroix* ** Military and Religious Life." 
X Tanner's "Notitia Monastica;" Dugdale's "Monasticon," vol. i., p. 470; Dugdale's "Warwick- 
shire," p. 574. The foundation charter is preserved in the Bodleian Library. 


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was to save the expense of fulling by the foot, and to perform those 
operations, which are effected by the teazel, as appears by the following 
passage from an old poem of two centuries later : The Visions of Piers 
Plowman : — 

** Cloth that commeth from the weving is not comely to wear, 
Till it be fulled under fote, or in fulling stocks, 
Washen well with water, and with tasels cratched, 
Touked and teynted, and under taylours hande." * 

John de Hastings covenanted with the Abbey of Winchcombe not to 
change a grist-mill into a fulling-mill ; and in a lease granted by the 
same Abbey in 1309, the lessee agrees, at the expiration of his twelve 
years, to leave the premises cum alveo et fornace,\ Of the antiquity of 
mills who can say ? or when weaving was first introduced ? Job 
compares life to the weaver's shuttle ; so its antiquity must at least be 
contemporary with the time of Moses. In our own country the art was 
known to the Britons, but the Normans introduced vast improvements 
in the manufacture of cloth, and it is probable that we owe our fulling- 
mills to them. 

Associated with this period is leprosy ! that dreadful disease brought 
from the East by the Crusaders, and which, by the call that it made 
upon charity, helped to develop the institution of hospitals) particularly 
of the order of St Lazarus. Henry H. founded many lazarettos in 
England ; and the Hospitallers (afterwards known as the Knights of 
St. John), who commenced by tending the lepers, soon extended their 
help to all varieties of sickness and misery. 

We find there was a leper's house attached to the Abbey of Winch- 
combe, at Charlton Abbots) according to the custom of having 
one provided in or near towns of any size or pretension.} In those 
times, fish was much more an article of food than it is now, especially 
with the poorer classes, for fish was plentiful, and they could often have 

* Fosbroke's " History of Gloucestershire," vol. i., p. 36. 

f Fosbroke. 

t This at Charlton Abbots is in the Winchcombe Cartulary attributed to Kenulfs wholesome provision 
and provident deliberation, but it must have been in later years that, as already mentioned, it was appro- 
priated to any monk who suffered from leprosy, and it was ordered that he should be removed and live at 
Charlton till his death. 

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it for the catching. Salmon was considered particularly conducive to 
the spread of leprosy, and the abundance of Severn salmon was deemed 
so pernicious, that in later days it was part of the indentures of a 
Gloucestershire apprentice that he was only to eat salmon three times a 
week ! On fast days, fish of all sorts supplied the tables of the 
monastery, and that of Winchcombe did not lack, thanks to the well- 
stocked stews and fish-ponds which then existed in the immediate 
vicinity of the monastery, and in the Almsbury fields. The monks 
fared sumptuously every day, but, unlike the rich man in the parable, 
they gave to the poor, and liberally distributed of their abundance. 
Then, as now, fashion led the day, and when we read how the monks 
of St. Swithin at Winchester threw themselves prostrate at the feet of 
the king, and with many tears complained to him that the bishop of 
their diocese had withdrawn from them three of their usual number of 
dishes, ten only rem,aining, we may suppose that in this respect Winch- 
combe was not far behind her wealthier sister, but also maintained her 
proper number of dishes. Of wines they had great abundance, 
including claret and mulberry, mead, ale, and other strong liquors ; to 
which must have been added in Winchcombe the wines mentioned by 
the Chroniclers, made from the apple and the pear. '* The best wine," 
says Holinshed, " was called Theologicum, because it was had from the 
cleargie and religious men, unto whose houses manie of the laitie would 
often send for bottels filled with the same, being sure that they would 
neither drinke nor be served of the worst, or such as was anie waies 
mingled or brued by the vintner: naie, the merchant would have 
thought that his soule would have gone straightwaie to the divell, if he 
should have served them with other than the best." 

During this reign Winchcombe seems to have been exempt from 
further war and rapine. Allusion is made to " a fire in which the town 
was burned in the time of Henry II.,"* but no particulars are recorded. 
At or before this period there was a Castle in Cole Street, on the south 
side of the Church of St Peter; there was also a tenement in Mill 
Lane called the Ivy Castle. f In this reign, a great change was made in 

Winchcombe Cartulary, p. 19. t Ibid, p. 374. 

M 2 

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the payment of our farm rents, which up to this time had been paid in 
food and certain things necessary for human life, which rent was called 
a Feorm (to feed), and though henceforth rents were paid in money 
instead of victuals, the old names of farm and farmer were retained.* 

Eight years of Henry's reign were passed in the contest between 
Church and State — in a struggle for supremacy between the king and 
the arrogant Thomas Becket On one occasion, when Becket had 
issued letters of excommunication against the Archbishop of York 
and the Bishops of London and Salisbury, they complained to the 
king, saying, " There is a man who sets England on fire, marching with 
troops of horse and armed foot, prowling round the fortresses, and 
trying to get himself received within them." '*How!" exclaimed 
the king, *'a fellow that hath eaten my bread — a beggar that first 
came to my court ,»on a lame horse, dares insult his king and the royal 
family, and tread upon the whole kingdom, and not one of the cowards 
I nourish at my table, not one will deliver me from this turbulent 
priest ! " Such suggestive words fell not unheeded on the ears of 
four of his knights, who henceforth resolved to take vengeance on 
the proud and insufferable prelate. One of these was no other than 
the Lord of Sudeley s brother, William de Tracy, who with his com- 
.panions entered the Cathedral at Canterbury with armed men while 
Becket was at vespers. Not even with death before him would 
the haughty prelate yield to their demand to absolve the bishops, 
whose offence had been to take part in the young Henry s coronation 
in lieu of himself, who was under the king s displeasure ! Be^^et not 
only gave a decided refusal, but added insulting language, on which the 
knights finished their work, and the tragedy ended by de Tracy placing 
his foot upon the dead prelate's neck, exclaimfng " Thus perishes a 
traitor ! " Becket's biographers, says Rudder, pretend that all those 
persons concerned in his death died miserably in three or four years 
afterwards, as it should seem by some particular interposition of Provi- 
dence in his behalf. Florence of Worcester says that the murderers 
retired to the vill of Hugh de Moreville, at Knaresborough, where they 

♦ Rudder, p. 80. 

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lived alone, as no one would sit at their table ; the fragments of their 
repast were thrown to the dogs, which, having tasted, even they refused 
to devour. " See here,'' continues the Chronicler, " manifestly the just 
vengeance of God, that they who despised the anointed of the Lord 
should be even spurned by dogs ! " OtheV historians say, the murderers, 
finding themselves shunned by persons of all classes and conditions, 
spent their last days in penitence at Jerusalem, and when they died 
this inscription was written upon their tomb : " Here lie the wretches 
who murdered St Thomas of Canterbury." 

Little or no credit, however, is to be given to monkish writers in 
matters that affect the reputation of their favourite saints and the 
champions of papal authority. The matter is not free from doubt, but 
the most probable account seems to be that given by Dean Stanley, 
which is, that they suffered no other penalty than^ excommunication. 
Tracy, he thinks, attempted a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, but the 
stories told of his surviving the murder for more than fifty years, and 
serving against the Welsh in 1222, have arisen from his being con- 
founded with a son or grandson.* A Devonshire tradition represents 
Tracy as finding refuge in a cavern near Ilfracombe, where he was 
fed by his daughter, and a fourteenth-century tomb in the adjoining 
church of Morthoe is gravely stated by Camden to be his, although the 
figure is in priestly vestments and holding a chalice ; it is really that 
of a William de Tracy, who founded the church in 1322.! Another 
tradition, received in Somersetshire, is, that a tomb at Kewstoke, near 
Weston-super-Mare, is his, and to this belief we incline. 

Fosbroke, among his Gloucestershire proverbs, quotes : "TheTracies 
have always the wind in their faces," which he thinks was probably 
taken from Sir William Tracy's intended pilgrimages to Jerusalem for 
penance, which were ever crossed with adverse winds. This may also 
receive another interpretation, viz., that ridding the realm of so turbu- 
lent a prelate was not so heinous a crime for that period, and Heaven 
sent winds to prevent the unnecessary pilgrimage and penance I 

Thomas Becket was canonized soon, after his death by Pope 

• Historical Memorials of Canterbury," p. 93. t Murray's •* Handbook for Devon." 

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Alexander III., who had so strenuously taken his part in his contests 
with the king. 

Henry, formerly Prior of Gloucester, was Abbot of Winchcombe at 
this time,* and through his instrumentality we may presume that the 

Seal of William de TRACv.t 

Pope issued a bull confirming to the House all the churches, towns, 
and rents belonging to it. This interesting document was rescued 
from Richard Kyderminster s work :J: before its destruction by fire* By 
it the Monastery was taken under the protection of St. Peter, with all 
its belongings, including the Church of St. Kenelm, with the Chapel of 
St. Peter. A list of the possessions given by King Kenulf to the 
Monastery was preserved at the same time, a translation of which will 
be found in Atkyns' "Gloucestershire." 

The same bull also confirmed to the Convent the ** power to receive 
any laymen who were flying from the world to conversion, and when 
once their profession was made they could not leave the Monastery 
without the Abbot's sanction, and power they had in the time of general 

* AnnaL Wigorn., in Angl. Sacr., torn, i., p. 477. 

t This seal is appended lo a confirmation of William de Tracy to the Abbot and Convent of Gloucester, 
of lands which had been given them by his brother Ralph de Sudeley.— Lysons' ** Antiquities," p. 8. 
X See pp. 138, 145. 

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excommunication to celebrate divine service, but without ringing of 
bells, with closed doors, and in a low voice." The Roman Pontiff had 
in fact supreme power over all monasteries, and to the more important 
ones, as St Albans, Christ Church and St Augustine's and Winch- 
combe, he granted such special privileges that their abbots could set at 
defiance any orders or restrictions from bishop or archbishop. 

Ralph, Lord of Sudeley, died in 1192, and was succeeded in his 
possessions by Otuer, his eldest son. Emma, his widow, was buried 
in Winchcombe Abbey, and on the day of her sepulture, her son 
Otuer *' quit-claimed for himself and heirs the surplice, botes, and one 
corrody of a monk,*' for the sustenance of a monk whom they received 
that day, and which was to be for the good of the soul of his mother 
Emma, and for the good of the souls of his ancestors and heirs. In 
the British Museum there is preserved a deed* of his relating to land 
at Blakepit, from which we here engrave his seal 

Seal op Otuer de Sudeley. 

We find in the fourth year of the reign of Richard I. (1193), Otuer 
paid for his relief twenty marks ; and upon levying the scutage for the 

♦ Sloane Charter, XXXIII. 3. 

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kings redemption in 1195, sixty shillings; but dying without issue, 
Ralph, his brother, became his heir, and in 11 98 gave 300 marks to 
the king for livery of his lands. In this sum sixty marks were 
included which had been imposed upon his brother Otuer as a fine 
for the defect of a soldier, whom he ought to have maintained in 

The reign of Richard was almost entirely absorbed by his personal 
adventures and wars waged against the infidels. The fire of his zeal 
spread through the length and breadth of the land ; and when Richard 
met Philip, the king of France, on the plains of Vezelay, on the outset 
of their expedition to the Holy* Places, they mustered no less than 
100,000 men. In that noble army was Ralph of Sudeley.' The follow- 
ing poem is founded on the tradition of the family, that he perished by 
the hand of one of the emissaries of the Old Man of the Mountain 
after his return from the Crusade.* 



It was good Ralph de Sudeley come 

Back from the Paynim wars. 
And he bore the title to his fame 

Scored in a hundred scars. 

The child of Baron de Botelour 

Was sweet-faced Alianore ; 
And though the knight loved fighting much. 

He loved the lady more. 

She too had favourite horse to pat, 

And favourite bird to feed, 
But one short hour with Ralph surpassed 

'WTiole days of hawk and steed 

From this beginning, made by lave, 

But one result could spring. 
And 'mid their nuptial guests they look'd 

For England's Lion-King. 

• A story from Sir Bernard Burke's " Anecdotes of the Aristocracy,** versified by Patrick Scott 

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And wishes for that time to be 

Were felt by neighbours near ; 
Felt partly for the happy pair, 

And partly for the cheer. 

De Sudeley, when in foreign lands, 

Had often heard recount 
What deeds of ill the Assassins did-^ 

Those murderers of the Mount. 

And long his soul had treasured wrath 

Against the sect which slew 
Conrad of Montferrat, and men 

As good as he and true. 

And ever and anon he raised 

His voice in bitter mirth, 
And swore he'd count it Christian sport 

To hunt them from the earth. 

But he has gone from the Baron's hall, 

Forth on his way to ride ; 
The Baron grasp'd his hand and smiled, 

But Alianora sighed. 

" Come back, come back ; when thou art gone 

The day is dark to me." 
** The day will not more surely dawn. 

Than I come back to thee I " 


The chaplain sat with the Baron bold, 

Drinking the Rhenish wine ; 
And he deem'd of the gifts of God to man 

The grape was most divine. 

Drinking the Rhenish wine they sat 

In the torch-lit Castle hall, 
And they drank brave Ralph de Sudele/s health. 

And a merry time to all. 

What thing is that at the Castle gate . 

Howls 'mid the stillness round ? 
" Good angels guard us from all ill — 

'Tis Ralph de Sudeley's hound 1 " 

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The chaplain and the Baron both 

Have started to their legs, 
And left a pint of wine undrunk — 

Good wine above the dregs. 

" Warder ! unbar the gate ! " — ^'tis done;- 

And in the brave dog springs, 
And runs to Alianora's feet, 

And howls till the chamber rings. 

Women and men they have all rush'd forth. 

And searched both vale and hill ; 
Men and women, and old and young. 

And the stag-hound howling still. 

But they who kept their wit most clear 

Upon that troublous night 
Follow'd where Leo led the way, 

As quickly as they might 

Now shut thine eyes — 'tis not a scene 

For thee, young Alianore j — 
They have forced her off, that she might not see 

The burden which they bore. 

Twas a human form — and the chaplain pray'd 

That the soul had gotten grace; 
And the Baron shook as the high-held totch 

Flash'd on De Sudeley's face. 

A dagger's point was in his back. 

And, graven on its blade, 
" Hoc propter verba tua " — This 

For words which thou hast said. 


There are strangers in an ancient church, 

Steep'd in a holy gloom. 
Where many a restless spirit sleeps 

Within a stone-bound tomb. 

And a lady, with a silent foot, 

Is pacing down the aisle, 
As one might pace whose lips had ceased 

For two long years to smile. 

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And close behind, as if one fate 

Their different souls had bound, 
With solemn step and hanging head 

There treads a noble hound. 

With folden hands, and turban'd brow, 

A man of swarthy face 
Is gazing at the effigies 

A warrior's tomb do grace. * 

And if you ask what honour'd name 

The marble record bore. 
It was the name of him who died, 

So dear to Alianore. 

Why lifts that aged hound his head ? 

Why doth his eye glare so ? 
Why springs he forth with one sharp growl. 

As singling out a foe ? 

That turban'd head is in the dust— - 

The brave dog knows it yet — 
And deeply in the Pagan's throat 

His deadly teeth are set. 

And dragging him with wondrous force, 

Where Alianora stood, 
The growl that rattled in his jaws 

Was drown'd half-way by blood. 

Nor could they loose his hold imtil 

The stranger's life had pdid 
Just penance for the secret hate 

That urged the murderous blade; 

Now kind Heaven grant to all of us 

A life with quiet blest, 
And shield from foul assassin's knife 

The warrior's gallant breast. 

N 2 

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•* Old Nick went out upon a prowl, 
And came to Winchcombe, that dark hole, 
But got fast stuck in Sudeley lane, 
So swore he'd never go there again." 

FROM Ralph, in the chivalrous times of Richard, we turn to 
Winchcombe in the turbulent reign of John, and glean from 
ancient records* the few following facts: That there was a 
Castle, as before named, standing in Cole Street, and which then 
formed a private estate. An old Castle on the south side of the 
Church of St Peter.f There were lands of Gamier under the old 
Castle. The Abbey, in the third year of this reign (1201), bought 
lands of Baldwyn de Stan way for ten marks which he had purchased of 
Richard of the Castle, son of William, held of the fee of William de 
Saveeli by i6d, rent lying between the fee of the king and Thomas de 
Sl Wallery ; which estate the Abbey aliened to Walter de Trive for 
5^. rent and exoneration from the i6d. rent. There was also a tene- 
ment, as before stated, in M*ill Lane called the Ivy Castle. In this 
reign Ralph de Sudeley granted the monks leave to make a ditch, which 
brought the water to their mill in a straight course, and John Blundell 
had 2>d. given him for damage to his fulling-mill thereby sustained. 
The Abbey was supplied with water by charter from Postlip and 
Sudeley. These facts show that even in those early times it was 
necessary to protect the rights of water, and that damage done by 
diverting the course of a stream demanded compensation. J 

• Mainly the Winchcombe Cartulary. 
+ MS. Parsons, p. 283. 

t Mention is made of an earlier date, when Robert the Abbot ** procured an aqueduct whereby excellent 
spring water did continually run under the earth in leaden pipes from Han well to our Monastery." 

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In the reign of John, our thoughts naturally turn to the Barons and 
their wars with the King. As the Lord of Sudeley was one of them, 
we will bring him before the reader, and after the lapse of 600 years, 
in an age of improved laws and impartial justice, we will contemplate 
him as a great Baron of the period, through the graphic description 
given by Hume. 

" The great baron was one who considered himself as a kind of sove- 
reign within his territory ; and was attended by courtiers and depen- 
dants more zealously attached to him than the ministers of state and 
the great officers were commonly to their sovereign. He often 
maintained in his court the parade of royalty, by establishing a 
justiciary, constable, mareschal, chamberlain, seneschal, and chancellor, 
and assigning to each of these officers a separate province and com- 
mand. He was usually very assiduous in exercising his jurisdiction ; 
and took such delight in that image of sovereignty, that it was found 
necessary to restrain his activity, and prohibit him by law from holding 
courts too frequently. It is not to be doubted but the example set 
him by the prince, of a mercenary and sordid extortion, would be 
faithfully copied ; and that all his good and bad offices, his justice and 
injustice, were equally put to sale. He had the power, with the king's 
consent, to exact talliages even from the free citizens who lived within 
his barony ; and as his necessities made him rapacious, his authority 
was usually found to be more oppressive and tyrannical than that of 
the sovereign. He was ever engaged in hereditary or personal animo- 
-sities or confederacies with his neighbours, and often gave protection 
to all desperate adventurers and criminals who could be useful in 
serving his violent purposes. He was able alone, in times of tranquil- 
lity, to obstruct the execution of justice within his territories ; and by 
combining with a few malcontent barons of high rank and power, he 
could throw the state into convulsions. On the whole, though the 
royal authority was confined within bounds, and often within very 
narrow ones, yet the check was irregular, and frequently the source of 
great disorders ; nor was it derived from the liberty of the people, but 
from the military power of many petty tyrants, who were equally 
dangerous to the prince and oppressive to the subject" 

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In the meantime, the vices of the king» his licentiousness, ingratitude, 
and cruelty, were gradually bringing upon the" whole Church, including, 
therefore, Winchcombe Abbey, the country and society at large, that 
most formidable weapon of those times, the Pope's interdict When 
the cruel mandate was sent forth by Innocent III., the Abbey was 
closed, the bells were mute, and laid on the floor as dead, the relics of 
saints and everything which the Church ordered to be venerated, 
crosses, images, and such-like, were all laid witli their faces to tlie 
ground. Mass was said with closed doors for the priests only; the 
dead were deprived of Christian burial ; marriages were solemnized in 
churchyards, and mourning and woe hung like a shadow over all. The 
unhumbled John met this by confiscating the lands , belonging to those 
of the clergy who conformed to the papal orders, and to expose them 
to the severest ridicule, ordered all their concubines to be thrown into 
prison ! * His conduct to the barons is too well known to need to be 
repeated, save to make us comprehend how and why we find Sir 
William Tracy and, without doubt, his elder brother of Sudeley, joining 
in the wars of the barons against the king. Although, owing to the. 
unfortunate destruction of Winchcombe annals by: fire, there is ho 
record existing, there can be little doubt that the town, castle, and these 
brothers must have been among the sufferers when the king marched 
from Dover to Berwick carrying devastation, fire, and misery every- 
where, laying the country desolate on every side, and treating as hostile 
all that did not actually come under the name of his own property. 
No wonder that his people could only account for such mad conduct 
by his being under the power of some enchantment or witchery ! 

The same pope. Innocent III., who placed our Church and country 
under his ban, introduced a new system in the payment of tithes. 
Hitherto, they had been paid by the laity according to their /espective 
wishes, to religious houses, poor, or to other purposes; henceforth, 
they were to be paid to the parish priest, and though this country was 
not bound by his decree, yet as it was judged reasonable, it became 
customary here, and the custom in time grew into a law.f 

• Matthew Paris. t Rudder, p. 12. 

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. There is an interesting story in the " Evesham Chronicle/' a.d. 12 13;* 
of an abbot of Evesham, who in the presence of the Lord Legate, 
the Abbots of York, Selby, St Martiro of Tuscany, Gloucester, and 
Winchcombe, was deprived of his Abbey, possessions, and authority. 
The trial over, it fell to the office of Robert, the Abbot of Winch- 
combe (who always had befriended him), by order of the Lord Legate, 
to lead out the unfortunate ex-abbot on his return from the chapter- 

The next owner of Sudeley we find was Ralph, who succeeded his 
father Ralph, ^nd who "in the sixth year of Henry IH. (1222), 
paying an hundred pounds for his relief, had livery of his lands." In 
the British Museum is preserved a charter of this Ralph granted to 
Gilbert de Ruainges,+ with his seal appended. He married Ismenia» 

Seal of Ralph de Sudeley. 

the daughter of Roger Corbet, by whom he had issue Bartholomew, his 
son and heir. Of this Ralph we find little recorded. He seems not 
to have taken any part in the wars, but to have remained at home 
vexing the good Abbot of Winchcombe ; for a writ of the king's was 

* Record Series, No.. 29, p. 248. 

t Additional Charters, 20,395. 

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directed against him, commanding him to do justly to the Monastery, 
especially referring to the land of Cotes, and he was not to vex the 
Monastery unjustly in regard to ways and paths through the wood. 
Indeed it looks as if our Lord of Sudeley was drawing back land and 
privileges granted by his ancestors, and encroaching on their rights ; 
and very hot must have been the struggle on both sides, for the king 
thus to issue his writ ; and he further adds that if Ralph did not attend 
to these orders, the sheriff of Gloucester, or the justices of these parts 
would.* Sir Bartholomew de Sudeley succeeded his father, and had 
livery of the estates granted to him in 51 Henry III. (1267). This, 
like the preceding reign, was fraught with disturbances for Church and 
country. The barons, having learnt their own power and importance 
by the concessions extorted from John in Magna Charta, strenuously 
resisted all encroachments on their rights. The power they assumed 
at one time, threatened almost the crown itself. Guided by Simon de 
Montfort, they forced the weak King Henry to accept the Provisions of 
Oxford, which, among other things, enacted that a new sheriff should 
be annually elected by the votes of the freeholders in each county,f and 
that the sheriff should no longer have the power to let his county out 
to farm, which had led to intolerable extortion by bailiffs and other 
inferior officers. 

Sir Bartholomew de Sudeley was constituted sheriff of Hereford- 
shire, and governor of Hereford Castle in the latter part of Henry's 
reign, and again sheriff two years later. 

Sudeley had a manor at this time, in common with other Castles, and 
a market or fair was held here, in the Forbury, which is the name. of 
the land lying between the Castle and the Tithe-barn. Twenty-four 
market towns are named, in Atkyns' History as belonging to this 
county, Winchcombe being one of them, and Saturday as market day. 
In places that had not attained the dignity of boroughs, markets were 
frequently granted to lords of manors ; in early times they were held 
chiefly on Sundays and Church festivals, for the convenience of the 

. * Winchcombe Cartulary. 
+ Up to this time they had been appointed by the king, commonly held their counties for many years in 
succession, and are very generally accused of practising great oppression. 

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many assembled for divine service. -This was soon turned into an 
abuse, so much so, that only a few years later it was forbidden to hold 
fairs in churchyards. 

We said Bartholomew was constituted governor of Hereford Castle, 
and we will hope that he was not guilty of the cruelty and oppression 
in which that class of officials too often indulged, as we see from the 
Public Records of the time. The Plea Rolls of Henry HI. and the 
Hundred Rolls of Edward I. abound in complaints of men arbitrarily 
fined or imprisoned by the castellans or the lords of manors (all of 
whom had a gaol on their lands) ; and to check this, the Parliament 
provided that no great man should be a justice of the peace in the 
count}' where his own castles stood. Even as late as the time of 
Henry IV., a statute, was passed, forbidding imprisonment in any other 
than the common gaol, showing that they were in the habit of tyran- 
nising over those against whom they had a grudge, and of seizing 
and imprisoning them unlawfully. Further to curb the power of 
the castellans, it was ordained that neither they nor their bailiffs 
should take com or aught else from the people, but that, on the 
contrary, the people should be as much as possible protected from their 
rapacity; and indeed they needed the strong arm of the law, when 
barons were so tyrannical as even to shelter bands of robbers to ravage 
the property of their enemies. 

Winchcombe at this time was so extensive as to possess eleven 
streets, with a Booth-hall and Guild-hall, and enjoyed considerable 
trade, with an extensive manufacture of cloth. It was also walled 
round, as Leland, who saw the remains of the walls, tells us, adding : 
** Of old time, it was a mighty large towne." " The inhabitants, by the- 
advice of Richard de Brueria, bailiff of the Hundred, released to the 
Almonry, the Bohalle under the Gildhalle, in North Street, in exchange 
for a place near the Almonry, to build an aisle and altar in honour of 
Sl Nicholas on the north side of St Peter's Church."* This was 
perhaps at the time when the church was rebuilt, it having been burnt 
in the reign of Stephen. It is recorded in the Annals of Tewkesbury, 

Winchcombe Cartulary. 

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1239, (the year when Tewkesbury was dedicated): " Dedicatse sunt 
ecclesiae Sancti Petri Gloucestriae, de Winchelcumbae, de Persora, Ma- 
joris Malvernise a domino Waltero de Cantilupo episcopo Wigomiae/' 
This date is confirmed by the Annals of Worcester.* Winchcombe 
was a mitred Abbey, and the first summons of the Abbot is recorded 
in this reign, a.d. 1265, The mitred abbots were called to Parlia- 
ment, and sat and voted in the House of Lords, had episcopal power 
within the limits of their houses, gave solemn benediction, confirmed 
the lesser orders, wore mitres, sandals, &c., and carried crosses or 
pastorals in their hands, and some of their houses were exempted 
from the jurisdiction even of the archbishop, and subject to the 
Pope alone, t 

Unlike most other great Abbeys, Winchcombe, does not appear to 
have been often visited by royalty. One such visit, however, occurred 
in the year 1251 (not mentioned by the Chroniclers), whilst Abbot John 
Yanworth held the rule, a curious record of which remains among 
the documents belonging to the Dean and Chapter of Wells. J On 
the 5th of November, 1251, King Henry and his queen were present 
at the dedication of the Monastery of Hailes, just founded by Richard, 
earl of Cornwall, at which no less than twelve bishops assisted, and so 
many great men were there, that Matthew Paris says he fears to 
describe in full the grandeur of the festival, lest he should be 
accused of going beyond the bounds of truth. We can but wish 
that he had not entertained this scruple, and then we might have seen 
whether it really exceeded the grand doings of King Kenulf and his 
prelates and magnates at our own Winchcombe five centuries before. 
Matthew also omits to mention, that on the following day, which was 
the Feast of St. Leonard the Abbot, the whole of the bishops repaired 
to Winchcombe, and in the presence of the king, came to an agreement 
to send a messenger to the Holy See to ask for protection against the 
visitatorial power claimed by Boniface of Savoy, then Archbishop of 
Canterbury. The envoy that they chose was "the prudent and 

* Mr. Brock's paper on ** Winchcombe," August, 1875. 

+ Grose's "Antiquities.'* 

X Historical Manuscripts Commission : Third Report, Appendix, p. 358. 

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discreet man, Master John de Cheba," * and the bishops jointly gave 
him ICX5 marks {£66 13^. 4^.) for his expenses, and promised him 
200 marks more (;^i33 6^. 8^.) as salary, if he succeeded in. his 
business, and also obtained letters enforcing a subsidy from the clergy, 
which would seem to have fallen into arrear ; but if he did not get the 
letters, his salary was to be only ;^ioo. " Faithfully ta observe all 
these things, all and singular the bishops [present], for themselves and 
their successors, in the word of truth, touching their breasts, bound 
themselves." As a further security they subjected themselves and 
their property to the jurisdiction of Walter de Suffield, bishop of 
Norwich, and William de Buttone, bishop of Bath and Wells, who 
thereupon took the responsibility of payment to the said John, within 
six months after his return to England, on the completion of the 

Shortly after this time we meet with a notice of the fairs of Winch- 
combe on the Public Records. It is as follows : — 

"Concerning Purchases made in the Fairs of Wynchecumbe. 

" It was ordered to the Bailiffs of the coming fairs of W3mchecumbe that they should 
be assisting and consulting with those who shall come up to Wynchecumbe on behalf of 
the freemen of the King staying at Windsor, to make purchases for the use of the same 
freemen in the same fairs, when they shall be required by them. 

"Witness, Richard Earl of Cornwall, at Northampton, 12th July [1254]." 

Close Roll, 38 Henry III., Mem. 5. 

Probably to secure the good will of the Pope, immense favour at 
this time was shown by King Henry to the Italian clergy — all the 
chief benefices were conferred upon them, thereby giving, as may 
readily be supposed, dire offence to the celebrated Bishop Grosteste, 
and other patriotic Englishmen. From this, however, Winchcombe 
seems to have been free, as may be seen from the catalogue of Abbots, f 
On one occasion the bishop of the diocese spoke out bravely, when it 
was announced that it was the Pope's and Kings pleasure for the 

* Probably the same as John de Cheyham, Archdeacon of Bath, who was postulated to the see of 
Glasgow by Pope Alexander III., in 1259. Le Neve's "Fasti," by Hardy, vol. i», p. 165. 
+ See p. 35. 

o 2 

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abbeys and bishops to meet some extravagant demand, and exclaimed 
he would rather lose his life than comply. 

In this reign "The town of Winchcombe, with the hundreds of 
Kiftsgate, Holford, and Gretesden, were let to farm to the Abbot of 
Winchcombe.'' * The inheritance of Winchcombe town and Kiftsgate 
hundred were granted to the Abbey the same yean The Abbey of 
Winchcombe purchased a charter of free warren in Winchcombe, and 
that grant was allowed in a writ of Quo Warranto, in Edward III.'s 
reign. "f Honourable mention is made of one of the abbots, John de 
Yanworth, who obtained many valuable additions to the possessions 
of the Monastery. About this time the manor of Hawling J was given 
to the Abbey of Winchcombe by one Robert Gyves, and so it con- 
tinued till the dissolutioa Rowel also, which had belonged to the 
church of St Ebrulf, in Normandy, came into the possession of 
Winchcombe on the suppression of alien monasteries in the reign of 
Henry V.§ 

Little occurs relating to the Abbey of Winchcombe in the Public 
Records. But we find among the Royal Letters one (596) of the time 
of Henry IIL, in which J., the Prior, and Convent, present to the king 
H., their sacristan, whom they had chosen as abbot ;[[ and another 
(1926) of the date of October 8, 1282, in which the Prior and Convent 
of St. Mary and St Kenelm at Winchcombe inform the king that their 
Abbot, John de Yanworth, has resigned, and they request license to 
elect a successor. 

We learn from the Winchcombe Cartulary that among the various 
officers appointed to the Monastery there were four principal ones, 
called the ObedientiariL These were (i), the Sacrist, whose duty 
it was to look after the buildings and utensils of the church and 
house, and to supply everything necessary except straw, rushes. 

♦ Atkyns. t Dugdale's " Monasticon." 

X The Countess Goda had given Hawling to the Ahnonry of Winchcombe. 

§ These alien cells, mostly founded soon after the conquest, were usually taken into the king's hands on 
the occasion of a war with France, and their inmates, if on or near the coast, removed to some great abbey 
inland. On the conclusion of peace things reverted to their former state, but Henry V. suppressed them, 
and gave their possessions to English houses. 

II Presumably Henry de Tudinton, who was Abbot, 1232-1247. 

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and hay, which were to be provided by the cellarer on the vigils 
of certain saints' days, with the addition of ivy at Easter. ^•To 
every hungry man asking " it was for the sacrist to give oblatas, or 
sweet cakes, and wine, (2) The Treasurer, who was responsible for 
the expenses. (3) The Steward, for provisions. (4) The Chamberlain, 
for clothes and vestments. There is a long list of the servants of the 
Monastery and their wages, numbering twenty -eight, exclusive of wood 
carriers and carters. Among them were porters, Serjeants of the 
church sacristry, infirmary, guests' hall, refectory, tannery and locutory, 
cook, buyer for the kitchen, platterer, stabler, brewer, baker, winnower, 
swineherd, and carpenter who finds wedges and tubs. A list also of 
the servants of the Lord Abbot, including butler, sumturer, esquire or 
equerry, messenger, padgroom, chaplain's lacquey, cook, cellarers' ser- 
vants, marshal, the abbey smith, smith's boy, miller, carpenter, servitors 
who keep manors, chamberlains and chamberlains' servants. There was 
also an Almoner to distribute the alms of the Monastery, the Infirmarer 
to take care of the sick, beside many other officers of inferior rank. 

Much is said, in the same Register, of grants made for the providing 
of wax-tapers, sometimes twelve pounds in weight, and for lamps to be 
ever burning before the high altars, and money found for making " a 
grange towards the Castle-brook." And there was one named Henry, 
son of Baldwin Baker, who made a grant for the finding of a light on 
the morrow of St Kenelm's, and on the day in which he took his 
journey of peregrination, he sware before many and made the sign of 
a cross in confirmation of the same. 

In the midst of so much piety, lighting of wax-tapers and lamps, it is 
sad to see how nearly every page of the same record is marked by 
accounts of disputations over these things. Thus, to give one example 
among many, Bartholomew, Lord of Sudeley, had a dispute with the 
Abbot of Hailes concerning common pasturage ; the story is a very 
long one, but the end of it was, that they got together twenty-four good 
men and swore to ratify what they said And when it was settled, the 
common was pronounced common to the men of Hailes, Piseley, 
Sudeley, and Greet This was sealed by all the parties, and each 
party had a copy of the writing. 

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Bartholomew's name appears in connection with the celebrated 
Robert de Ferrars, earl of Derby, a turbulent character of the reign of 
Henry III., who more than once rebelled, and was severely amerced by 
the king. On one of these occasions Robert had been taken, and 
remained a prisoner for three years, and on his release, the king took 
certain sureties for his future conduct — that he was to resign all interest 
in the castles and lands hitherto granted to him, and pay ;^50,ooo 
to the king all upon one day ; for the payment of which the earl pro- 
cured eleven great barons to be bound, among whom was Sir Bartholo- 
mew de Sudeley, unto whom he passed, by way of counter security, all 
his castles and lands.* This lord had also the custody of the estates of 
Richard de Arden granted to him by Edward I., the said Richard 
being an idiot and a minor. Bartholomew died in 1274. By his wife 
Joan, the daughter of William Beauchamp, of Elmley, and sister of 
the Earl of Warwick, he left issue : — John his heir, Joan, Ismenia, 
and Mabel, which last was seized of one fourth part of the manor of 
Campden in 15 Edward I. (1287). The widow of Bartholomew sur- 
vived her husband twelve years, and was buried in the conventual 
church at Erdbury with great pomp. The bishop of Coventry and 
Lichfield granted a special indulgence remitting forty days enjoined 
penance to all such as, with a devout mind, should say a Pater Noster 
and an Ave for the health of her soul and the souls of all the faithful 

Walter de Wickwar, the Abbot of Winchcombe, took a part, along 
with the Bishops of Durham, Chester, Hereford, Worcester, and Exeter, 
and at least a dozen abbots, in the pompous interment of Edmund, earl of 
Cornwall, in the abbey of Hailes, which his father Richard, king of the 
Romans, had founded. The earl died on the ist of October, 1300, but 
was not interred until the Thursday before Palm Sunday (March 23), 
1 30 1, when King Edward himself was present 

John, the son of Bartholomew, was about twenty-two years of age 
at the time of his father's death. He obtained King Edward's special 
license to travel beyond sea ; he attended the king into Gascony ; and 

Dugdale's "Warwickshire," p. 787. 

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in the twenty-sixth year of his reign (1298), he was summoned, with 
other great men of England, to be at Carlisle on Whitsun Eve, well 
fitted with horse and arms to march into Scotland against the Scots. 
For these services John de Sudeley received certain grants from the 
king in a.d. 1300, and 1305 ; and he obtained the king's writ for levying 
an aid for making his first begotten son a knight* This first begotten 
was Bartholomew de Sudeley, by the daughter of Lord Say, and we 
find that he and William de Tracy are recorded among the knights of 
the county of Gloucester who served under Edward in that victorious 
expedition of 1298. This Bartholomew died before his father, leaving 
a son, John, who was never summoned to Parliament, t 

In 1299 John de Sudeley was summoned to Parliament, and he 
retained his seat there till the thirteenth year of the following reign 
(1321), The customs concerning the barons attending Parliament 
were originally in this wise : as they were immediate vassals of the 
crown by military tenure, all, both great and small barons, were 
entitled to a seat in the national council ; but, as the poorer barons 
might find that a burden, it was provided, according to Magna Charta, 
that their attendance should only be required on important occasions, 
when called by a summons of the sheriff. After the battle of Evesham, 
which struck such a blow to the power of the barons, no one was 
allowed a place in Parliament unless invited by a particular summons, 
and seats were, henceforth, held by writ 

Not only did the power of the barons at this time receive a check, 
but that also of the monasteries, which were becoming too powerful for 
the crown ; and the statute of Mortmain was enacted (a.d. 1279), by 
which grants of land to them were prohibited, unless by the king's 
special license. 

In turning to the Winchcombe Cartulary we find many interesting 
facts referring to the Monastery and neighbourhood in those times, 
but only a few can be selected. Pope Boniface VIII. about this time, 
upon the supplication of the Abbot of Winchcombe, granted him 
permission to use a mitre, ring, pastoral staff, and pontifical ensign. 

Winchcombe Cartulary, pp. 3, 4. t Rudder, p. 770. 

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The Knights Templars for a moment come again before our notice, as 
*' lords of both Dowdeswells, and all their tenants there were obliged 
to appear at their view of frankpledge, at Guyting." * Then there is a 
quaint story of one John Palmer, who claimed an estate in the premises 
of the Monastery. Being " sick " he made promises of certain grants to 
the Monastery, hoping that they might propitiate heaven to favour his 
recovery — his vows were heard and he was * recovering, on which he 
retracted and withheld his gifts — *' to his damnation," says the monastic 
writer ; but all ended well, for on his relapsing, the said John Palmer 
gave to the Virgin Mary all his right to the premises. Here, then, in 
Winchcombe, in the thirteenth century, we may perhaps find the origin 
of those well-known lines : — 

** The devil was sick, the devil a saint would be. 
The devil got well, the devil a samt was he ! " 

Then there was a dispute between the Abbot of Winchcombe and 
Simon, the parson of Hailes, referring to burial fees, which was sub- 
mitted to and settled by the Pope, 

The Gloucestershire legend of Monk's Hole must have originated 
about this time. As the story goes, a monk from Winchcombe had 
occasion to visit his brethren at Hailes. The weather was wintry, and 
the snow falling fast and thick ; but drawing his dark hood closer 
over his head, he hurried on, unmindful of the storm, and muttering 
to himself many an Ave Maria. His mission ended, and having par- 
taken freely of the hospitality of the Monastery, he commenced his 
homeward journey ; but darkness overtook him ere he reached the 
summit of the hill. The snow had driven into the hollows and hidden 
all trace of a path, not very visible at any time, and the poor monk fell 
into one of the snow drifts, never to rise again. He was not missed for 
some days, and then his absence attributed to the inclemency of the 
weather and the bad state of the roads. At last he was found in one of 
the deep holes which abound in that particular part of the hill, but not 
before the snow had melted. It is curious that, though hardly a vestige 

• Page 133. 

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,r;lfe x 


Stanley Pontlarge Church, Arch and Font from interior. 

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IS left of either Monastery, the spot where the monk perished is still 
clearly marked out by tradition. That part of the hill forms the 
boundary, on the north, of the Sudeley estate : it is marked by a group 
of trees visible from many places, and the view thence is one of the 
most extensive in the neighbourhood. 

Returning to the Cartulary we find great disputes continued between 
the Abbot and the vicar of Winchcombe on the matter of tithes, which 
were finally ended (or supposed to be so) by a pastoral letter from 
Godfrey, bishop of Worcester, dated 1288, wherein he defined who 
were to receive the great and who the lesser tithes.* 

The same authority also gives us the origin of the separation of 
Stanley from Winchcombe, dating so far back as a.d. 1307. It appears 
that great disputes had arisen between the Abbot and Convent, and 
the vicar of Winchcombe and the rector of Toddington with regard to 
the payment of tithes ; so much so, that great scandals and even perils 
of lives had ensued. Whereupon for the pleasure of peace, and wholly 
to avoid those evils in times to come, the same parties (by authority of 
William, bishop of Worcester, with the consent of Master William 
Tracy, patron of the church of Toddington, &c., &c.) agree that the 
Abbot and Convent should have for their parishioners all tenants 
dwelling in the vill of Gretton who before had been in the parish of 
Toddington, taking wholly living mortuaries, tithes of hay and lambs — 
the vicar taking certain lesser tithes, and the rector of Toddington 
taking all the tithes in both Stanleys which the vicar of Winchcombe 
formerly received, &c., &c. And to this composition they all set their 
seals, including bishop and patron, and " This is said to have been 
done in Winchcombe on Midsummer Day, a.d. 1307." Stanley was 
afterwards called Stanley Pontlarch (now Pontlarge), from Robert de 
Pontlarch, who held it of the Church. 

One possession of the Abbots of Winchcombe was the church of 
Enstone, near Chipping Norton, in Oxfordshire. The church,| which 

* The Latin original is in the Registry of the Consistory Court of Worcester, MS. fol. 231, "Endow- 
ment of the Vicarage of Winchcombe." 

+ The noble church of Minster Lovell, not many miles distant, is also dedicated to the youthful King 
and Martyr. 


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is dedicated to St Kenelm, was supposed to have been built origi- 
nally about A.D. 850 ; the present edifice, though mainly Perpendicular, 
has a fine Norman doorway, and a solid stone altar at the east end of 
the south aisle ; the reredos screen, with niches for figures, is still 
tolerably perfect* A stone coffin, supposed to be that of an abbot of 
Winchcombe, is built into the wall of the aisle, which was no doubt a 
mortuary chapel. There was formerly a handsome Manor-house, 
which served as one of the country houses of the abbots, and the 
Rectory barn, mentioned by Dugdale, is still standing, bearing on the 
outer wall an almost obliterated inscription, stating that it was built in 
that year 1382, by Walter de Winfortun, the abbot of Winchcombe, 
who, as we shall afterwards see, had occasion to invoke the assistance 
of the Pope against the evil doings of " certain sons of iniquity." 
Several years before the dissolution, the abbey was obliged to part with 
Enstone to Wolsey, who bestowed it on his college at Oxford, which 
still retains it.f 

In the Domesday Book we have the following notice of the state of 
Enstone (styled, it will be seen, ** Henestan ") in the eleventh century. 

" Land of the Church of Winchcombe, — The Abbey of Winchcombe hold 24 Hides in 
the Henestan. Land to 26 Ploughs. There are in the Desmesne 3 Ploughs, and 6 
Bondmen. And 25 Villanes and 4 Freemen, with 7 Bordars have 18 Ploughs. There 
are 4 Mills of 19X. 50 Acres of Meadow. Pasture 4 Quarentens long, and 2 Quarentens 
broad. Wood i^ mile long, and 4 Quarentens broad. Of this land Urso has of the 
Abbot 2 Hides, and therein i Plough. And 3 Villanes and 2 Bordars have i Plough." 

In the ninth year of Edward II. (13 15) we find the Abbot of Winch- 
combe " Richard de Idebury, bought the fee of the manor of Rowell 
for ;^550, and purchased the farm of Cotes for ever, and the assart 
lands in Ennestan for 100 marks." J 

John de Sudeley held land in Greet and Gretton,§ in trust for William 
de Woolton. He was a liberal benefactor to the canons of Erdbury by 

* These remains are figured in Parker's ** Glossary of Architecture." 

t •* Parochial History of Enstone," by the Rev. J. Jordan, 1857. 

X Wilhs's Catalogue of the Winchcombe Abbots. 

§ A local rhyme makes uncomplimentary mention of these places, thus :- 

" Dirty Gretton and dingy Greet, 
Beggarly Winchcombe, and Sudeley sweet." 

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Greet Chapel, from a sketch by E. T. Browne, Esq., before it Was finally demolished about 1815 


Gretton Church, disused June, 1868. 

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granting to them certain lands and pasturage for cattle in Derset, 
Radway, and Chilberscore in Warwickshire. In 1304 he was in an 
expedition then made to Scotland, and in consideration for his great 
services he had pardon for all the debts he owed to the king. Having 
borrowed money from the monks of Winchcombe, which he did not 
pay, he gave security, viz., forty acres of meadow, to them, and released 
them from fealty for all their lands in Sudeley. He was Lord Cham- 
berlain to the king ; and in the eighth year of the reign of Edward H. 
(13 14), he received command to be at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, upon the 
feast-day of the Blessed Virgin, well accoutred with horse and arms to 
oppose the incursion of the Scots. He was married, as before stated, 
to the daughter of Lord Say, and beside Bartholomew who died 
before him, he had, by this marriage, Thomas and William who died 
in infancy. Bartholomew married Matilda, the daughter of John de 
Montford, which marriage brought Beldesert, Henley, and White- 
church, in Warwickshire, to the family. 

John, the son of Bartholomew, was thirty years of age at his grand- 
father s death ; and had livery granted him 10 Edward HL (1336). He 
died four years afterwards, having bequeathed the Manor of Sudeley to 
his wife Eleanor, the daughter of Robert Lord Scales, who held it till 
her death, which took place twenty-one years after the death of her 
husband. By this lady he had issue, John, twelve months old at his 
father's death, Nicholas, and Margaret, who all died without issue ; 
beside Joan, who married William Boteler, of Wem, in Shropshire, and 
Margery, who married Sir Robert Massey, knight. 

John was among the many nobles who followed Edward the Black 
Prince in the expedition to France, which ended in the memorable 
battle of Crecy. Dying while on the Prince s Spanish expedition in 
1367, and leaving behind him no male descendant, his property was 
equally divided between his two sisters, Joan and Margery ; the Manor 
of Sudeley was apportioned to Joan, and by her marriage it passed to 
the Botelers. 

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" The painful warrior, famoused for fight, 
After a thousand victories once foil'd. 
Is from the books of honour razed quite, 
And all the rest forgot for which he toird." 

Shakespeare. Sonnet. 

OF the Botelers, Dugdale, in his account of the Earl of Mellent,* 
advanced by Henry I. to the earldom of Leicester, says : **Of 
this great earl I find that he had a butler called Raph 
(Radulfus Pincerna de Legrecestria, he is written) ; who, having 
obtained lands of good value here, and in Leicestershire, by the grant 
of his said Lord, and finding this place (Oversley), so eminent for its 
situation, partly by reason of the woods and waters, but most of all in 
regard of the natural high and steep ascent of the ground so near the 
banks of Arrow, made choice thereof for his principal seat and built a 
fair castle thereon, by whose ruins the strength and compass it was of, 
may seem to have been of no mean consideration, and within less than 
a mile distant (viz. on the north side of Alcester) founded a monastery 
for Benedictine monks, whereunto, amongst other his ample conces- 
sions for its endowment, he added the chapel of this his castle. From 
this Raph is it that the Botelers of Oversley (no less than Barons) did 
deduce their descent He was in such great esteem with the canons 
of Erdburie for his munificence to them, in sundry wise, but especially 
in procuring for them some valuable appropriation in Lancashire, that, 
in consideration thereof, they did by their publick Instrument, ordain 
that two of their convent should every day celebrate divine service, in 
that monastery, for the health of his soul, appointing particular masses 

^ Warwickshire," p. 627, 

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for each day of the week, binding themselves and their successors to 
observe his anniversary after his decease, with Placebo, Dirigiy and 
mass of Requiem, and to spend vij. viii^. yearly on the day of his said 
anniversary in the convent, by way of pittance, over and above their 
usual allowance." * 

Among the numerous possessions of the new owners of Sudeley 
Castle in this and the following century, were Badminton, Bodington, 
and the manor of Cherington, Cold Aston, but this manor reverted 
to the crown, owing to James Boteler, earl of Ormond, being attainted 
in the reign of Edward IV.; also the Manor of Morcot and the Park 
and Kingsholme, Bruarne, the Barton near Gloucester, Haresford, 
&c., &c. 

If we turn to the history of Winchcombe at that period, the trade 
and dimensions of the town appear to have been considerable. There 
were, as before mentioned, a Boothall and Guildhall ; we meet 
with two drapers' shops, with a gate and small place in the great 
street, other shops, several mercers, clothiers, dyers, carpenters, black- 
smiths, &C., &c. Of streets there were the Great Street (which led 
to Hailes), North Street, Bete Street, Cole Street, Mill Street, the 
street towards the Ford, Hanly Street, Hare Street, Hordiff Street, 
Petiorius Lane (stopped by the Abbey), Pillopus Lane, Lodeford 
Street, CuUes Lane, Gangers Lane, and there was the King's Moor, 
and the King's Place, in North Street | Among the names then 
common in Winchcombe, which remain to this day, are : Smith, 
Neighbour, Schlatter, Hughes, Andrews, Jeffries, Jackson, Russell, 
Adlard, Sexty. 

We know little of the actual site of the Abbey, but w-e learn from 
the public records that Edward III., in 1373, granted permission to the 
Abbot and Convent to fortify their house, and that this was at the 
prayer of his beloved clerk. Master John Branketre, who was then 
the treasurer of York Minster, and also the royal chaplain ; he not 
improbably received a fee for thus literally acting as a friend at Court. 
As before said, the Winchcombe annals are sadly imperfect, but from 

• See Dugdale*s ** Warwickshire " for particulars regarding the different religious houses to which the 
Botelers were benefactors. + Winchcombe Cartulary, p. 7. 

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casual mention here and there in the Registers, we glean a few 
interesting particulars. 

Thus we learn that the Abbey orchard stood in or near Bete Street ; 
the almoner's garden lay opposite the water ; a street led to the monks' 
garden, which lay near Battesmore, and was to furnish the Convent with 
potherbs, leeks, chervil, and beans, for fifteen days about the feast of 
St John. The curtilage of the infirmary was in North Street, and a 
brewhouse stood in one corner of an adjoining vacancy ; two shops 
were close to it, let in fee-farm to Ralph Sweet at 3^. per ann., fairs 
excepted. Certain claimants of the Abbey received their rents at the 
Abbey gate on the morrow of St. Kenelm. King Edward III. con- 
firmed to the Abbot and monks a charter granted to them by his 
father, that they and their men might be free from toll in all places, and 
inhibited all his ministers from requiring of them toll or any custom.* 
There was a Henry le Cok de Sudeley, who made grants to John de 
Maltman of Winchcombe, and to the Abbot of Winchcombe and his 
successors. William, son of Richard de Sudeley, gave to the Abbey 
in fee 18^., or two wax candles of that value for the high altar, charged 
on his half-yard land in Sudeley next Winchcombe. 

We meet with numerous accounts of payments of fees, the purchase 
of books, making of ink, and various charities ; one Richard Russell be- 
queathed his body to the Monastery, and half a mark annually to keep 
a lamp burning before the altar of the Virgin for ever, and the sacristy 
to find the lamp. As before stated, we have, every here and there, 
mention of never-ending disputes respecting tithes and payments, even 
'* bloudy quarels,'' between the Abbey of Winchcombe and the vicar 
of the parish church, concerning their respective portions of tithes ; 
and we find that Thomas Power, the perpetual vicar of Winchcombe, 
was sued by the Abbot for not repairing the chancel or choir of the 
church there, and the chancel window, by reason of his vicarage ; 
sentence was given against him. The vicar appealed to the Pope, and 
he delegated the cause to commissioners who confirmed the sentence ; 
but the suit, which commenced in 1387, did not terminate till 1390, 

* Winchcombe First Register, p. 7. 

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when the poor vicar was fined forty-five florins of gold.* We meet 
with customs respecting sepulture in Winchcombe, and how legacies of 
dying persons were to be equally divided between the two churches- 
of Sl Kenelm and the Chapel of St. Peter. f The Abbot giving to 
William Taillard and his heirs three consecrated fine handkerchiefs in 
recognition of lands granted by him to the Monastery ; and we find 
John de Sudeley confirming to Winchcombe Abbey lands in Corndean, 
to be holden to them for ever by service of a yearly rent of one pair of 
boots, and of one girdle of monk competent with a knife and sheath 
hanging thereto, and one globe with a needle to the same girdle. 
Also of Adam le Despenser, who was bound to pay one buck to the 
Monastery at St. Kenelm's tide, obliging himself to give two within 
fifteen days if he failed to send the one by the time appointed. 

And there was a pretty Edonia (with so sweet a name, she must 
have been both sweet and comely), who had been wife to Peter of 
Cutsdean, and, moreover, the monk fails not to mention in his dry 
Cartulary, that Edonia had received "a white horse and harness'' in 
exchange for some of her dower which lay between Upper and Lower 
Cutsdean, and gave grants for her lifetime to Robert the abbot, and 
the monks ; and we can fancy, when she jogged into Winchcombe on 
her white palfry, how many would with pleasure turn to look at the 
fair Edonia, while the monastic recipients of her bounty would draw 
their cowls closer over their eyes in the vain hope thereby to shut out 
unlawful visions of earthly and domestic happiness. 

In the year 1366 Abbot Walter de Winfortun made a pitiful appeal 
to Pope Urban VI., setting forth that the Convent had of late sustained 
great losses and injuries from certain sons of iniquity, to him and his 
monks unknown, who had deprived them of tithes, first fruits, rents, 
revenues, lands, things bequeathed, houses, meadows, pastures, groves, 
mills, vineyards, possessions, rights, jurisdictions of blade, quantities of 
wine, instruments public, letters authentic, relics of saints, books, and 
ornaments ecclesiastical, crosses and chalices, vessels of gold and silver, 
utensils of houses, horses, oxen, cows, sheep, hogs, sums of money, and 

* Winchcombe First Register, p. 98. f Ibid., p. 11. 

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some other goods of their Monastery. Back came from Rome, as fast 
as the slow post of the period would permit, the pontifical thunder, and 
orders were sent to the abbot of Gloucester to pronounce a general 
sentence of excommunication upon all the defaulters who did not forth- 
with restore the stolen property. Whether the threatened excommuni- 
cation had the desired effect of bringing to light all or any of the 
plunder is not recorded. 

In the reign of Edward III. the Order of the Garter was established, 
and as six owners of Sudeley Castle enjoyed that honour, their 
names are here recorded, though rather anticipating events. High 
on the list of members of the Order stands the name of Sir John 
Chandos, so often mentioned by Froissart; he was the younger 
brother of Roger, Lord Chandos, the ancestor of Sir John Bruges, 
created Lord Chandos of Sudeley, by Queen Mary. 

Ralph, Baron of Sudeley, temp. Henry VI. 

Richard, Duke of Gloucester, afterwards king. 

Jasper, Earl of Pembroke, and afterwards Duke of Bedford, temp- 
Henry VII. 

Thomas Seymour, Baron of Sudeley, temp. Edward VI. 

William Parr, Marquis of Northampton, temp. Elizabeth. 

Edmtmd Bruges, Baron Chandos, temp. Elizabeth,* 

Lyxury, both in food and apparel, was carried to an excess in the 
time of Edward III., and a formidable body of statutes was passed in 
the year 1363, with the intention of providing a remedy (37 Edward 
III., cc. 8 — 14). Many of the provisions read strangely enough now, 
and it is not likely that they were ever generally enforced, although 
fresh enactments were every now and then added, and the whole en- 
cumbered the statute book till the time of James I., when they were 
all repealed in a body. Thus no man who had not ;^ioo a-year was 
allowed to wear gold, silver, or silk in his clothes. It must have been 
a black day to the servants and retainers of Sudeley Castle, when orders 
came that by act of Parliament they were prohibited eating flesh or fish 
more than once a day ; and a discouraging time to the controllers of 

* Milles* "Catalogue of Honour." 

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the kitchen, when their masters were limited to three dishes in each 
course, and only two courses, and that soused meat was to count as one 
of the three dishes. 

In the 34th year of King Edward's reign (1360), Robert de Ippe- 
welle having abdicated the government of Winchcombe Abbey in 
favour of Walter Winfortun, 'steward of Worcester Monastery, who 
being much distressed by the frequent disturbance of the Monastery 
.through the king's officers, especially those in the hundreds of Kiftsgate, 
Holford, and Greton, the Monastery and its possessions lying within 
those hundreds, it came into his mind how much it would add to their 
peace and quiet, if those hundreds could be made subject to the Church, 
and so the Church have the appointment of the officers ! For this 
purpose he applied himself to the king, and by dint of entreaty, money, 
intercession of friends, and perseverance, in the following reign he 
obtained his desire ; for Richard II. was so indulgent to the Convent 
of Winchcombe, for the love he bore to St. Kenelm the Martyr, their 
patron, that he seemed overjoyed to have ah opportunity of conferring 
a favour on the Monastery, whereby the monks of Winchcombe might 
ever retain a grateful remembrance of him. 

On a certain day in the fifth year of Richard II. (1381), the historic 
curtain for a moment rises over Winchcombe, and we see a beautiful 
picture of a hundred of the poor being fed in the Abbey refectory. 
They are waited upon by the monks, who hurry to and fro with viands 
and wines. Pre-eminent among them is Robert, the late Abbot, known 
and beloved by all, for was he not for many years one of them, and at 
last by their general votes appointed their abbot .? a man highly to be 
commended for his many virtues, and that diligence with which he 
built the church and cloisters and increased their revenues. While we 
wonder what may be the cause of this happy festivity, a monk with 
holy joy tells us that it was instituted by their beloved Abbot, and the 
hundred poor were thus regaled for the benefit of faithful souls in 
purgatory, who thereby would obtain mercy and redemption! He 
goes on to tell us that Robert the Abbot had so ordered it that, on the 
death of one of their Winchcombe fraternity, his name was sent as 
speedily as possible to all other monasteries, so that his soul might, 


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without loss of time, be lovingly commended to God;* and, further, 
that their revenues had just been much increased by Wakefield, bishop 
of Worcester, having decreed, with the consent of their Abbot, that a 
certain mass, formerly said in private, should thenceforth be sung 
openly by the whole monastery. We might almost fancy that the man 
who thus explains these things to us, with his bright kindly eye and 
broad intelligent forehead, is no less an individual than Tideman de 
Winchcombe, so called because a native of the place ; who, from being 
a monk in Winchcombe Abbey, became abbot in some other monas- 
tery, was then promoted to be Bishop of LlandafF, and, lastly, preferred 
to the see of Worcester by the king s earnest importunity with the 
Pope, notwithstanding that one John Green had already been elected. 
Tideman was the king's physician, and very skilful ; also he was his 
beloved confessor, according to the custom of the time, when the pro- 
fession of physic was often combined with that of divinity. 

Two yearly fairs are named as already being held' in Winchcombe, 
one on the 25th of April, the other on the 17th of July. Sir John 
Atwood was seized of markets and fairs, and of the town of Winch- 
combe and of the Hundreds of Kiftsgate, Holford, and Greton.t 

There is a delightful little monastic story belonging to this time, 
which is given as near to the original as the rather ambiguous wording 
of the Cartulary will allow. The bells of the parish church of St Peter 
being contiguous to the Abbey there, by their ringing disturbed the 
devotions of the Abbot. Pope Boniface IX. (a.d. 1399) sent his bull 
to enjoin the vicar, of the said church and all the parishioners that at all 
times to come the bells might not be rung from the ringing the Ignitege, 
or coverfire bell, till the next morning after the ringing of the Monastery 
bell for the first service, and this under pain of excommunication. The 
bull went on to say this was done entirely at the Pope's suggestion. 

* Monasteries, being mutually bound lo make other houses, even those at a distance as well as those 
that were near, partakers of their prayers, alms, and pious works, were accustomed, whenever any member 
died, to transmit letters signifying the death of their brother, and soliciting for him the prayers of the 
associated houses. To neighbouring houses these letters were sent immediately on a death occurring, but 
to more distant places only once a year. Many of these Mortuary or Precatory Rolls remain, one of which 
shews, by the entries made, that it had been carried to no less than 623 houses, each of which gave the 
required promise to pray for the deceased. " Archaeological Institute," Norwich volume, 1847, pp. 99-1 14* 

t Mr. Loftus Brock's paper on ** Winchcombe," Aug. 1875. 

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not at the request of the Abbot and Convent We may add, what a 
happy Pope was Boniface to be entitled to say so with impunity ! and 
thrice happy Abbot, who could thus regulate vicar and bells through 
the gentle threat of a little excommunication from Rome, if ever they 
ventured to clang while he was at his prayers. But those bells of 
Sl Peter's, possibly the vicar also, must indeed have been aggravating 
before the poor Abbot could have been driven to such strong 
measures ! 

To return to the owners of Sudeley. We find that William and 
Joan had issue Thomas Boteler, who,, on the partition of the estates of 
his father in the forty-second year of the reign of Edward III. (1368), 
had the Manor of Sudeley assigned to him, and his family thought so 
highly of his maternal descent, that they on some occasions assumed 
the arms of Sudeley instead of their own.* Having made proof of his 
age and performed his homage in the fourth year of the reign of 
Richard 1 1. ( 1 386), he had livery of the lands of his mother's inheritance. 
Some years later he had license to travel into France. He died on 
Saturday, September 21st, in the twenty-second year of the same reign 
(1398). Sir Thomas Boteler possessed Wellesburne-Montford as one 
of the heirs and cousins of Peter de Montford, whose ancestor was slain 
at the battle of Evesham. f He married Alice, the daughter of John 
Beauchamp of Powick, by whom he had issue John his heir, and 
Ralph, beside two daughters — Elizabeth, married to Sir John Norbury, 
and Joan, married to William Belknap. He bequeathed the Manor of 
Sudeley to his widow for her life, and she died seized thereof in 
20 Henry VI. (1442). At the time of Sir Thomas's death, John, his 
son and heir, was only fourteen years of age. . The latter died without 
issue in 5 Henry V. (141 7), having, when he became of age, in 
8 Henry IV. (1407), confirmed the estates to his mother, then the wife 
of Sir John Dalyngrugge. 

In 1404, Richard, bishop of Worcester, summoned the Abbot and 
monks of Winchcombe to meet him at one of his diocesan visitations, 

* The Botelers were lords of the manor of Henley in Arden, and in the church the arms of Boteler 
quartering Sudeley existed in the time of Dugdale. At Chilverscoton, another possession of theirs, the 
same arms appeared, but on separate shields. t Dugdale^s ** Warwickshire," p. 441. 

Q 2 

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there to show by what right they held their churches, endowments, and 
various possessions. Their answer must have been satisfactory, as 
these were all confirmed by his charter, which is given by Dugdale, 
with many other interesting notices referring to the Abbey and its 

Ralph, who succeeded his mother in the Sudeley property, became 
one of the most distinguished owners of the Castle, and bore a 
prominent part in the stirring events of the reigns of Henry V. 
and VI. In the sixth year of Henry V.'s reign (1418), we find he 
was in the retinue of Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, on the occasion 
of Henrys visit to Troyes, when he was accompanied by his two 
brothers, the Dukes of Clarence and Gloucester. Then was the 
treaty signed, providing that Henry should be at once entrusted 
with the administration of France, should espouse the Princess Cathe- 
rine, which he did a few days later, and succeed to the imbecile 
Charles VI. at the death of that unfortunate king. Henry then turned 
his army against the Dauphin, and after taking possession of several 
French towns, found it necessary to return to England for a fresh 
supply of men and money. With 24,000 archers and 4,000 horsemen 
he soon returned and re-entered Paris. In his train was Ralph de 
Sudeley, for, according to Dugdale, " he was retained by indenture to 
serve the king in his wars of France with twenty men-at-arms and 
sixty archers on horseback." 

Again, "In the beginning of the following reign he had license to 
travel beyond sea ; was again in the wars of France and of the retinue 
of John, duke of Bedford." This duke, considered the most accom- 
plished prince of the age, from his rare talents displayed both at home 
and abroad, was appointed Protector of the kingdom on the death of 
Henry V. He carried on the war against the French, who were in no 
humour to have an English king forced on them, and in the course of 
the next seven years he reduced the young prince, who was contemptu- 
ously styled the King of Bourges, to what seemed almost the last 
extremity. Nothing appeared wanting to complete success but the 

* Dugdale's ** Monasticon," vol. ii., 311-12; Atkyns, p. 834. 

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capture of Orleans, and Bedford accordingly ordered that city to be 
besieged in the autumn of the year 1428. 

Then arose Joan of Arc ! who rekindled the dying embers of French 
chivalry and roused the nation to fresh exertions. The siege of 
Orleans was raised, the French were once more victorious, and their 
king was crowned at Rheims. For the English, reverses followed in 
rapid succession, and with a greatly reduced army the duke had no 
easy work to keep his footing in France. It must have been at this 
time that Sir Ralph was again "retained to serve the king in the 
French wars with twenty men-at-arms and sixty archers on horseback." 
It is sad to associate our Sudeley hero with the closing scene in the 
short eventful life of the Maid of Orleans ; but when he returned to 
France he must have rejoined his noble master at Rouen, where Joan 
had fallen into his power, and there, in the market-place, no doubt he 
stood, amid a concourse of spectators, to witness her cruel death by 
burning ! 

Beside serving the king in the French wars Ralph stood firm to 
the Lancastrian interest at home, and in the twentieth year of the reign 
of Henry VI. (1441) was made Lord Chamberlain of the king's house- 
hold. He was advanced to the dignity of a peer of the realm by 
letters patent, bearing date the loth of September the same year, with 
the title of Baron of Sudeley, with an annuity of 100 marks to himself 
and his heirs for the better support of his dignity, to be received out 
of the farm of the county of Lincoln. Moreover, upon the 7th of 
July the ensuing year, he was constituted Treasurer of the Kings 
Exchequer, and sent ambassador with Richard, duke of York, and 
some others to treat of peace with the French. In farther remuneration 
for his services he had a grant of ;^40 per annum during his life, to be 
received out of the farms of the Forest of Dene. Likewise, holdinor 
the great office of Lord Treasurer of England in that year, he had for 
his winter-robe, against Christmas, an allowance out of the kings 
wardrobe of ten ells of fine cloth, of colour violet in grain ; and for its 
lining 300 bellies of minever. In the following year he was again sent 
ambassador (with the Archbishop of York and others) to treat of peace 
with the French. In 1447 he was associated with John Viscount 

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Beaumont in the Governorship of the " Isles of Jersey. Gamesej% 
Serke and Erme,** with the priories-alien and all their possessions in 
those islands ; to hold during the minority of Ann, the daughter and 
heiress of Henry, duke of Warwick. But this was a brief employ- 
ment, as the young countess died in 1449, and soon after he was joined 
in commission with James, earl of Wiltshire, and some others, in the 
Governorship of the town and castle of Calais, the Tower of Rysbanke, 
and Marches of Calais, for the term of five years ; and in the year 
following appointed (with John Lord Stourton) to conduct all those 
men-at-arms and archers to Calais, which were then raised for the 
defence of that garrison* Furthermore, in the thirty-sixth year of the 
same reign (1458), the king, acknowledging his great services done to 
the king his father, and to himself, in France and Normandy from the 
time of his youth, gave him a general pardon for all offences whatever. 
But upon the fall of King Henry VI., the scene being altered, he 
excused himself from coming to Parliament, by reason of his age ; and 
he found so much favour, notwithstanding his former services to the 
House of Lancaster, that he obtained the new king's letters patent for 
exempting him from that attendance during his life. 

In the intervals of his active service, but especially when the war 
with France came to an end by the defeat and death of Talbot in 
Gascony, Ralph devoted himself to the re-edification of his ancestral 
home. He rebuilt the Castle of Sudeley, the original having been 
constructed in Stephen's reign, and he did it at the cost of his enemies. 
He had captured in naval engagements several ships laden with con- 
siderable riches belonging to the French, and tradition says that the 
Portmare Tower was so called from the French admiral, who was 
taken prisoner by him, and to whom the king gave his ransom ; this, 
with the considerable booty he otherwise acquired, enabled him not 
only to build the Portmare Tower, but to reconstruct the Castle, many 
parts of which are still standing, though in ruin. It was raised 
in a style of uncommon magnificence for that age, and built, according 
to custom, of the stone of the country, the oolite. In Leland s words : 
*• Ralph was a famous man of war, and an admiral on sea, whereupon 
it was supposed that the Castle was partly built ' ex spoliis Galloruml 

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iToface p. ii8. 

The Portmare Tqwer. From a Photograph by Marianne Brocklehurst 

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that Lord Boteler made it a fundamentis ; and when it was made it 
had the price [prize] of all the buildings in those days. It is also said 
that part of the windows were glazed with berall/' * Skelton, who lived 
half a century later, described thfe workmen of those days as : — 

** Building royally 
Their mansions curiously, 
With turrettes and with towres, 
With hawles and with bowres 
Stretching to the starres ; 
With glass windows and barres : 
Hanging about their walles 
Cloths of gold, and palles, 
Arras of ryche arraye, 
Fresh as flowers of Maye/' 

Lord Boteler was also a munificent benefactor to the churches, 
erecting St. Mary's, Sudeley Manor, and liberally aiding the 
parishioners of Winchcombe to restore their parish church. Sudeley 
Chapel was built in the style of that period, viz., Perpendicular. One 
could almost imagine that the Lord of Sudeley, in his enthusiastic love 
of his king, had even gone so far as partially to imitate in small propor- 
tions ^he chapel founded by Henry VL in his College at Cambridge, 
and to which, it has been frequently observed, Sudeley Chapel bears 
no small resemblance. 

Previous to the erection of St Peter's in Winchcombe, the church of 
Sl Nicholas, which stood in the east part of the town, was the parish 
church, but it had fallen into decay, and the parishioners attended the 
services in the Abbey Church. To remedy this inconvenience, the 
Abbot William caused the erection of St Peter's, which to this day 
continues the parish church. Some of the contributors to its erection 
may be determined from the arms carved on a piscina preserved in the 
south wall of the chancel They represent those of Winchcombe 
Abbey on the east, Lord Boteler on the west, and the Abbey of 
Gloucester in the centre. The inhabitants had subscribed £200^ with 
which they began the edifice, and the residue was completed by the 

* Beryl, a coarse variety of the emerald, of a greenish-blue colour. 

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Lord of Sudeley, and the Abbot William ; the latter defraying the 
cost of the chancel. In Camden's Britannia* reference is made to the 

Piscina, Winchcombe Church. 

Abbey of Winchcombe. Abbey of Gloucester. 

Lord Boteler. 

♦ Page 279. 

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WiNCHcoMBB Church as Rkstorrd 1879. 


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parish church being built at the west end of the Abbey, where had 
been a chapel of St. Pancras. The new church was assigned to the 
use of the parish, and the larger one reserved for tliat of the Abbey. 
By a decree made in Chancery the impropriators were obliged to pay 
towards the repair of the chancel. 

From the midst of these interesting works at home, Ralph was 
summoned once more to gird on his sword for the king, and with 
other lords marched to St Alban's against the duke of York. A 
battle ensued, in which the king was taken prisoner. This occurred 
in May, 1455.. Fallen into the hands of the duke of York, Henry 
was treated with every mark of respect, his one hardship being 
that of giving up all regal authority to his rival. Thus, the Lord of 
Sudeley was present at the first battle in the disastrous Wars of the 

In this reign we find the Lord Abbot of Winchcombe assisting at 
a solemn funeral at Tewkesbury, for no less a personage than the 
Countess Isabelle, the widow of Richard, earl of Warwick, who was a 
great benefactor to the Abbey, bequeathing to the church of Tewkes- 
bury her ornaments, habits, and jewels, to the value of 300 marks. 
The death of this pious lady seems to have been caused by grief for 
the loss of her husband, who died in 1439, while governor of France and 
Normandy. On returning to England with the body of her husband, 
she received a visit of condolence from the king,* when she took 
occasion to request that six monks might be added to the number at 
Tewkesbury, to pray daily for her soul, and for the souls of her 
ancestors. The king having concluded his visit, parted from her with 
these words : *- May God, whom you worship with an upright heart, 
grant that your petition may be fulfilled to your entire satisfaction." 
It came to pass, that soon after, a messenger arrived in haste at our 
Winchcombe Abbey gate, bringing the sad intelligence of the death of 
the Lady Isabelle, and requesting the Abbot to attend in person on the 
13th of January, for on that day sTie was to be buried. The summons 
was responded to by the abbot, who performed the solemn ceremony, 

• The earl had been the king's governor in his early years ; from his proficiency in every accomplish- 
ment, alike of camps and courts, he was styled *' the father of valour and courtesy.** 


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aided by her confessor, the Abbot of Hereford, and William Bristow, 
abbot of Tewkesbury, in the presence of a vast concourse of people, 
and many noblemen* 

Before turning to the reign of Edward, when such sad reverses 
awaited Sudeley Castle and her noble owner, it may be interesting to 
glance at a few slight incidents connected with Winchcombe Monastery. 
For example, there was a controversy between Winchcombe and 
Evesham relating to the Chapel of Honeyboume and certain tithes. 
It appears that it was the annual custom at Whitsuntide, for the 
dwellers in Honeybourne and Winchcombe, one out of each house, to 
go in procession to the Monastery of Evesham, with a cross erect and 
flying streamers, and there make a certain payment for every house- 
hold. But owing to quarrels arising between them by the way, and 
tenants of Winchcombe Monastery residing in other places, it was 
necessary to call upon no less a personage than Pope Eugenius IV. to 
settle their disputes, which he designated ** enormities," and like a wise 
" Papa " settled their quarrel by taking away their playthings ; 
henceforth they had to pay their farthing for each house, but without 
procession or banners flying. 

On another occasion we find the Abbot and Convent of Winchcombe 
supplicating the Pope to allow them to wear caps of black skin, they 
being sufferers from the cold by reason of their heads being shaved. 
This request was referred by the Pope to the Bishop of the diocese to 
act therein as he judged expedient. The cloisters, no doubt, were cold 
and draughty, so let us hope that the poor monks gained their modest 

Then there was one Robert of Alney, in the parish of Kemerton, 
who gave lands to Winchcombe, with the consent of his wife and son. 
In return for this gift he was to receive hospitality from the monks 
whenever he should come to the town, and have bread and ale as much 
as would be the portion of one monk, and they gave his wife a muff, 
and his son a coat 

The Cartulary gives some curious items as paid for rent ; such as a 
pair of gloves or a penny at Christmas ; Agnes Dungeden, in Clevely, 
gives as an annual rent a pair of spurs or 2d. at Christmas ; John and 

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Processional CroSs, formerly belonging to the Abbey of Evesham, now the property of 
George Eades, Esq., of the Abbey. From a Sketch by E. L. Wedgwood. 

R 2 

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Isabella Chaloner render a clove gillyflower on St Kenelm's day. A 
pound of pepper also seemed a favourite grant 

But to return to the Lord of Sudeley. The wheel of fortune had 
turned, Edward IV. was in possession of the throne, and the very first 
act of his first Parliament placed all the Lancastrian party at his mercy; 
for he was allowed to resume all grants made by the Henries — ** pre- 
tensed Kings," they are styled — to any one whom he "reputed and held 
for his rebels or enemies." He "took full advantage of this compre- 
hensive clause, and transferred lands, and privileges, and offices to 
his active supporters to such an extent, that hundreds of Lancastrians, 
not so compromised as to forfeit their lives, were yet reduced to abject 
poverty."* Among them was the veteran Boteler, though, for some 
reason not now known, he was not interfered with for some years. In 
Leland's words : " King Edward bore no good will to the Lord of 
Sudeley, whereupon by complaints he was attached, and going up to 
London, he looked from the hill of Sudeley, and said, * Sudeley Castle, 
thou art the traitor, not I ! ' After that he made an honest declaration, 
and sold his Castle of Sudeley to the king.^'f 

The following extract J from the Records shows to whom the unfor- 
tunate Ralph signed away his property : — 

" Know all men present and to come, that I, Ralph Boteler, Knight, Lord Sudeley, 
have given, granted, and by this my present charter have confirmed to Richard Earl 
Rivers, William Earl of Pembroke, Antony Wydevile, Knight, Lord Scales, William 
Hastings, Knight, Lord Hastings, Thomas Bonyfaunt, Dean of the Chapel Royal, 
Thomas Vaughan, one of the Esquires of the King's body and Treasurer of the King's 
Chamber, and to Richard Fowler, the Castle, domain and manor of Sudeley, with all its 
belongings, in the county of Gloucester, and also all lands, rents, &c, in Sudeley, 
Toddington, Stanley, Greet, Gretton, Catesthorp, and Newnton, and also the advowson 
of the church or chapel of Sudeley, to hold the same to them and their heirs, 
assignees, &c, &c Dated 23 Feb., 8 Edw. IV. [1469]."— Close Roll, 8 Edw. IV., 
No. 3, dorso. 

Thus was this great nobleman, by one cruel stroke, deprived of all 
he held most dear. The law in those times was very severe against 

* " Annals of England/' p. 250, 8vo edit t Itinerary. 

J I am indebted to Wilfrid Cripps, Esq., author of the "Ro3ral Gloucester Militia," for this and other 
extiacts, translated from the originals in the Public Record Office. 

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m (t. 


Label Terminations on Sudeley Chapel. 

1. Heads on South Windows. 2. St Gtom and the Dragon on West Window. /^^ T 

3. Ornaments on Chantry Door. 4. King and Qneen on West Door, Digitized by V^OOQ IC 


any who might, justly or unjustly, be suspected of treason. For all 
lands then were, in law, supposed to be held by gift from a superior 
lord, subject to certain services and conditions, upon failure of which, 
the lands could be recalled by the original donor. Thus in the case 
of Ralph, all was seized for his having served the House of Lancaster, 
which was treason to the House of York ; and in those days such an 
offence involved also what was called '* corruption of his blood," which 
cut off his heirs and their posterity from all property or honours 
possessed by him, or which any of them might have afterwards in- 
herited through him from a more remote ancestor. 

When from the summit of the hill Ralph Boteler looked back for 
the last time on his fair domains, bidding a long and sad farewell to his 
Castle and all that had so deeply interested him in his later years, with 
a bitterness of heart at the cruel injustice hard to be realised in these 
more merciful days-*-how must he have felt the truth of the Psalmist's 
warning : " O put not your trust in princes, nor in any child of man ! " 
With a sorrow too deep for words must he have mourned his severance, 
not only from his newly erected Castle, with her lordly towers, peaceful 
mementos of his warrior life, but that no longer might he kneel in 
Sudeley Chapel or Winchcombe Church, which with pious hands he 
had raised to the honour of God and for the convenience of his poorer 
neighbours. All was seized by the powerful and grasping hand of the 
king. Notwithstanding old age and much servitude were earnestly 
pleaded as reasons for allowing him to end his eventful life in the 
quietude of Sudeley, amid works of usefulness and charity, the boon 
was denied This was in 1469. Next year, on the temporary revival 
of the Lancastrian party, many of these attainders were reversed, but 
ere Sudeley Castle could be restored to Ralph, the House of York was 
again in the ascendant 

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Where Avon's friendly stream with Severn )cnn^ 
Great Tewkesbary's walls, renown'd for trophies, shine. 
And keep the sad renuuAS, with pious cane. 
Of noble soiUsy the honour of the war. 

WE have seen that when Ralph surrendered Sudeley, it was 
not to the king, but to Earl Rivers and others. They, 
of cx)urse, were not meant to keep permanently so valu- 
able a possession, and they very soon transferred it to Richard, duke 
of Gloucester, by an instrument of this tenour : — 

''To all to whom this Indenture shall oome, We, Wm. Hastings, &a, &c, have been 
seized as of fee of the Castle and Manor of Sudeley, &c, &c., for the use of the most 
illustrious King Edward, by the grant and concession of Ralph Boteler and Alice his wife. 
We, Hastings, &c., have handed over the said Castle, Manor, lands, and advowson, to 
Richard, duke of Gloucester, to have and to hold to him and his heirs male, remainder 
to the king on failure of such heirs male, &a Dated 14 Nov., 9 Edw. IV. [1469]." — 
Close Roll, 9 Edw. IV., No. 12 dorso. 

While owner of this fair domain we find Gloucester fighting at the 
battle of Tewkesbury, naturally on the side of the king, his brother. 

Spur from Tewkesbury Battle-Field. 

who commanded one of the lines, Richard commanding another. 
After this battle, so fatal to the Lancastrians, and where Margaret was 

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)tn<a>tiix» toU3c 


Richard Duke of Gloucester. 

From a Painting in Glass belonging to Trinity College, Cambridge. 

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taken prisoner, it was, according to the received account, Richard, 
duke of Gloucester, who, with others, dispatched the unfortunate young 
Prince Edward with their daggers ; and who, a few days later, killed 
with his own hands, Henry VI., then a prisoner in the Tower. 

For nine years Sudeley Castle remained in the Duke of Gloucester's 
hands. Then it was exchanged for Richmond Castle, in Yorkshire,* 
as shown by the subjoined extract from the royal grant : — 

" The King to all whom, &c, health. Know ye that We, c^ our special grace, have 
granted to our very dear brother Richard, duke of Gloucester, our Castle of Richmond, 
and fee farm of our town of Richmond, &c, &c., in the county of York, &c, &c, in 
exchange for the Castle, manor, or domain of Sudeley, with its appurtenances, in the 
county of Gloucester, &c., &c. Given at Westminster, 5 March [1478]. — Patent Roll, 
18 Edw. IV., Part L, No. 2. 

Ralph, Lord Boteler, died in 1473, and there is nothing more to 
record than that in him the male line became extinct, his only 
son. Sir Thomas, having died before him. His heirs were his two 
nephews. Sir John Norbury and William Belknap, sons of his sisters 
Elizabeth and Joan. There is an interesting petition, preserved among 
the MSS. in the British Museum,t from them, addressed to Henry VII., 
praying him to restore the Manors of Sudeley, Beaudesert and 
Henley, which had been wrongfully taken from their kinsman Ralph 
(whose heirs they were), reminding" his Majesty of his true and faithful 
allegiance to Henry VI. during those troublesome times, of how he 
'* was taken and set in prison, in the Tower of London, in the time of 
Edward IV., was on the point of losing his life, and there remained 
a great season * in full streyte prison and cowde,' and never to be 
delivered till he was agreeable to make a state of the said Manor of 
Sudeley, because it was builded and pleased the king, and which he 
did only for dread of his life and cohertion of that imprisonment'' 
The date of the petition does not appear ; but we know that its prayer 
was not granted. 

On the death of Edward IV., his young son Edward was proclaimed 

* Richmond Castle reverted to the Crown when the Earl of Richmond became king, as Henry VII. 
t A copy is among the Sudeley MSS. 

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as king ; but his uncle, the Duke of Gloucester, took effectual steps to 
secure the crown for himself. The Woodvilles and their friends were 
seized and put to death, and the king's favourite mistress, Jane 
Shore, obliged to do public penance. Immediately after, Dr. Shaw, 
the brother of the Lord Mayor, preached a sermon at Paul's Cross 
upon the text, " The multiplying brood of the ungodly shall not 
thrive, nor take deep rooting from bastard slips, nor lay any fast 
foundation " (Wis. of Solomon, iv. 3). The doctor proceeded boldly 
to state that the two young princes in the Tower were illegitimate, 
inasmuch as Edward, their father, in the very beginning of his reign, 
before he met Elizabeth Grey, had clandestinely married the Lady 
Eleanor Butler, the widowed daughter-in-law of James Butler, earl of 
Wiltshire ; hence he inferred that their uncle Richard was the real 
heir to the throne, and this view being generally accepted, he was 
received as king four days after. 

The marriage was alleged to have been celebrated by Robert 
Stillington, afterwards Bishop of Bath and Wells. Edward's mother 
is said, even by Halle, the Tudor writer, to have strongly opposed his 
marriage with " Dame Elizabeth Grey," on the ground that he had a 
wife already; Halle asserts, that when closely questioned, the lady 
(whom he calls Elizabeth Lucy) confessed that she was only his 
mistress. Marriages in those days were contracted with very slight 
ceremony, and of course could be easily disavowed, if it suited either 
party to do so. 

Edward IV. granted a charter to Winchcombe for holding fairs, the 
time being regulated by those of Stow, which was afterwards confirmed 
by James I. 

When Richard, duke of Gloucester, came to the throne, Sudeley 
Castle was crown property ; so that for the second time, we may say, 
it passed into Richar4's hands.* After his coronation he made a 
solemn progress through the land for the purpose of personally 
watching and controlling the administration of justice, much as, five 
centuries before, Edgar took, with the same object, an annual circuit 

* John ** Hudilston," esquire of the royal body, was appointed steward and bailiff of Sudeley, March 8, 
1484.— Patent Roll, i Ric. III., Part 5, No. 148. 

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of his kingdom ; thereby encouraging and gratifying his partisans by 
his presence, and making them participators in his triumph. From 
Windsor he journeyed to Oxford, thence to Gloucester. Doubtless 
during this part of his travels, he made Sudeley Castle his resting- 
place,* it being on the high road between the two cities. And we can 
imagine on the morrow as he passed over the brow of our hills, he and 
his retinue halting to scan the glorious scene which suddenly breaks 
upon the view. Gloucester in the distance, whither he was going to 
bestow new privileges on the fair city whence he had drawn his title ; 
then to the right, the beautiful tower of Tewkesbury Abbey Church 
stood out clear amid the little town nestling so picturesquely in the 
vale. If we were to believe all that Tudor writers tell of him, dark 
thoughts must have passed over his lowering brow, and little was his 
soul in harmony witTi the surpassing beauty that lay spread before and 
around him on that lovely summer's morn. Associations of battle and' 
murder arose to mar it all, and the tempter must then and there have 
whispered in his ear, Were there not yet other young lives interposing 
between his own and the right to sit upon the throne ? Success had 
followed the foul murder of the young prince after the battle in yonder 
plain, and why not should he once again imbrue his hands in the blood 
of innocents who were all too feeble to grasp or hold the crown 'i 
Whether he was guilty of the death of his nephews is a point that 
probably can never be positively settled, but the tale, like other crimes 
charged against him, is now by no means so generally believed as it 
once was. 

However this may be, the royal party journeyed on to Gloucester ; 
and Richard, amid festivities and every arrangement to secure his 
popularity, continued his pompous progress. But a few months later 
and the scene changes. Henry, earl of Richmond, returns, having 
planned an invasion in concert with "high-reaching Buckingham," with 
Jasper, his uncle (afterwards Lord of Sudeley), who twelve years 
before had so narrowly escaped with their lives after the battle of 

* In the Harleian MS. 433, 2187 is a warrant for 135J. 4^. to be paid to Nich. Spicer, for "reparacion 
of the Castle of Sudeley, and 20 tonnes of wine conveyed to the Castles of Sudeley and Kenilworth. Yeven 
at Kenilworth, 6th June, A" 2* Ric III." 

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Tewkesbury, and who had so long been detained in honourable 
captivity in France. 

" On the western coast 

Rideth a puissant navy ; to the shore 

Throng many doubtful, hollow-hearted friends, 

UnarmVl, and unresolved to beat them back : 

'Tis thought that Richmond is their admiral ; 

And there they hull, expecting but the aid 

Of Buckingham to welcome them ashore."* 

This attempt failed, but their next effort, in the year 1485, landed 
them safely in Wales. The battle of Bosworth Field soon followed. 
Richard acted up to his own exhortations : 

" Fight, gentlemen of England ! fight boldly, yeomen ! 
Draw, archers, draw your arrows to the head ! 
Spur your proud horses hard, and ride in blood ; 
Amaze the welkin with your broken staves ! " \ 

At last, seeing his rival in the field, he set spurs to his horse, and 
shouting, " Treason, treason, treason ! " fought his way till he came 
to Richmond himself. The earl received him gallantly, and held him 
at bay, until Sir William Stanley coming to the rescue with his men, 
the king was slain, fighting bravely to the last, and his surviving 
followers taken or put to flight. The crown which Richard had worn 
was brought by Lord Stanley and placed on the head of the Earl of 
Richmond amid joyful acclamations of " King Henry, King Henry!" 
Thus ended the Wars of the Roses, and once more Sudeley Castle 
passed into fresh hands ; for in the first year of the new reign it was 
granted by the king to Jasper, his uncle, J who had on all occasions and 
in his long wanderings proved himself so true a friend and staunch a 

This Jasper was one of the most distinguished noblemen of the day ; 
and as Leland§ states, " was allowed the use of the Castle, and kept 

• Richard III., Act iv., Scene 4. f Richard III., Act v.. Scene 3. 

X * * The King to all, &c. , &c. Know ye that We, of our special grace, have granted to our very dear uncle 
Jasper, duke of Bedford, the Castles and domain and manor of Glamorgan, &c., &c., and have also granted 
him the Castle and domain of Sudeley, in the county of Gloucester, to have and to hold with all their rights 
and appurtenances to the said duke and his heirs male for ever, &c Given at Westminster, 2 March 
[i486]."— Patent Roll, i Henry VII., Part II., No. 21, § Itinerary. 

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household here." He was styled Jasper of Hatfield, from having been 
born there ; also Earl of Pembroke and Duke of Bedford. His father 
was Owen Tudor, and his mother, Catherine, daughter of Charles VI. 
of France, and widow of King Henry V. of England. He was 
created Earl of Pembroke by his half-brother, King Henry VI., in 
1453. Naturally an adherent of the Lancastrian party, he took an 
active share in the War of the Roses. After the battle of Barnet Field, 
where Edward was victorious, Jasper, with others of his party, repaired 
to Margaret, who was then at Cerne Abbey, whence she despatched 
him into Pembrokeshire, there to raise all the forces he could ; but he 
did not arrive in time to render her assistance at Tewkesbury. There- 
upon he retreated to Chepstow, but was so closely pursued, that he 
narrowly escaped with his life to the court of the Duke of Britanny, 
where he remained in safety, notwithstanding Edward's many efforts 
to get him into his power. Richard used even subtler means, and 
once unhoused him so far that he nearly fell into his hands. 

When Richmond became king he rewarded his faithful relative, who 
accompanied him to London, and on the occasion of his coronation, in 
order to heighten the splendour of that spectacle, the king bestowed 
the rank of knight banneret on twelve personages, " but for creations 
he dispensed them with a sparing hand. For notwithstanding a field 
so lately fought, and a coronation so near at hand, he only created 
three, Jasper, earl of Pembroke, his uncle, being one, and who was 
then created Duke of Bedford."* At the same time he was constituted 
one of the commissioners for exercising the office of High Steward of 
England, and made one of the Privy Council. The same year he was 
appointed Justice of South Wales, and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, for 
the space of two years ; and for his better support and also in reward 
for his many services, he obtained a grant of a long list of castles in 
England and Wales, given in full by Dugdale, and ending with 
**Sudeley Castle, in Gloucestershire." The king fearing that new 
commotions might arise through the turbulent spirits of some adherents 
of Richards party, Jasper was sent with 3000 men to quell any 

* Life of Henry VII. , by Lord Verulam, &c., 1622. 

s 2 

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insurrections ; and again, in that headed by Lambert Simnel, he was 
appointed joint general with the Earl of Oxford, of the forces raised for 
its suppression. He was again one of the High Stewards of England 
at the queen's coronation, his Lieutenancy of Ireland was renewed, and 
again he was made joint general with the Earl of Oxford, of the forces 
sent into Flanders in aid of the Emperor Maximilian against the 
French. ** After that," continues Dugdale, " no further mention can we 
find of him till the eleventh year of Henry's reign (1495) ; when, by his 
testament bearing that date, he bequeathed his body to be buried at 
Keynsham, in this county." The exact date of his death is not known, 
but it was, according to the best authorities, some time in the same 
year.* So actively employed as he was, we can hardly imagine that 
he found much time to " keep household " at Sudeley Castle. Possibly 
while he was absent in court and camp, his wife may have found here 
a peaceful retreat. She was Catherine, daughter of Richard Wood- 
ville, the first Earl Rivers, sister and co-heiress of Richard Woodville 
the younger, the widow of Henry Stafford, duke of Buckingham, and 
sister to Elizabeth, the queen of Edward IV.f Leaving no issue, 
Sudeley Castle reverted to the crown, in which it continued until 
granted by Queen Mary to Sir John Brydges, created Lord Chandos 
of Sudeley, in 1554. 

One motive with many to support Richmond was a promise that he 
made to espouse the Princess Elizabeth of York, a marriage which 
more than anything else seemed likely to reconcile the rival Houses ; 
but, rendered arrogant by victory, he postponed the fulfilment till after 
his own coronation. When the marriage took place, January 18, i486, 
It gave such intense satisfaction to the nation, whose sympathy was 
strong for the House of York, that the rejoicings surpassed those at 
his coronation. This so excited the jealousy of the king, who had a 
profound distrust of all the Yorkists, that he treated his queen with 
a severity which destroyed her domestic happiness. Of Elizabeth 
herself, surnamed " The Good " by her loving people, we may say she 
was beautiful, gentle, and accomplished. She was mother to seven 

* Lprd Bacon wrongly says that he lay sick at the time of the battle of Blackheath, in 1497, and died 
soon after. t Milles' Catalogue of Honour. 

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children, of whom Arthur died in his youth, Henry became king, 
Margaret, Queen of Scotland, Mary, wife of Louis XIII., and the 
others died in their infancy. 

The king and queen standing in such near relationship as nephew 
and niece to the noble householders of Sudeley Castle, the picture of 
their marriage is one of peculiar interest among the present Sudeley 
collection of paintings. That by Mabuse is considered the most 
valuable as containing portraits of their majesties. The ecclesiastical 
personage standing by the king is supposed to be Cardinal Bourchier,* 
who officiated at both the coronation and marriage. The saint 
standing by the queen is that of her patron saint, or possibly the 
titular saint of the day. This painting, as a work of art, ranks as one 
of the finest specimens of that rare master. It is mentioned in Horace 
Walpole's ''Anecdotes of Painting" as a celebrated picture in his pos- 
session. It was bought for £200, by Henrietta Louisa, Countess of 
Pomfret, and hung for some years at their seat at Easton Neston, in 
Northamptonshire, whence it was sold after the late EarFs death. We 
have also at Sudeley a picture from Strawberry Hill, which was pro- 
nounced by Horace Walpole and Vertue to be the children of Henry 
VII. (Prince Arthur, Prince Henry, and Princess Margaret), notwith- 
standing its being called in the Westminster Inventory, a.d. 1542-7, 
" Thee childem of the Kynge of Denmarke." The fact of there being 
four replicas in England, and not one abroad, favours this opinion. f 

There were figures, at this time, in the fourth bay of the Winch- 
combe choir, for Thomas Boteler, Lord of Sudeley, and his four sons, 
John, William, Thomas, and Ralph ; and for Alice, wife of Ralph, Lord 
of Sudeley ; \ doubtless these were all destroyed during the reforma- 
tion in the following reign. Rudder § mentions several chantries and 
chapels as belonging to Winchcombe church. The chapel of St Nicholas 
belonged to the Botelers of Sudeley, and was their burial-place. This 
also, doubtless, soon fell to decay, when the Botelers ceased to hold 
possessions or interest in the locality. There was another chapel 

• He was first BUhop of Worcester, then of Ely, then Archbishop of Canterbury, and finally advanced 
to the purple by Pope Paul II. f Vide Archaologia, vol. xxxix. p. 255. 

X Leland's " Itinerary." § Page 829. 

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dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and curiously ornamented. The bailiff 
and parishioners presented to a rich chantry in this church, a.d. 1503. 

Once again, and for the last time, the name of Sir Ralph appears 
on the page of history ; * not this time connected with deed of chivalry 
for king or country, but when peacefully reposing in his ** narrow home" 
— in this wise : one John Beaufitz, esquire, died, and bequeathed his 
body to be buried in the Monastery of Kenilworth ; and he gave to 
the Abbot a basin and ewer of silver to serve at the high altar, and 
he was to be prayed for daily, as well as the soul of Sir Ralph Boteler 
de Sudeley and his Lady. 

♦ Dugdale's "Warwickshire," p. 708. 

Alms Chest, Winchcombe Church— with three keys for Vicar and Churchwardens, 
according to the Injunction of Edward VI., 1547- 

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*'The sacred tapers' lights are ^ne, 
Grey moss has clad the altar stone, 
The holy image is overthrown, 

The bell has ceased to toll. 
The long ribbM aisles are burst and sunk, 
The holy shrines to ruin sunk. 
Departed is the pious monk, 

God*s mercy on his soul ! *' 

AND now we arrive, not without regret, at the reign of 
Henry VIII., which brings to an end our monastic annals, 
and, as it were, closes in death the eyes of the great Abbey, 
which had been for so many centuries the 
mainspring of the life and prosperity of the 

Winchcombe was not only a mitred but a 
" Peeral Abbey,'' and was one of the three in 
Gloucestershire, which held a place in Par- 
liament. A list is given by Tanner,* of all 
the monasteries in the order they went to 
Parliament in the third year of this reign 
(1511); Winchcombe standing thirteenth on 
the listf At no time was the Abbey in so 
flourishing a condition. It was receiving 
tithes " from Aston Somervil, Aston Subedge, 
Battesford, Bledington, Broadwell, Buck- 
land, Charlton Abbots, Condicut, Cow Honiborn, Frampton Coterell, 
Hasleton, Yanworth, Hawling, Roell, Longborough, Long Marston, 

Winchcombe Abbey Seal. 

* Notitia Monastica. 

+ Grose^s "Antiquities," p. 92. 

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Mickleton, Naunton, Norleach, Adminton, Saintbury, Seisincot, Sher- 
borne, Snowshill, Staunton, Swidley, Upper Swell, Twining, Weston 
Subedge, Whittington, Winchcombe, Coats, Withington." * 

The following extract from the Patent Roll of 2 Henry VI 1 1. 
relating to Sudeley will be found interesting. 

•* The King, &c. Know ye, that whereas our late dear father, King Henry VII. by 
letters patent, &c., dated 30 March, 24 Henry VII. [1509] granted to Richard Keder- 
minster, Abbot of the Monastery and Convent of Winchcombe, his Manor of Sudeley, 
with its appurtenances, &c., the Castle buildings within the moat being excepted and 
reserved, at an annual rent of ;£6o, without the liability of the repair and maintenance of 
the Castle ; and also granted them the custody and office of custodian of the said Castle 
by themselves or proper deputy; and whereas the said Abbot and Convent agreed with the 
said king that they would maintain 300 head of deer for the king's and his heirs* hunting 
at their pleasure ; and whereas the said Abbot and Convent wish voluntarily to deliver up 
the said letters patent to be cancelled in order to obtain other letters patent in form 
following, we considering these, &c., for the honour of the Omnipotent Crod, &c., and 
for our own soul's health and our said father's soul's health, &c, have granted, &c, to 
Richard Kederminster, &c., the Manor of Sudeley, &c., also our domain of Sudeley and 
the advowson of the church or chapel, also all lands and rents, &c., formerly the 
property of Ralph Boteler and Alice his wife, (our Castle of Sudeley, its buildings, within 
the ditch,t the great bam and stables outside the wall and our park, &c, &c, always 
excepted) at an annual rent of ;£50, and without the liability to repair the Castle or the 
payment of the annuity to John Huddlestone, Knight, under a former grant of King 
Edward IV. ; and besides we grant to the said Abbot, &c., three bucks and three does, 
out of our said park, and we remit all arrears of rent, &c., &c, giving the said Abbot, 
&c., liberty to hunt in the said park. Given at Oxford, 6th December [1510]." 

On the 13th of the same month, William Compton, Esquire, was 
appointed constable of the Castle,^ master of the hunt and park- 
keeper, with an annuity of ;^30, which was confirmed five years later 
by fresh letters patent, the annuity to be paid out of the fee-farm of the 
manor of Sudeley, by the hands of the Abbot of Winchcombe. § 

♦ Atkyns* "Gloucestershire." 

t The ditch was the same as the moat, the remains of which are still called by that name. Originally 
it must have surrounded the Castle, but the only vestiges will be seen indicated in the ground plan. When 
Lcland wrote, he said : " There runneih a pretty lake out of Sudeley Park down by the Castle, and runnith 
into Essebume Brooke, at the south syde of Winchcombe." Indications of one or more lakes are visible 
in the swampy ground on the south and west of the Castle. 

::: Patent Roll, 2 Hen. VIII., mem. 2, No. 9. 

§ Patent Roll, 7 Hen. VIII., Part 2, mem. 21. Dated at Oxford, 20 Sept. In a volume of Sudeley 
MSS. copied from the Public Record Office, &c., in Sudeley library, will be found the valuation of the 
Castle of Sudeley, annual rent from Ilayles Abbey, from various tenements, Barton, Babysmoore, Home 

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J^ord <(«vr . Canipyon. 

Add, MS. 22, 306, "The Parliament 3rd year of Henry VIII." 

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Finally when Sir William Compton died, he bequeathed to the Abbey 
20 marks and his wedding gown of tinsel satin to make a vestment, 
to the intent that they pray for his soul, his ancestors, and all Christian 

At no time, perhaps, was the Abbey in a more flourishing condition 
than about this date. It was presided over by Richard Kyderminster, 
its last Abbot but one, and the most distinguished man who ever held 
the office. He was educated in Gloucester Hall, Oxford, where there 
was an apartment belonging to the Abbey called Winchcombe Lodging, 
to which, from very early days, the convent had been accustomed to 
send promising youths, f This is probably the structure which Dugdale 
speaks of,| on the south side of the court, "having over the door 
this rebus on a shield, with a mitre over it, viz., a combe and a tun, 
with the letter W. which might signify William or Walter Compton, 
the founder perhaps of (or at least benefactor to) the building, or 
else it might partly serve for a rebus (for Winchcombe) supposing the 
W. to stand for Winch. Besides which are three cups on another 
shield, surmounted by a ducal coronet" In 1822, these were still 
remaining upon the old building of Gloucester Hall, portions of which 
are incorporated with the modem structure of Worcester College. 
Willis says : " He was a learned man, and by his wise government, and 
his encouragement of virtue and good letters, made the Monastery 
flourish so much that iuwas equal to a little University.'' In 1500 he 
travelled to Rome, and afterwards became a celebrated preacher. He 
expended large sums on the church, and inclosed the Abbey towards 
the town with a main stone wall, ex qtcadrato saxo. 

Park, a garden called Belknap, underwood from Stancomb, &c., &c , temp. Hen. VIII. Also a Toyv\ 
letter confirming indentures made between Henry Vll. and the Abbot of Winchcombe. 

♦ Collins' "Peerage," vol. ii., p. 209. 

f The bull of Pope Alexander III., dated the 2nd of the Ides of July (July 14), 1 175, among other 
matters, confirms to the Convent of Winchcombe the possession of a mansion-place in Oxenford. "In the 
acts and constitutions of the chapters of the Benedictine order there be frequent provisions for scholars 
to be maintained, one out of every twenty monks, at the University, with inquiries into defaults acd 
penalties imposed for them. They had a prior of students to govern all the novices of their order at 
Oxford and Cambridge, where they had a doctor in each faculty of divinity and common law, under whom 
their inceptors were to commence at the public charge of their respective monasteries. The general 
colleges for this order were Gloucester in Oxford, and Monks* College (now Magdalene) in Cambridge." — 
Bishop Kennett's ** Parochial Antiquities," vol. i., p. 303. 

t " Monasticon," vol iv., p. 404. 


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Alas ! as pride goeth before a fall, so did the inordinate pretensions 
advanced by Richard Kyderminster, her famous Abbot, tend to bring 
about the destruction of Winchcombe ; and he must be reckoned 
among those lordly Churchmen who by their arrogant pretensions 
did so much to impress on the laity the necessity of a reformation. 
A law had been passed * that priests or clerks convicted of certain 
crimes should be burnt in the hand, with other penalties, which the 
clergy considered as encroaching on their privileges ; and when, in 
15 1 2, another actt was passed by which sub-deacons, acolytes, 
exorcists, and other holders of the minor orders, were made liable 
to trial by the laity, the pulpits rang with declamations against it, 
and our Abbot of Winchcombe preached a remarkable* sermon at 
St Paul's Cross, London, showing that it was against the law of 
God, who, by his prophet David, says : ** Touch not mine anointed, 
and do my prophets no harm," declaring that all persons, whether 
spiritual or temporal, who had assented to that infamous act, had 
incurred the censure of the Church. He also published a book to 
prove that the persons of clerks, of all ranks, were sacred, and could 
not be punished by the laity for any crimes. This attempt of the 
clergy to emancipate themselves from the restraints of law, and from 
punishment for crime, exasperated the temporal lords and the com- 
mons, who petitioned the king to repress their insolence, and the 
matter in dispute was debated in his presence, but no decision was 
given upon \\.\ This great contest between the civil powers and the 
Church was terminated by the Reformation, but this, Richard did 
not live to see. He wrote a valuable History of the foundation of his 
Monastery, together with the lives of the Abbots, from Germanus to his 
own time. This book was unfortunately lost in the fire of London, 
A.D. 1666. Dugdale, however, had previously made some extracts 
from it. Wood states that he was the author of a " Tractate contra 
Doctrinam M. Lutheri," published in 152 1, and adds: "As for our 

♦ This is the statute of 4 Henry VIII., sess. 2, chap. 2, by which benefit of clergy is taken from 
murderers and felons. 

t Mortimer's "History of Kngland," vol. ii., p. 452. 
X Lambert's " History of London," vol. i., pp. 475-6. 

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learned and curious author, Richard Kyderminster, he gave way to 
fate, to the great reluctancy of all that knew the virtue and piety of the 
man, in 1531, or thereabouts ; and was buried in his own church at 

A letter which the Abbot wrote in the year 1520 to Cardinal Wolsey 
is preserved in the Public Record Office,* and is here given as a curious 
example of the style then used in addressing a great dignitary of both 
Church and State. It is also of interest as shewing the high esteem 
in which our Severn lampreys were then held. 

*^ Lord Jesu have mercy upon us. 

" Most Reverend Father and Lord in Christ, the splendor and grace of Cardinals, with 
my most humble duty, made with all reverence and submission. 

" It is now nearly a year (most worthy father) since I sent any letters to your sacred 
lordship : — not because I was forgetful of you (which the Almighty forbid) or that I 
thought I ought not to write to you as frequently as possible, considering how your great 
benefits and kindnesses towards me (which I will not further particularize) clearly demand 
that I should not only, if it were possible, address letters to you day by day, but should 
place myself entirely at your disposal like a purchased slave. The reason of my silence 
has been that I understood that your most sacred lordship was so involved in sacred 
cares and occupations concerning the State as well as the Church, that 1 deemed my 
letters would be rather a cause of weariness than of pleasure to you. However that may 
have been, (most reverend father and most sacred master) I could no longer forbear, but 
that at the present time I should send some letters by means whereof I might be ascer- 
tained more certainly whether you were as I hoped in good health, and touching your 
goodly success which how much I wish for I cannot (I take the living God to witness) 
easily put in words. Nor am I unmindful (my most revered lord and master) nor shall I 
ever forget with what charity, what love, what clemency, what inward tenderness your 
lordship has ever most graciously surrounded me a poor man, your most unworthy servant, 
and all my affairs in all times of trouble with the greatest charity and piety for which I promise 
(until I shall be able to find some other method of showing my gratitude) to be and to 
continue throughout my life a constant petitioner to the most high and merciful God for 
your continuous health and prosperity, offering and for ever pledging myself to do for 
your most gracious lordship whatever man can perform. Moreover, in this place, (glorious 
Cardinal and Prince) I am able to inform your holiness of many things relating to the 
public commendation of your holiness and singular praise of your virtues : unless indeed 
I ought to understand that your resplendent divine virtues are of that nature that they 
ought rather to be held in veneration and wonder, than set forth through the preaching of 
men, whilst if through their dignity and merit they ought to be reckoned up and declared 

♦ State Papers, ii & 12 Henry VIII., Vol. xxi,. No. 2o5. 

T 2 

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(so great truly is their number) they could not be shown forth in a short epistle, but ex- 
quisite eloquence, much time, and undoubtedly a huge volume should expound them for 
that reason. Lest therefore by prolixity of speech in explaining your sacred virtues, I 
should offend your most gracious ears (which heaven forefend) I will spare you from 
further talk at the present time. 

" I send moreover to your sacred lordship, most gracious father, by the present 
bearer, in token of my love and faithful service towards you, eight lampreys distributed 
in four pasties, with certain other things cooked in an oven after the manner of the 
country. I should have sent a larger number, both now and frequently heretofore, if 
either by prayers, money, or any other way I had been able to do so; but those 
persons who are near to the fish ponds where this kind of fish is taken are in the habit 
of taking what they want themselves before they will permit those who live at a dis- 
tance from the Severn to take anything out of them. And so may your sacred lord- 
ship live and prosper most happily in our sweet Lord Jesus and in all the Saints. 
From the cloister of the Monastery at Winchcombe, post haste, the day after the nones 
of March [March 8, 1520]. 

" The humble servant of your Excellency, Richard, a most 

unworthy servant of the Monastery of Winchcombe." 

(Indorsed). " To the Most Reverend father in Christ, the Lord Thomas, Cardinal 
Priest of St. Cecilia, and most worthy Legate of the Apostolic 
See, and also the most meritorious Chancellor of the whole realm 
and my most respected Patron, give these." 

Soon after the death of Abbot Kyderminster the king's supremacy 
became one of the great questions of the day. Atkyns * shows that it 
had been an ancient doctrine of the Church, and that the clergy almost 
all at that time (1534) did submit to it, also that Richard Ancelme, 
abbot of Winchcombe, was one who signed the Articles of Religion in 
the Upper House of Convocation ; when all the bishops did the same 
except Fisher, bishop of Rochester. t 

Richard Ancelme, or Mounslow, was the last Abbot of this celebrated 
Monastery. He and twenty- four of his monks subscribed to the kingfs 

* ** Gloucestershire," p. 43. 

+ Tlie portrait here given of Henry VIII. is from a carving in hone-stone by Holbein, and is considered 
to be one of the finest portraits of the king. In Vertue's Catalogue of King Charles Ist's Collection of 
Pictures, &c., London, 1757, this is described on page 4, No. 12, as carved in King Henry VIII. *s time: 
** Item. A picture carved in a grey soft stone, representing King Henry VIII. at length, an entire figure, 
in a curious little carved frame, which the king had when prince." In the index of the same work, it is 
erroneously said to be a model in terra cotta. Jt was purchased by Horace Walpole at the sale of Lady 
Elizabeth Germaine*s property in 1777 (not " 1707," as stated by Mr. Scharf in his ** Painters Cotem- 
porary with Holbein," p. ii), having formerly belonged to the Arundel Collection. In 1842 it was sold 
at the Strawberry Hill sale to J. Coucher Dent, Esq., of Sudeley Castle. 

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Henry VIII. Carved in Stone by Holbeia From the Strawberry Hill Collection.iOOQlC 

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supremacy, August 25, 1534 ;* but, soon after, the great change came, 
and he surrendered his Abbey into the hands of the king's com- 

Seal of Abbot Richard Ancelme. 

A cold sad day was it, that 3rd of December, 1539, when Ancelme 
and his monks met for the last time within the sacred precincts of the 
Abbey for prayer and praise, and sorrowful must have been their 
parting, when hand grasped hand with a grief too deep for words, ere 
they left for ever their quiet cloister life. They were not, however, all 
turned out to starve, as is the popular impression. The Public Records 
show that pensions were granted to certain members of the house, 
which were as follows : 

• It is remarkable that not one of them, except the Abbot, appears to have received a pension on the 
dissolution of the Monastery. 

t Leland was one, as Atkyns expresses it, of the chief and most understanding of these commissioners 
who took the value of all religious houses for the king. 

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Richard Mounslow, the Abbot . * 12000 

John Handcock 800 

William Bradeley 6134 

Walter Cope 6134 

Richard Bowdon 6 13 4 

George Roe 6 13 4 

William Blosson 6134 

Richard Parker 600 

William Trentham 600 

William Harwood 600 

Richard Williams 600 

Walter Turbut 600 

Christopher Chamface 600 

^197 6 8 

Atkyns says that the last Abbot of Winchcombe became the first 
Dean of Westminster ; but this is a mistake, for we see on the Public 
Records, that William Boston, alias Benson, the late Abbot of West- 
minster, was appointed the first Dean.* 

The revenues of the Abbey were valued at the Dissolution at 
;^759 11^. 9^. per annum. The manor of Winchcombe continued in 
the Abbey until its dissolution. On that event the bulk of the Abbey 
property remained for a while in the hands of the crown, but soniie was 
parted with, for we find in the thirty-fifth and thirty-sixth years of the 
same reign (1543, 1544), that a toft and lands in Winchcombe late 
belonging to the Abbey, were granted to Richard Andrews and 
Nicholas Temple, and other lands in Winchcombe belonging to the 
Abbey were granted to Richard Andrews and Thomas Hysley.f 

From a document in the Public Record Office,J we extract the 
following particulars : 

The Manor of Sudeley with its members — 

£ s- d, 

Greie, — Fixed rents 208 

Rents of the customary tenants . . • • 5 13 ^i 

Gretton, — Fixed rents of the free tenants . . . . i 6 oi 
Fixed rents of the customary tenants . . . 8 17 10 

• Le Neve's ** Fasti," vol. iii., p. 346. t Willis's "Mitred Abbeys." 

X Ministers' Accounts, 32 Henry VIII. (1540), formerly in the Augmentation Office. 

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Old House in High Street, Winchcombe, showing Initials ©j^jtiPARGE Boar9q[c 

OF Richard Kyderminster. 

From a Drawing by E. T, Browne, Esq., before its demolition in 1880.* 


£ s. d. 
Suddey, — Fixed rents of the free tenants . . . . 2 15 2^ 
Rents of the customary tenants . . . . 14 7 11 

Farm 34 10 8 

Perquisites of the courts 0156 

£10 7 oi 

The first-fruits and tenths were granted to the crown in 1534, and 
were enjoyed by Henry VIII. and Edward VI., but Mary, by act of 
Parliament, relinquished the first-fruits and made over the tenths to a 
body of commissioners, who were to pay out of them the pensions that 
had been granted to the monastics, and any other sums for which the 
dissolved houses had been responsible. Accordingly, in 1556, a formal 
agreement, or Indenture, was drawn up between her and King Philip 
on the one part, and Cardinal Pole, as the papal legate, on the other, 
which is now preserved in the Public Record Office. It is a large 
handsomely written volume, and from it we extract a translation of the 
part relating to Winchcombe. It will be seen that '* vested interests" 
received more consideration at the Dissolution than is generally sup- 
posed. Officers received compensation under the name of '' fees ; " 
persons who perhaps had lent money* to the house, were repaid by 
" annuities ; " and such of the monastics as recommended themselves 
to the examining commissioners by their ready submission, received a 
share of the ** convenient charity " which the crown authorized them to 
dispense; these are the ** pensions" of the following list. Probably 
some who were denied this " charity " at first, were afterwards admitted, 
as the list of 1556 shows fourteen names, or one more than that of 


The Late Monastery of Winchcombe. 


£ s, d. 
Anthony Ayleworthe, receiver of all the possessions of the 

said late Monastery, per annum 968 

Thomas Gwente and Richard Hyde, for their annuities 

from the said Monastery, per annum . . . . 100 o 

• It was very common for persons to lend or give sums of money to the monasteries, thereby securing 
for themselves or their nominees, sometimes an annuity, sometimes board, lodging, and attendance in the 

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Edward Draicote, per annum 40 o 

Thomas Sherle, per annum 40 o 

William Badger, per annum 40 o 

John Bridgeman, per annum 26 8 

Roger Jervys, per annum S3 4 

William Edwardes, per annum • 40 o 

Thomas Gwente, per annum 400 

Edward Swallowe, per annum 40 o 

Thomas Belle, per annum 20 o 

Clement Throgmorton, per annum . . . . 66 8 

William Charity, per annum ^3 4 

Louis Craker, per annum 13 4 

Thomas Bailie, per annum 40 o 

Henry Polstede, per annum 10 o o 

Christopher Smythe, per annum 40 o 

William Freman, per annum 40 o 

Robert Throgmorton, per annum 26 8 

Humfrey Dicke, master of the game (" ludi mag'ri "), 

per annum . . . . . . . 10 o o 


Richard Mounslowe, late Abbot of the same, per annum .120 o o 
John Hancock, per annum . . ....800 

William Bradeley, per annum 6134 

Richard Freman, per annum 6 13 4 

Richard Parker, per annum 600 

William Trentham * 600 

Walter Coop, per annum 6 13 4 

William Whorewoode, per annum ..600 

Richard Williams, per annum 600 

Walter Turbutte, per annum 600 

Richard Boydon, per annum 6 13 4 

George Rooe, per annum 6 13 4 

Christopher Chaunsfatte, per annum . . .600 
William Blossome, per annum 6 13 4 

As before stated, Abbot Kyderminster wrote a History of his 
Abbey, and his reasons for doing so are well stated in his Preface, 
which runs as follows : 

house. Many documents of this kind remain, and they often do credit to the shrewdness of the parties in 
making a bargain. * '' Per annum" no doubt accidentally omitted. 

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< S 




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" Whereas most of the ancient records of the first Institution of the Monastery of 
Winchcombe, and of the Endowment of our Church, perished in a great fire which hap- 
pened in the reign of King Stephen, formerly king of England, which by the blessing of 
God shall hereafter be more particularly declared ; and whereas many other ancient writings 
through age are become so obscure that they are scarce legible ; others by the carelessness 
of men are daubed and torn ; and what is most blame-worthy, our predecessors, and those 
who were formerly monks of this Monastery, took no care to transcribe the old writings, 
and were negligent in entering the new : Therefore we, lest what yet remains of our 
old and ancient Charters should be lost in like manner through our negligence, and the 
names and account of our founders and benefactors should be quite forgotten, which 
God forbid, have purposed to collect into one volume the history of our first Founda- 
tions, and such Antiquities as are confusedly dispersed in our ancient Charters and 
Registers; and we intend to observe this method. First, to set down an account of 
our sacred foundation, and the praises of our first Founders; secondly, the Privileges, 
Pensions, and Portions of tithes made to them; thirdly, the Royal Charters and Privileges 
granted by kings ; fourthly, the several Lands and Possessions given at any time to the 
said Monastery by any kings, princes, and other good Christians, and the times of their 
donations ; lastly, we will faithfully, through the blessing of Our Lord God, recount the 
names of the several Abbots, and the good they have respectively done to this Monastery, 
beginning at the time when King Kenulph did first lay the foundation of our Church. 
And if in any place I shall happen to say too little or too much, I beg the prudent and 
intelligent reader either to add or strike out as he pleases." * 

Beside the Cartulary, or Register of Winchcombe Abbey, Tanner 
notices a Book of the Possessions of the Abbey by Inquisition temp. 
Henry VIII. then preserved in the Remembrancers Office in the 
Exchequer. He also mentions the three following MSS., together with 
several original charters, as in the possession of Sir John Button, Knt., 
of Sherborne. 

" *I. Registrum dom. Joan. Cheltingham abbatis Wynchelcombe, factum per eundem 
Abbatem, a,d. 1422, continens cartas 515, paginas 505. Fol. inpergam. 

" 'II. Rentale maneriorum Monasterii Winchcombiae, factum a.d. 1455. 

" * III. Rentalia dominiorum, maneriorum, rectoriarum, firmarum, terrarum, et 
tenementorum pertinentium ecclesiae B. Virginis Mariae et S. Kenelmi regis et martyris 
de Wynchecombe, renovata ad festum S. Michaelis archangeli, anno regis H. viii. primo.* 
The first of these, called Liber A, with another register marked Liber B, are still preserved 
amongst the MSS. at Sherborne Lodge."t 

The much to be regretted fate, more than a hundred years after the 
Dissolution, of one of these invaluable works, is thus recorded : :j: 

• Atkyns' "Gloucestershire." 

t I have learnt from Lady Sherborne that these were lost or stolen in the time of the late Lord 
Sherborne, X Wood's *'Athenae," 

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" The Register of Winchcombe, containing .at least five books, or parts, came, after 
the dissolution of the Abbey there, into obscure hands. At length it being produced by 
an ordinary farmer at an assize held at Gloucester, for the proof of some matter then in 
question, at which Sir William Morton, lord of the site of Winchcombe Abbey, was 
present ; he by some device got it out of the farmer s hands, as belonging more properly 
to him, and kept it some time in his house at Kidlington in Oxfordshire, and sometimes 
in his lodgings at Serjeants* Inn, in Fleet Street, London. But so it was, that the said 
Sir William, who was one of the justices of the King's Bench, being in his Norfolk circuit, 
at what time the dreadful conflagration in London happened (1666), the said book with 
other of his goods, and the Inn itself, was totally consumed to ashes." 

Dugdale * gives an interesting note on this work, quoting Wood's 
Athenae, and refers to several extracts which Dugdale had made 
before the destructive fire. Dr. Samuel Fell, of Christchurch, Oxford, 
had a copy of this work, written either in vellum or parchment, about 
163a Another book, once belonging to Winchcombe, is a fine folio 
copy of the Works of Augustine, of the twelfth century, written on 
vellum, which is in the possession of the Rev. Sir W. Cope, of 

Most of the religious houses kept Registers, in which were entered 
both public and private transactions, including the deaths of kings, 
bishops, nobles, and benefactors, and the births and marriages among 
the upper classes are often found recorded in Missals and Psalters. 
As the intended suppression of the monasteries would cause the 
Registers to cease, Lord Cromwell, in September 1538, as visitor- 
general, ordered Registers of births, marriages, and deaths, to be kept 
in every parish. The usefulness of the measure was not then seen; it 
was regarded as meant as the instrument of some new taxation; J and 
very limited obedience was given. Our Winchcombe Register, how- 
ever, commences in the year 1539, the first entry being: — "Julii 6**. 
Thomas filius Gulielmi Skinner baptiz." 

In the reign of Elizabeth injunctions were repeatedly issued, im- 
pressing on the clergy the duty of keeping up the Registers, and at last, 
ii^ ^593» formal transcripts on vellum of all existing ones were 
directed to be made. Our oldest Register is of this kind; but the 

♦ "Monasticon," vol. ii. p. 299. 

t Historical Manuscripts Commission, Third Report, p. 242. 

X Such a taxation was actually imposed in 1694, to assist in carrying on the war against France. 

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Whipping Post and Ducking Stool, Duck Street, Winchcombe. 

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direction was long neglected, as we find this note on the first page, 
*' Hie liber descriptus fuit in Augusto Anno Dmi 1602." 

After 1602 the entries are original ; they are all in Latin down to the 
year 1630, when they commence in English. 

The overthrow of the Monasteries. was, no doubt, a needful step, as 
they had outlived their usefulness in this country ; but this fact must 
not make us forget the benefits that they had conferred on it in earlier 
days. They were almost the sole depositories of learning, and the 
instructors of youth ; and their help to the sick, the needy, and the aged, 
even their enemies cannot deny. The immediate effect of the change 
was very disastrous to the poor, who, beside all the customary hospi- 
tality, and relief in want and sickness being suddenly stopped, too 
often found themselves thrown out of employment, by the new land- 
lords turning the lands they used to cultivate into pasture. No wonder, 
then, that thousands were forced into vagrant habits, to check which 
severe laws were passed,* and whipping-posts and stocks everywhere 
set up, and were in common use for punishing " vagrants and sturdy 
beggars," both men and women, up to the end of the last century. 

In Winchcombe the whipping-post was still in existence a.d. 1800, 
when Mr. Castle, of North Street (now in his ninety-second year) 
recollects one in front of the Town Hall, a post fixed in the ground 
with iron rings, screwed in with hinges, leaving just sufficient room for 
the arms and legs to pass between the iron and the post ; they were 
locked in, and then the whipping commenced. Mr. Castle saw six 
women flogged there in the year 1800; they were stripped to the waist 
and flogged till the blood ran down their backs ; their offence was 
" hedge pulling." The man who whipped them was Frank Crow ; 
he also recollects the names of some of the women, but as their 
descendants are still living in Winchcombe it is but right to withhold 
them. Sometimes the stocks were combined with the whipping- 

• One, that of 1547 (i Edward VI., c. 3), directs vagabonds to be branded with •* V" on the breast 
with a hot iron, and to be given as labourers for two years to any one who would receive them, and would 
feed them on bread and water, or any refuse, and punish them by beating and chaining ; if they attempted 
to escape, they were to be again branded, with "S," and to become slaves for life. This atrocious 
statute failed through its own severity, and was repealed in 1549. The foundation of our present poor 
laws was laid in the latter part of the reign of Elizabeth, when overseers of the poor were first appointed 
(43 Eliz., c. 2). 

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post ; but gradually the punishment went out of practice, and now our 
Winchcombe whipping-post has altogether disappeared, the stocks alone 
remaining in remembrance of bygone days, and are to be seen in 
gloomy shadow under the present Town Hall. 

The ducking-stool was another instrument of torture in Winch- 
combe, and which was remembered by some of the oldest inhabitants 
(of 1850) to have existed at the bottom of Duck Street, which, 
probably, thence received its name. The ducking-stool was generally 
established in some favourite rendezvous of a town, or where the 
women were in the habit of drawing water ; so, when any unfortunate 
culprit was carried to the brook, it is not difficult to imagine the scene 
of commotion and excitement that followed ; all Winchcombe turned 
out to see the poor woman dipped and the ardour of her tongue 
cooled. With pity we turn from the poor suffering women, and thank 
God that the law of the land has now abolished punishments made a 
hundredfold more cruel by their publicity.* 

Among the various great ecclesiastical changes made at this time, 
one was to remove Winchcombe and Sudeley from the diocese of 
Worcester, and to place them in that of Gloucester, which henceforth 
became a distinct bishoprick, or rather was restored to that ancient 
dignity, as, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, "Episcopus Cluviensis'"' 
was among the British bishops, t 

Strange to say, there is no description extant of the Monastery and 
Abbey Church. It is, however, supposed that the latter was situated 
between the house now occupied by Henry Plumbe, Esq., and the 
Abbey wall, called the Abbey Terrace. J All was demolished very 
soon after its surrender by the first proprietor. Lord Seymour of 

How many hearts have here grown cold. 

That sleep these mouldering stones among I 
How many beads have here been told ! 
How many matins here been sung ! 

* The cucking-stool, mentioned in Domesday, was nsed to punish bad brewers in Chester (pity 'tis the 
custom is extinct), and brawlers in Stockport. The cucking was superseded by the ducking-stooL 
t Camden's ** Britannia," p, 262. 
X For tlie Charter, see Atkyns, p. 44. 

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From a Cottage in Gloucester Street, Winchcombe. 

1. ' ■ 

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Parish Stocks, Town Hall, Winchcombe. 

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WiNCHCOMBE Abbey House. 

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From a Sketch by £. T. Brownb, Esq., before its demolition in 1816. 


The site of the buildings being levelled and turned into ploughed 
fields, orchards, and gardens, we can only conjecture that they stood on 
the east side of the present church ; * their ruins must have formed a 
quarry for the workmen of the neighbourhood. Beautiful specimens 
of stone carving have been found from time to time below the surface 
of the soil, and in drains on the Sudeley estate. Though so few traces 
of the ancient Monastery now remain, the memorial is yet preserved in 
the name of Abbey Demesnes, of which the present " Abbey " forms 

It is a popular belief that at the time of the Dissolution monastic 
houses were recklessly destroyed by misguided religious zeal, but the 
papers of the Augmentation Office show this to be quite a mistake. 
In many instances, Evesham for example, and we may fairly presume 
It was so in the case of Winchcombe, the destruction was carried on in 
the most systematic manner, the buildings being divided into " the 
necessary to be preserved, and unnecessary to be pulled down." f In 
the course of time, however, all has been pulled down, and the site of 
the once magnificent Monastery is now a mere matter of conjecture ! 

At the meeting of the members of the British Archaeological 
Association at Evesham (Aug., 1875), Mr. Loftus Brock, in his in- 
teresting paper on Winchcombe Abbey, doubted that all traces of the 
site could have so utterly disappeared, but on inspection he found it 
to be so. Two buildings occupied by Mr. Arthur Smith were part of 
the Abbey buildings and fifteenth century work. The whole of the 
ground east of the church, up to Cow or Chapel Lane, the meadow 
between the north wall of the church and Back Lane, are full of irregu- 
larities, indicating foundations of extensive buildings, and a high bank, 
like an earthwork, runs parallel to Back Lane for about forty yards. 

To E. T. Browne, Esq., of Winchcombe, we are indebted for the 
drawings of the "Abbot's House,^' which for many years had been 
used as the parish workhouse, and was entirely demolished by the 

♦ As before stated, the Monastery was supplied with water from Sudeley and Postlip in the reign of 
King John. If the spot ccrald be ascertained where the waters met, its site might with certainty be 
established. There can be little doubt, however, that the Abbey stood on the east side of the present 
parish church. 

t Mr. Batt's paper on " Evesham," read Aug. 1875, before the British Archaeological Association. 

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proprietor, Mr. Williams, of the Abbey House, in 1815. Mr. Browne 
used all his influence to save the house from destruction, but without 
success. Thus Winchcombe lost one of the most interesting relics of 
her past history. About the same time Mr. Williams made extensive 
excavations and minute search for materials and antiquities on what 
was supposed to be the site of the ancient Abbey. 

" The deep and massive foundations of the church were clearly traced, and several 
ponderous stone coffins, containing remains of human skeletons, were then discovered ; 
but the circumstance which attracted most particular attention arose from the examination 
of a small stone coffin, which was found at the east end of the interior of the church, close 
by the side of another, of the usual size. Upon the removal of the flag-stones which 
covered it (and which took place in the presence of the writer of this article •) there 
appeared a skull, with a few of the other larger bones, and a very long-bladed knife, which 
had become a mass of rust, and fell to pieces on being handled. The bones also 
vanished, like a vision from their sight, immediately they were exposed to the air. Speed 
says, as before observed, * that Kenelm was interred in the monastery, near to his father \' 
and no two coffins, except those before mentioned, were found near together. This 
circumstance, therefore, combined with that of the knife, which it is possible the murderer 
left with the body, and which might have been removed and deposited with it, induces a 
celebrated antiquary f to form the conclusion that the largest coffin was Kenulph's and 
the smaller Kenelm's." 

Dr. Phythian, of Winchcombe, was also present at the opening of 
these graves. His daughter, Mrs. Lees, living at an advanced age, 
in a letter to us states that she perfectly remembers, when quite a child, 
hearing her father's description of the state of preservation in which 
the bodies were discovered, even to the fleshy tints on the cheeks ; but 
that, while they gazed, all returned to dust The coffins were presented 
to her father, and also the murderous knife found in that of St Kenelm 
— and which likewise soon crumbled away. When the family left their 
house (the one now occupied by Dr. Newman), the coffins were still 
in the garden, in a rosary walk leading to Mrs. Phythian's grotto ; no 
one had any right to dispose of them — therefore when they were sold 
by the sexton to the late Mr. Gist, of Wormington Grange, it was 
without permission; and it is to be hoped they will some day be 
restored — Kenulf s coffin to Winchcombe Church, and Kenelm's to 

« E. T. Browne, Esq. 
t Fosbroke, who was with Mr. Browne at the opening of these cofEns. 

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Sudeley, where his chapel stood, and where the Holy Well that still 
bears his name will for ever keep fresh the legend of his untimely fate. 

Leland says that, " There laye buried in the east part of the church 
of the Monastery of Winchcombe, Kenulphus and Kenelmus, the 
father and sonne, both Kings of Merches." Leland further says of 
Winchcombe, that " there was once an hospital in this town, but now 
the name of Spittle only remaineth ; * the town building was much 
toward Sudeley Castle, and that there yet remain some tokens of a 
ditch and the foundations of a wall, and that there be tokens of another 
way up a pretty way beyond the High Street above the church where 
the farm of Cornedene is : so that of old time it was a mighty large 
town. The Monastery was set in the best part of all the town, and 
hard by it, where the parish church is, was King Kenulphus' Palace. 
Winchcombe is set in the roots of Cotswolds." 

Of this Palace Mr. Browne thus wrote, in 1857 : 

" Nothing beyond what rests merely on oral tradition as to its site, can now be told 
This is said to have been on the south side of \he top of the present High Street, and 
some of the aged inhabitants who were living within the last twenty years could remember 
there the remains of an apparently very ancient pile, which they saw demolished to make 
room for the present large brick residence [now occupied by Dr. Newman]. These they 
described as consisting of arches and oddly- shaped architectural masses; and affirmed 
that their forefathers had been accustomed to point to the spot and observe that " there 
stood King Kenulph's Palace." 

* There is a field still called Spittle Leys. 

Initials of Richard Kvderminster, over the Doorway of the George Inn. 

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** Such a man 
Might be a copy to these younger times." 


IN the reign of Edward IV. was born in Winchcombe the distin- 
guished worthy, John Winchcombe, better known as Jack of 
Newbury. His real name was Smallwood ; and from small 
beginnings he rose to a position of dignity. Fuller describes him as 
the most considerable clothier (without fancy or fiction) England ever 
beheld. Reference was made to his birth-place by the late Rev. Charles 
Kingsley about twenty years ago, when the Berks Archaeological 
Society met at Newbury ;* and to corroborate this fact an inquiry was 
made by the Rev. Wm. Milton, curate of Newbury, which resulted in 
the discovery of the following entries in the parish register of Winch- 
combe, which show that his family kept up the connection with his 
native place : 

"Anno Dni. 1539. 

Junii 28. Robertus filius Johannes Smallwode, sepult 

Anno DnL 1541. 

Novembris 27. Margareta Smawlwode, purific." 

When John left Winchcombe it was to find employment at Newbury, 
as an apprentice to a wealthy clothier, whose good opinion he soon 
won. Not only was he esteemed by his fellow- workmen, but soon 
became a favourite with all, rich and poor, young and old, and was 
familiarly called "Jack of Newbury." Though but an apprentice he 
was fit company for gentlemen, and when his master died and his dame 

*' Worthies of Newbury," by H. Godwin, F.S.A. 

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became a widow, ancient but comely, she placed under his superinten- 
dence all the works and apprentices. For three years everything 
prospered by reason of his discretion and industry, and she began to 
consider so faithful a servant was deserving of promotion. She con- 
sulted him about her numerous suitors, and gave many hints of her 
preference for himself, but which he feigned not to comprehend. 
She related to him a pitiful dream in which she found her heart 
bleeding in her hand, and a hog rustling among the looms ; so she 
awoke "all in a sweat, and very ill and groaning, so that he must 
needs have heard her." Not a bit of it, for he was too sound asleep, 
he said. 

Then for a few weeks she became wondrous sad, and was in nowise 
cheered by seeing her man John give a pair of gloves to a buxom maid 
at Bartholomew fair, who modestly returned the fairing with a kiss. 
Then she invited her lovers to supper, the tanner, the tailor, and the 
parson, at which John was serving man. After supper they in turn 
renewed their offers, but she refused them all. The tailor, because he 
was too late, she was already promised ; the tanner she would like to 
see wed, but not to herself; the parson, because parsons were only 
newly allowed to have wives, and she would have none of the first 
head. So they departed. John, unlike Othello, even upon that hint, 
spake not; though in his own mind he had resolved not to lose so 
great a prize. Next morning she ordered him to carry a link before 
her into church, where priest, clerk, and sexton were awaiting her. 
But there was no bridegroom ; and, after waiting some time, feigning to 
be very angry at his non-appearance, said she would stay no longer, 
but bade John put aside his link and give her his hand, as she would 
be wed to none other than him. 

The dame was too fond of gossip and gadding about to please her 
steady mate, who would gently remonstrate with her ; but this she did 
not take in good part, thinking he who had been her servant, had now 
no right to act as master. An event soon occurred which, though 
ludicrous in itself, caused them henceforth to be better friends. The 
dame, according to custom, being out one night very late, her husband 
shut the doors and went to bed. About midnight she came home and 

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knocked for admittance, he went to the window and told her to go 
away and find a bed at the constable's : she ought to take a lesson from 
the spider, the frog, and the fly, which always returned home at night- 
fall. In a very humble tone she again begged admittance, promising 
the like should never occur again. At length, moved with pity, he 
slipped on his shoes, went down in his shirt, and opened the door. 
When she entered, and he was on the point of re-locking, she said, very 
sorrowfully, she had dropped her wedding-ring outside, and implored 
him to help her to find it with a candle ; he fell into the snare, and while 
looking for the ring, which was not there, she locked the door, took the 
key upstairs, and went to bed. It was then his turn to stand out in the 
cold and beg for admittance, while she stood at the casement, and 
pretty well repeated his own words — then, hoping it would be a 
warning to him in the future, cried " Catch — there's the key ; come in 
at thy pleasure, and go to bed to thy fellows, for with me thou shalt 
not lie to-night" Next morning she rose betimes, merrily made him 
a caudle, and they lived happily as long as she lived. 

After the death of his ancient dame he might have mated with any 
lady in the land, but he took to wife one of his own servants, who for 
two years had been well tried in the guiding of his house. The de- 
scription is exquisitely pretty and poetical : — " The marriage day being 
appointed, all things were prepared for the wedding, with royal cheer ; 
and most of the lords, knights, and gentlemen thereabout were invited. 
The bride being attired in a gown of sheep's russet, and a kirtle of fine 
worsted, her head attired with a billiment of gold, and her hair, which 
was yellow, hanging down behind, curiously pleated according to the 
manner of those days, she was led to church between two sweet boys, 
with bride laces and rosemary tied about their silken sleeves ; the one . 
was son to Sir John Parry, the other to Sir Francis Hungerford. A 
bride-cup of silver, gilt, was carried before her, wherein was a branch 
of rosemary, gilded, hung about with ribbons of all colours ; and next 
followed musicians, who were playing ; after the bride came the chiefest 
maidens of the country, some carrying great bride-cakes, and others, 
garlands of wheat, curiously gilded, passing in this manner unto 

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For the expedition to Flodden Field John marched with one hundred 
of his own men ("as well armed and better clothed than any," says 
Fuller), for which he received high commendation from the queen 
(Katharine of Aragon). A few years later Henry VIII. and his queen 
were magnificently entertained by John Winscombe (as his name is 
spelt by Fuller) at his own house in Newbury ; banquets were prepared 
for the king and queen, their cortege, and all the domestics ; the king 
was presented by the dame "with a richly gilt bee-hive, the bees therein 
were of gold, and it was also decorated with various precious ornaments, 
emblems of the wealth and industry of the clothiers. Songs were sung 
to the king by the weavers at their looms, and the women at their 
spinning and carding. On quitting this hospitable house, the king 
would have knighted John Winchcombe, but he modestly declined, 
begging to remain a humble clothier. The queen then greeted his wife 
with a princely kiss, presented her with a costly gift, and so they 

The clothiers of this and other counties were suffering greatly at 
that time from the suspension of traffic with merchants of other 
countries. For this, blame was attached to Cardinal Wolsey, then lord 
chancellor, and when the king received John Winchcombe s gift of the 
golden bee-hive, he meaningly willed the cardinal to look thereon, com- 
manding it should be sent to Windsor Castle. In their difficulty John 
invited deputies from all parts to join him in London ; then, one day 
when the king was walking in St James's Park, they all fell on their 
knees and implored him to redress their grief. The petition was 
handed to the cardinal, who ordered all the clothiers to be imprisoned. 
In four days, however, they were released, through the instrumentality 
of the Duke of Somerset ; * they gained their desire, and in a short time 
clothing was again flourishing, with plenty of work found for the poor. 

Such is a meagre outline of the life of our distinguished Winchcombe 
hero, taken from a republication of Delaney's " Pleasant and Delightful 
Life of Jack of Newbury," which was first printed in 1596.! 

• So says our author, but wrongly, as there was no duke of Somerset at that time. In all probability 
Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, the king's favourite and brother-in-law, is meant. 

t For this entertaining little volume I am indebted to Miss Slatter of Newbury, sister to Mr. Slatter of 
Winchcombe, the worthy bailiff to the County Courts. 

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In his will he described himself as "John Smalwode the elder, als 
John Wynchcombe," and over his tomb in Newbury Church his descen- 
dants placed a brass inscription, with the words : 

" Off yo charitie pray for the soule of John Smalwode als Wynchcom and Alys hys 
wyfe. John dyed the xv''* day of February, Ao dni. mcccccxix [1520]." 

We have seen by the register that one of his sons (or grandsons), 
Robert, was buried in Winchcombe, and we find in the " History of 
Newbury" * that John, his eldest son, in 1549 had a grant of arms, "for 
that he was well worthye from henseforth to be, in all places of honour 
and wourshippe amonges other noble parsons, accepted and reputed 
into the noumber of and company of auncient gentell and nobell men/' 
He purchased the manor and advowson of Bucklebury, and some 
5000 acres of land in that and the neighbouring parish.f 

The portrait here introduced was taken by the kind permission of 
Mr. Hartley, of Lye Grove, Chipping Sodbury, in whose possession is 
the original painting by Holbein. It is generally supposed to repre- 
sent John Winchcombe, the founder of the family; but as he died in the 
year 1520, it doubtless represents his eldest son, "John Winchcombe," 
the date on the picture, 1550, being the year after the latter received 
his grant of arms, and was raised to the rank " of gentell and nobell 
men." The arms painted on the left hand corner of the portrait 
appear a further corroboration. On the top of the picture are the 
words : 

In Respect of Things Etemall 
This is Veari Vayne and MortalL 

and underneath : 

Spend Well Thi mortal Life Therefore 
That Thou Maist Leve for Evermore. 

His descendants made noble alliances, but the family became extinct 
in the male line in 1 703, the last heir having been created a baronet by 
Charles H. He died, leaving three daughters; Frances, who married 
Henry St John, Viscount Bolingbroke, Secretary of State ; Elizabeth, 

* Page 149. t H" Godwin's " Newbury." 

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=lF; ^^==^^^? f Sgiigwgi^f?^^ 

Holbein, pinxt] 

John Winchcombe, a/ias Jack of Newbury. 

U- RUSMTOH, ddt. 

\To fact p, 155. 

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who died young, and upon whose death the following lines were penned 
by Phillips : 

" Such heats prevail'd when fair Eliza, last 
Of Winchcomb's name (next thee in blood and worth, 
O fairest St John) left this toilsome world 
In beauty's prime, and sadden'd all the year. 
Nor could her virtues, nor repeated vows 
Of thousand lovers, the relentless hand 
Of death arrest : she with the vulgar fell, 
Only distinguished by this humble verse." * 

Maria, the third of these, married, in 1699, Robert Packer, of Shilling- 
ford, and their daughter became wife of Dr. Hartley, a physician of 
Bath, whose great-grandson is the present proprietor of the estates at 
Bucklebury and Donnington.f 

During the religious persecution of Mary's reign, we find that the 
son if of our Winchcombe worthy was an adherent to the old creed, and 
was one of five commissioners before whom was arraigned for heresy 
a young gentleman named Palmer, a fellow of Magdalen College, 
Oxford. The story of the trial is interestingly given, but as this is a 
digression, allusion must be made only to John Winchcombe, whose 
heart was sorely touched by Palmer's youth and earnestness ; and 
yearning to save his life, he said : " Take pity on thy golden years and 
pleasant flowers of lusty youth, before it is too late." " Sir," was the 
young martyr s reply, " / long for those springing flowers that shall 
never fade away I " Palmer, then a Romanist, had not long before 
witnessed the deaths of Ridley and Latimer, and, like them, gladly, 
on the following day, he welcomed the crown of martyrdom. This, 
however, anticipates the chronological line of our local story, and we 
must return to the reign of Henry VHI. 

* Phillips's poem on "Cider." 

t H. Godwin's "Newbury," and ** History of Newbury.'* 

X Mr. Godwin says "grandson," but this is in all probability a mistake. 

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** Oft have I wander'd by the moon's grey light. 
And climb'd with thoughtful step the lofty height 
Of Sudeley*s Towers, where eist the widow*d Queen, 
And Seymour too, oft graced the beauteous scene." 

J. C Dent. 

MANY of the chief events of Henry's reign were connected 
with the wish, alike of himself and his people, to see him 
gifted with a male heir, so as to avert a possible civil war 
on his death ; and when at last the long-wished-for prince was born, 
the happy event again places Sudeley Castle on the page of history. 

Leland describes It about that time as "going to ruin, more the 
pitye." Still it had a succession of constables, one of whom was Sir 
John Brydges, who in the reign of Mary was made a peer, and of whom 
we shall have much to say hereafter. 

The death of Henry VHI. brings before us the most interesting 
occupant of Sudeley Castle, viz., Queen Katherine Parr. The story of 
her life and the eventful times in which she lived would fill a volume ; 
we must therefore hurry over her early history, and state only that she 
was born in 151 2 at Kendal Castle, which then belonged to her father, 
Sir Thomas Parr. Her first husband was Lord Burgh, who died about 
1529, and her second, Lord Latimer, who died in 1542 ; thus she was 
twice a widow before reaching her thirtieth year.* On the 12th of 
July, 1543, she became the sixth wife of Henry VHI., the ceremony 
being performed in the Queen's Closet at Hampton Court, in the 
presence of their principal relatives, including the Princesses Mary 

• Dugdale (" Baronage," p. 313) states that she had a son and a daughter by Lord Latimer; but this 
is a manifest mistake as to one at least, as Lord Latimer's only son, John, was summoned to Parliament in 
1 543 ; so could not have been many years her junior. " 

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Ttrav H hy E. J.. MVi/j/nuix/. 

From a Carving in Boxwood, by Holbein, 

Formerly in the Strazvberry Hill Collection. 

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and Elizabeth.* She was nearly related to royalty, indeed almost 
within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity, being descended from 
John of Gaunt, fourth son of King Edward IILf After her elevation 
to the throne Katherine displayed all the highest qualities ; her discre- 
tion saved her from the machinations of Gardiner, and her learning 
and piety suited her to her high and dangerous position, securing the 
love and confidence of her capricious husband. On the 7th of July, 
1544, Katherine ^as appointed Regent of the kingdom during the 
absence of Henry in France. Boulogne surrendered in September, 
and on the king s return she received the highest commendation for 
her conduct during the brief period when sovereign power was placed 
in her hands. 

Katherine was the first Protestant queen ; " the nursing mother of 
the Reformation ; "J a good friend she proved to Cambridge when the 
revenues of the University were threatened, and in every way that 
discretion permitted did she encourage learning and the reformed 
religion. There is every proof that the kindest feeling existed between, 
herself and the young prince and the princesses. In a letter to her from 
the prince, he expresses his thanks for her loving and tender letters, 
full of comfort and encouragement, and prays that God will enable him 
to satisfy her good expectation of him. In a letter from her to Mary, 
the princess is encouraged to publish a translation of Erasmus's 
Paraphrase of St John's Gospel § under her own name; the Princess 
Elizabeth, when eleven years of age, translated from the French a 
small work entitled " The Mirrour or Glasse of the Synnful Soule," and 
which she dedicated thus : " To our most noble and virtuous Queen 
Katherine, Elizabeth, her humble daughter, wisheth perpetual felicity 
and everlasting joy.'* II 

* Miss Strickland's " Life of Queen Katharine Parr," from which much of the following information is 

t **The Parrs of Kendal Castle," by Sir George Duckctt, bart, read at Appleby, July 28, 1875. 
Art. xix. 

X So styled in the Preface to Udal's translation of Erasmus' " Paraphrase." 

§ This was afterwards published by Udal in his own name, and dedicated to Queen K. Parr. In the 
preface he gives great praise to the virtuous, noble, and most studious Princess Mary, and all merit to the 
Queen for the encouragement she gave to the translation of the Paraphrases into the vulgar tongue, and for 
which England can never render thanks sufficient. 

II This letter is preserved in the Bodleian Library. 

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The queen retained the love of her husband to the last ; and when 
for the third time she became a widow, on the 28th of January, 1547, the 
king's will bore testimony to his high estimation of her many virtues ; 
he bequeathed to her ^^3000 in plate, jewels, and stuff of household 
goods, with such apparel as she should be pleased to take, ;^iooo in 
money, and the amount of her dower as was agreed in parliament. 

After the death of the king, Katherine was paid all the honour due 
to a queen-dowager, and she took up her residence at a beautiful 
mansion at Chelsea, on the banks of the Thames. Here she soon 
received the clandestine visits of her former ardent lover, Seymour, 
who had withdrawn his first suit -on finding his rival to be none other 
than the powerful, and not to be gainsaid, king. 

As Seymour from this time assumes an important position in our 
Sudeley chronicles, it will be well here to glance at a few of the 
principal events in his life prior to the king's death. He was the 
fourth son of Sir John Seymour, and descended from a long line of 
distinguished ancestors. On the marriage of his eldest sister with 
Henry VHL, he was soon brought into contact with the dangerous 
element of the court. Dugdale has described him as being *' in fashion 
courtly, in personage stately, and in voice magnificent." Possessed of 
these attractive powers, no wonder he gained so great an influence 
over both the Princess Elizabeth and Queen Katherine Parr, even to 
beguiling the latter from that strict propriety for which she had 
hitherto been so highly distinguished. In 1537 Seymour was 
appointed one of the gentlemen of the Privy Chamber ; his promotion 
was rapid, nor was the death of his sister followed by any diminution 
of the king's favour. In 1538 he was knighted. His great attraction 
in person and manner gave rise to a popular belief that he was 
possessed of some magic art in gallantry. About this time it was 
proposed that he should unite himself to the daughter of Thomas 
Howard, duke of Norfolk. There is an interesting letter on this sub- 
ject from Sir Ralph Sadleir to the Lord Cromwell in Haynes State 
Papers. This marriage, however, did not take place, and we know 
that his daring ambition subsequently led him successively to aspire to 
the hand of the Princess Mary and the Princess Elizabeth. So high 

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did he stand in the estimation of King Henry VIII., that we find him 
constantly engaged in visiting the various courts of Europe, sometimes 
with the delicate mission of making proposals of marriage, sometimes 
to carry on the more dangerous negociations for war. In the war with 
France, Seymour was placed in positions of great trust, having at one 
time the command of the whole army. A few months later he was 
Master of the Ordnance, and the following year Admiral of the king's 
Navy. With his usual energy he entered into all these various and 

^ arduous duties, and must have continued to the last in the possession of 
his royal master's esteem and confidence, for after Henry's death his 
name was found to be among the Privy Council appointed to assist the 
executors in carrying out the king's will. Sir William Paget, the 
Secretary of State, asserted that it was the king's intention before he 

■ died to create some peers ; consequently many new titles were con- 
ferred, and in accordance with this wish, Sir Thomas was created Lord 
Seymour of Sudeley. His brother, as is well known, received the title 
of Duke of Somerset, and was also appointed Protector of the young 
king and his kingdom. 

Most of the new-made peers obtained grants of Church lands to 
support their titles, and to none perhaps did a larger share of this 
plunder fall than to the Seymours. Sir Thomas had already received 
abbey lands in the counties of Wilts, Berks, Oxford, Gloucester, 
Somerset, and Middlesex, from Henry VIII. (1541) ;* now he had a 
further grant of no less than nineteen manors in Gloucestershire alone. 
Among them are the familiar names of manors and parishes in our 
own immediate neighbourhood : the site of the Monastery of Winch- 
combe, Hailes Abbey f and manor, the manor of Teddington and 
parish of Ashchurch, Cirencester Abbey, and Didbrooke ; tithes in 
Dumbleton, Hawling, Rowell, Horsley, Postlip, Aston-Somerville, 
Aston-Subedge, Southam, J Painswick, Lidney, Pinnock, Stow and 
Nethercot, and Tewkesbury ; lands in Greet and Gretton and Bishops- 
cleeve, and tithes in Saintbury and Weston-Subedge belonging to 

• See Particulars for Grants, in the X. Report, Public Records, App. II., pp. 268, 269. 

t For Hailes Abbey, see Mr. Loftus Brock's paper, British Archaeological Association, Aug. 1875. 

X Rudder, p. 370. 


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From Hailes Abbey. Brought to 
Winchcombe in 1800 by Mr. 
Baldwyn, Steward to C. H. 
Tracy, Esq., of Toddington. 
Presented by Mr. R. Castle. 

the Abbey of Winchcombe, also a portion 
of tithes in Snowshill, the manor having 
been previously assigned to Katherine 
Parr in part of her dower by Henry 
VIII.; at her death it was granted by 
Edward VI. to John, earl of Warwick. 
Stanton Rectory was also part of her 

When the young King Edward first, 
went in state to Westminster, after his 
father's death, Seymour, as Lord High 
Admiral, was prominent in the proces- 
sion among officers of state, ambassa- 
dors, nobles, knights, and gentlemen. On 
the following day at the coronation, he 
was assisting as train-bearer with the 
Earl of Warwick and the Marquis of 
Northampton. Again, on the day fol- 
lowing, royal jousts were held against all 
comers, and foremost among the chal- 
lengers was Lord Seymour. *'At night 
they returned in goodly order as they 
came to my Lord Admiral's house, where 
they had a goodly supper prepared for 
them, with great feasts and knowledge.'** 

Immediately after the king's death 
Seymour had the assurance to make pro- 
posals of marriage to the Princess Eliza- 
beth, doubtless encouraged by her gover- 
ness, Mrs. Ashley, who affirmed that if 
the king had lived a few days longer she 
would have been given in marriage to 

♦ For further and very interesting details see " Life of 
T. Seymour," by Sir John Maclean, published in 1869, from 
Sute Papers and other authentic documents. 

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/ntpjSh^ Ji:>6^^^ 'n^ymjt ^^&Sl ifttSb ^<««/^ <*».*»ifca/»V»i Si^r^' o 

^' f'**5f^ft^ 





ni^^ ^rtene}^ 


r^ - 




Facsimile of Katherine Parr's Letter to Seymour of Sudeley, 


(Formerly in the Collection at Strawberry Hill). 

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Seymour. His letter of proposal is dated February 26th, 1547, and 
in Elizabeth s reply, dated the 27th, she tells him that she has neither 
the years nor the inclination to think of marriage at present, and that 
she intended to mourn for the king, her father,' two years.* Four days 
after this refusal, Seymour was the accepted lover of Queen Katherine 
Parr. The following letter from the queen to Seymour will best 
explain this particular period of her history.f 


" My Lord, 

" I send you my most humble and hearty commendations, being desirous to 
know how ye have done since I saw you. I pray you be not offended with me in that 
I send sooner to you than I said I would, for my promise was but once in a fortnight. 
Howbeit the time is well abbreviated, by what means I know not, except the weeks be 
shorter at Chelsea than in other places. My Lord, your brother hath deferred answer 
concerning such requests as I made to him till his coming hither, which he saith shall be 
immediately after the term. This is not his first promise I have received of his coming, 
anil yet unperformed I think my Lady hath taught him that lesson ; for it is her custom 
to promise many comings to her fiiends, and to perform none. I trust in greater matters 
she is more circumspect And thus, my Lord, I make an end, bidding you most heartily 
farewell, wishing you the good I would myself. — From Chelsea. 

" I would not have you to think that this mine honest good will towards you to pro- 
ceed of any sudden motion or passion ; for as truly as God is God, my mind was fully 
bent the other time I was at liberty, to marry you before any man 1 know. Howbeit God 
withstood my will therein most vehemently for a time, and through His grace and good- 
ness made that possible which seemeth to me most impossible ; that was, made me to 
renounce utterly mine own will, and to follow His will most willingly. It were too long 
to A\Tite all the process of this matter — if I live I shall declare it to you myself. I can say 
nothing, but as my Lady of Suffolk saith, * God is marvellous man.* By her that is yours 
to serve andjobey during her life. 

" Katherine the Queen, K. R" J 

Seymour persuaded Katherine to marry him secretly, early in 1547; 
but as this appeared shamefully soon after the death of the king, it 

* Leti's Life of the Princess Elizabeth. 

t The spelling is modernized. 

X This letter was purchased at the Strawberry Hill sale, by John C. Dent, Esq., and is now in the 
Sudeley Castle collection. It has two indorsements. One, in the handwriting of her time, "The Queen's 
*etler from Chelsea to my Lord Admiral. The answer to the Tx^rd Admiral of her former loves;" the 
other, in a modern hand, " Q. K. Parr's letter, wrote the year she died, which was 1548, to her consort 
Thomas Seymour, Lord llii;h Admiral of England." 

\ 2 

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was carefully concealed, and he even induced young Edward to plead 
for him, as if the matter was yet unsettled. A letter also remains 
from the Princess Mary to Seymour, showing that she also must 
have been importuned to further his suit with the queen (though 
they were already married), which she delicately declines to do. 
These things were urged against him at a subsequent day, in the 
bill of attainder through which he lost his head. After the death 
of Henry VIII. the Princess Elizabeth was consigned to the care 
of Katherine Parr, with whom she then took up her abode at Chelsea. 
The Princess Mary was particularly offended with this hasty mar- 
riage, and was very desirous for her sister to withdraw from their 
protection. Then it was that Katherine Parr's happiness was so 
soon disturbed by the indiscreet conduct of her husband, full particu- 
lars of which, and of the scandalous reports which followed, are 
given in Haynes' State Papers. In reading these statements, it 
should constantly be borne in mind that the princess was but a child, 
having just attained her fourteenth year ; that blame was due only 
to the Admiral and Mrs. Ashley, her governess ; all credit being 
due to Katherine Parr for so promptly removing her from further 

In the mean time, Sudeley Castle, which had been granted to 
Seymour* by his nephew, the young king, presented a busy scene. In 
the former reign, according to Leland, " it was going to ruin, more the 
pity ! " but now the property of Seymour, it was rapidly being meta- 
morphosed, from the neglected uninhabited Castle, into a residence of 
fitting splendour for the'queen as Seymour's happy bride. Erom morn 
till eve, and far into the night, were the workmen busily employed. 
Walls were covered with scaffolding, stonemasons without and car- 
penters within, hurrying forward their work of preparation ; for daily 
was the queen expected to take up her residence within the precincts 
of the Castle. At the south-east end of the inner quadrangle the most 

* This document, of which there is a copy among the Sudeley MSS., confirms the titles and gifts of his 
royal father, and further grants to him, among other lands, *' all our hundred of Kiftsgate, Holford, and 
Greateston, and reversions, including the manor of Sudeley and the possessions of the Abbey of Winch- 
combe, &c. Dated Westminster, Aug. 19, 1547." 

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skilled workmen were employed, setting forth their best efforts to 
adorn and complete a suite of apartments which were being especially 

East View of low Embattled Tower. The upper door is now a window. 

prepared for the private use of the queen. These communicated with 
the kitchens and servants* offices by means of a long covered corridor 
or cloister, which led to the other side of the quadrangle, in the centre 

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of which was the spacious kitchen, with a fireplace measuring twelve 
feet, suggestive of sheep, and even oxen, that may have been roasted 
whole. From another door of the small room leading into the present 
long corridor, there was a short passage, and door* communicating 
with a tower, or, as some imagine,t leading by a staircase to a cloister 
which connected the Castle with the family pew on the south side of 
the chapel. This first quadrangle has been attributed by some to 
Seymour, but the time between his becoming possessor of the Castle 
and occupation, would not have sufficed for so great a work ; we must 
therefore conclude it was either of a subsequent erection, or that he 
magnificently restored what he found already existing. One of these 
small doors led by a passage to a winding staircase communicating 
with the reception room above, and the banqueting hall below. The 
upper room, according to Leland, ** was glazed with berall," and must 
have been of great beauty, as may yet be traced in the remains of its 
light architecture, elegant fan-tracery, and oriel windows. At the 
time of its restoration by Seymour, it was decorated with armorial bear- 
ings, and the walls hung with varied coloured and foreign tapestry. 
The great room, still called the Banqueting Hall, was of the same 
extent as the one above; according to the custom of the period, it 
was the general resort of the occupants of the Castle, and was deco- 
rated with trophies of the chase and banners taken from the enemy 
in war. Jl 

When all was complete, and the queen, with the *' magnificent " 
Seymour and their lordly retinue, first graced by their presence this 
now ruined and dismantled hall, then was realised the poet's dream : 

'* Illumining the vaulted roof 
A thousand torches flamed aloof; 
From massive cups with golden gleam, 
Sparkled the red metheglin's stream : 
To grace the gorgeous festival, 
Along the lofty window'd hall 

* This door is now replaced by a stained glass window, representing Queen Elizabeth, 
f The late Earl of Ellenborough, our neighbour of Southam, was of this opinion. 
X The boundary line of this wall was preserved by the Mr. Dents, who also restored one of the 
windows, which thus formed a support to the ruins above. 

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The storied tapestry was hung : 
With minstrelsy the rafters rung 
Of harps, that with reflected light 
From the proud gallery glitter'd bright." 

The following lines by Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, cousin to the 
queen, taken from the Throckmorton MS. employed by Miss Strick- 
land, refer to her ntlarriage with Seymour, and the courtly state in 
which she then resided : 

" Her husband, fourth, was uncle to the king, 

Lord Seymour, high by office, Admiral, 
In praise of whom loud peals I ought to ring ; 

For he was hardy, wise, and liberal ; 
His climbing high, disdained by his peers. 
Was thought the cause he lived not out his years. 
Her house was deem'd a second Court, of right. 

Because there flocked still nobility ; 
He spared no cost his lady to delight, 

Or to maintain her princely royalty." 

The queen's establishment consisted of "a retinue of ladies in 
waiting, maids of honour, and gentlewomen in ordinary, besides the 
appointments for her expected nursery, and lying-in-chamber, and more 
than a hundred and twenty gentlemen of her household, and yeomen 
of the guard/'* Here also she assembled round her several of the 
most learned men among the lights of the reformed religion for her 
chaplains ; and she caused divine worship to be performed twice a day 
or oftener, in her house. Among the endless interesting associations 
which cluster round Sudeley : not the least is, that the glorious freedom 
of the Reformation was here encouraged, and the searchers after truth 
found their faith confirmed and their courage strengthened to meet the 
fiery ordeal which so soon awaited them! Here, too, was Miles 
Coverdale encouraged to forward the revised translation of the Scrip- 
tures, afterwards known as the Geneva Bible, thereby to replace, with 
grand and simple truths, the childish fables which hitherto had been 
too sadly interspersed with the higher teachings of the Church. The 
words of Coverdale may here be quoted, as his memory must ever be 

♦ Miss Strickland's " Life of Katharine Parr." 

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affectionately linked with our Church and Castle ; who dead yet speaks, 
and commends to our love, what Tyndal had boasted he would soon 
put within the reach of every plough-boy in Gloucestershire, namely, 
the Holy Scriptures in our mother tongue : 

*' As for the commendation of God's Holy Scripture," he wrote, " I would fain 
magnify it as it is worthy, but I am far insufficient thereto, and therefore I thought it 
better for me to hold my tongue than with few words to praise* or commend it ; exhorting 
thee, most dear reader, so to love it, so to cleave unto it, and so to follow it in thy daily 
conversation, that other men, seeing thy* good works, and the fruits of the Holy Ghost in 
thee, may praise the Father of Heaven, and give this word a good report, for to live after 
the law of God and to lead a virtuous conversation, is the greatest praise that thou canst 
give unto his doctrine." * 

With such like holy words must he, as chaplain, often have exhorted 
in his daily sermon, not only the queen and her retinue, but the 
youthful Lady Jane Grey, who was then an inmate of the Castle, placed 
under the immediate care of Queen Katherine Parr, and with whom she 
resided till her death. It was a cherished wish of the queen's to see 
this studious, thoughtful girl united one day to the scholarly young 
king who was then upon the throne. It was, therefore, with almost 
more than maternal solicitude that she ever strove to influence her for 
good, both in her studies and by thus bringing her into contact with 
the wisest and best of the Reformed Church. The Admiral's distaste 
to the pious regulations of the Castle, however, was proverbial — and he 
proved a great let and hindrance to others ; for this, Latimer took an 
opportunity of holding him up to public censure, comparing him at such 
times to a mole getting himself away into the earth. 

Far wiser had it been for Seymour to have joined his royal consort 
in her holy purposes, than to have commenced thus early his downward 
course of intrigue and cabal against the Protector. But so it was, and 
in a gentleman of the Court, named John Fowler, he soon found an apt 
and ready accomplice. In a long letter from him to the Admiral, dated 
July, 1548, we find him conveying messages from the young king, 
darkly insinuating distrust and fear of the Protector ; saying that, if 
under less surveillance, he would write more to the Admiral, begging 

B. F. Westcotfs ** General View of the History of the English Bible." 

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AV ;.i'.:. :^A.v ,1 , 

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secresy, and, it may be inferred, making a request for Seymour to be 
ready if needed, to supply the young king with money. This was but 
one of the many intrigues which reached the Protector's ears ; bearing 
in mind how subsequently the accusations thickened against him, and 
the feud between the brothers increased, it is greatly to the credit of 
the Protector that, in the beginning, he most affectionately warned 
Seymour of the course he must pursue, in accordance with his duty 
and office, if he continued to receive so many serious complaints 
against him. 

Among the Burghley State Papers (referring to "confessions" or 
" statements " made after the queen's death, and on the occasion of 
Seymour's trial) a conversation is recorded which shows that Katherine 
evidently considered that, as the lands of Sudeley were granted to her 
and Seymour solely from the regency, so they were held on very slight 
tenure. More than this, with her keen sense of justice, and ever keep- 
ing at heart the welfare of the prince and princesses, she saw it would 
only be due to the king to restore what had thus been so liberally 
granted. The conversation is so interesting that I give it verbatim 
from Robert Tyrwhit's confession : " One day at Sudley, walking in 
the park, amongst many communications, the queen's grace said thus : 
' Master Tyrwhit, you shall see the king when he cometh to his full 
age, he will call his lands again, as fast as they be now going from 
him : ' * Marry,' said I, ' then is Sudley Castle gone from my Admiral' 
* Marry, I do assure you,' answered the queen, * he intends to offer 
them to the king, and give them freely to him at that time.' " This 
was nobly spoken by a noble woman, who as yet knew nothing of her 
husband s avarice or treachery. She believed in and passionately loved 
her handsome and fascinating Seymour ; for, whatever in other respects 
may have been his faults, he too loved her, and treated her with all loyal 
kindness and tender consideration, as may be gathered from the many 
affectionate letters which passed between them. 

Mayhap, thy spirit found deep rest. 

No longer chafed by Monarch's frown, 

Or empty bauble of a crown, 
In this fair palace of the West ; 

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Where thou didst reign, with gentle sway, 

Among thy happy sisterhood ; 

Communing with the wise and good — 
Meek Coverdale, and saintiy Grey. 

F. R. Traill. 

One more occupant of the Castle may here be named, before in 
imagination we turn our steps up the winding staircase to witness, alas 1 
the too soon closing scene of Katherine's felicity. An interesting letter 
from the Princess Mary to the queen at this time, praying for health and 
** a good success to her grace's condition," brings before us the Marquis of 
Northampton, Katherine's brother, who had been visiting the princess, 
to be the bearer, it might be, of greetings from her to his sister at 
Sudeley. Miss Strickland states that " the marquis had made an 
unhappy marriage with the heiress of Essex ; and his guilty wife was 
placed under some restraint at Sudeley Castle, and in the keeping of 
her royal sister-in-law."* This, however, is an inaccurate statement, 
for, as Burnet f distinctly proves (and which is far more probable), he 
was justly divorced from his first wife, Anne Bourchier, daughter of 
the Earl of Essex, but, according to the ecclesiastical law of that time 
divorce was only "i mensa et thoror whilst the marquis was resolved 
to marry again. The bishops took the question up as a new case, 
inquiring whether she was not so lawfully divorced by the word of God 
as to leave her husband free. Cranmer went into the subject enthusi- 
astically, examining the opinions of Fathers and Doctors so copiously, 
that the collection grew into a large book, and took so long time that 
the marquis cut short the difficulty by marrying Elizabeth, daughter to 
Lord Cobham. This taking the law into his own hands gave great 
offence to the learned divines who were studying the rights of the 
case ; and they ordered that he and his wife should be parted till 
they had quite decided whether this second marriage was according to 
the word of God or not, and that, in the meantime, his new wife should 
be placed under the guardianship of the queen-dowager, his sister, then 
residing at Sudeley Castle. The case was finally decided in his favour ; 

* " Life of Katharine Parr," p. 277. 

t " History of the Reformation," Part II., Book I., p. 93. 

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{To face p. ijx. 

Exterior of Queen Katherine Parr's Nursery. From a Photograph by 

Marianne Brocklehurst 

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but four years later he was advised to have a special act of parliament 
to confirm this sentence. 

The account given by Miss Strickland of the preparations made 
for the expected infant, and of the facts connected with the queen's 
death, is so graphic, that no apology is needed for here quoting the 
same verbatim : 

" Katharine fitted up the apartments which she destined for the reception of her first- 
bora with no less state and magnificence than if she had been still queen-consort of 
England. The outer apartment, or day nursery, was hung with fair tapestry, representing 
the twelve months. .A chair of state, covered with cloth of gold, cushions of cloth of gold, 
all the other seats being tabourets with embroidered tops, and a gilded bedstead, with 
tester curtains, and counterpoint of corresponding richness. The inner chamber was also 
hung with costly tapestry, specified as * six fair pieces of hangings ; ' and besides the rich 
cradle, with its three down pillows and quilt, there was a bed with a tester of scarlet and 
curtains of crimson taffeta, with a counterpoint of silk serge, and a bed for the nurse, with 
counterpoints of imagery to please the babe. A goodly store of costly plate, both white 
and parcel-gilt, was also provided for the table service of the anticipated heir. Local 
tradition still points to a beautiful embowed window, of the most elaborate Tudor-gothic 
order of architecture, which commands the fairest prospect and the best air, as the nursery 
window, par excellence ; but the inventory of ' the plate and stuff as belongeth to the 
nursery of the queen's child,' enumerates carpets for four windows, whereof this surviving 
relic retains, after the lapse of three centuries, the unforgotten name of the nursery-window. 
It looks upon the chapel-green, and towards another scene sacred to the recollections of 
England's royal dead, — St, Kenelm's wood." 

On the 30th of August, 1548, Katherine Parr gave birth, at Sudeley 
Castle, to the infant whose appearance had been so fondly anticipated 
both by Seymour and herself. It was a girl, and though both parents 
had confidently expected a boy, no disappointment was expressed. 
On the contrary, Seymour, in a transport of paternal pride, wrote so 
eloquent a description of the beauty of the new-born child to his 
brother, the duke of Somerset, that the latter added the following 
kind postscript to a stem letter of expostulation and reproof, which 
he had just finished writing to him when he received his joyous 
communication : * 

" After our right hearty commendations. 
" We are right glad to understand by your letters that the queen, your bedfellow, 

The spelling is modernized. 

z 2 

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hath had a happy hour ; and, escaping all danger, hath made you the father of so pretty 
a daughter. And although (if it had so pleased God) it would have been both to us, and 
we suppose also to you, a more joy and comfort if it had been this the first a son ; yet the 
escape of the danger, and the prophecy and good hansell of this to a great sort of happy 
sons, the which, as you iMite, we trust no less than to be true, is no small joy and comfort 
to us, as we are sure it is to you and to her Grace also ; to whom you shall make again 
our hearty commendations with no less gratulation of such good success. Thus we bid 
you heartily farewell. 

" Your loving brother, 

"E. Somerset. 
" From Sion, the ist of Sepr. 1548." 

From this letter, it is evident that Lord Thomas had been casting 
horoscopes and consulting fortune-tellers, who had promised him loog 
life and **a great sort of sons." It is difficult to imagine that the 
Admiral, however faulty his morale might be on some points, could 
cherish evil intentions against her who had just caused his heart to 
overflow for the first time with the ineffable raptures of paternity. 
The charge of having caused the death of the queen by poison can 
only be regarded as the fabrication of his enemies, neither is there the 
slightest reason to believe that the unfavourable symptoms which 
appeared on the third day after her delivery, were either caused or 
aggravated by his unkindness. On the contrary, his manner towards 
her, when she was evidently suffering under the grievous irritability of 
mind and body incidental to puerperal fever, appears, from the deposi- 
tion of Lady Tyrwhit, one of the most faithful and attached of her 
ladies, to have been soothing and affectionate. Let the reader judge 
from the subjoined record of that sad scene in the chamber of the 
departing queen. It is called the " Confession of Lady Elizabeth 
Tyrwhit," and exists among the Burghley papers ; evidently a deposi- 
tion of one of the ladies in waiting when the bill of attainder was being 
prepared against Seymour. 

"A two days before the death of the queen, at my coming to her in the morning, she 
asked me where I had been so long, and said unto me, she did fear such things in herself 
that she was sure she could not live ; whereunto I answered, as I thought that I saw no 
likelihood of death in her. She then, having my Lord Admiral by the hand, and divers 
others standing by, spake these words, partly as I took it, idly, * My Lady Tyrwhit, I am not 
well handled, for those that be about me careth not for me, but standeth laughing at my 
grief; and the more good I will to them, the less good they will to me;', whereunto my 

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\,To face p. 172. 

Interior of Queen Katherine Parr's Nursery. Fron: a Drawing by E. L. Wedgwood. 

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Lord Admiral answered, * Why, sweetheart, I would you no hurt ; ' and she said to him 
again aloud, ' No, my lord, I think so ; ' and immediately she said to him in his ear, 'but, 
ray lord, you have given me many shrewd taunts,* Those words I perceived she spake 
with good memory and very sharply and earnestly, for her mind was sore unquieted. 
My Lord Admiral, perceiving that I heard it, called me aside, and asked me what she said, 
and I declared it plainly to him. Then he consulted with me that he would lie down on 
the bed by her, to look if he could pacify her unquietness with gentle communication \ where- 
unto I agreed And by that time he had spoken three or four words to her, she answered 
him very roundly and shortly, saying, * My lord, I would have given a thousand marks 
to have had my full talk with Huyck * the first day I was delivered, but I dared not for 
displeasing of you : ' and I hearing of that, my heart would serve me to hear no more. 
Such like communication she had with him the space of an hour : which they did hear 
that sat by her bedside. 

" Elizabeth Tyrwhit," 

On the very day when the scene occurred thus described by Tyrwhit, 
Katherine Parr dictated her will, which is still extant in the Prerogative 
Office ; it is dated September 5, 1 548, and is to the following effect : 
" That she then lying on her death-bed, sick of body, but of good mind 
and perfect memory and discretion, being persuaded, and perceiving 
the extremity of death to approach her, gives all to her married espouse 
and husband, wishing them to be a thousand times more in value than 
they were, or been." There are no legacies; and the witnesses are 
two well-known historical characters, Robert Huyck, M.D., and John 

This is a nuncupative or verbal will; it was not signed by the 
dying queen, which we find was usually the case with death-bed 
royal wills of that era. The witnesses were persons of high character, 
and even sacred authority in a sick chamber, being the physician 
and chaplain. Parkhurst was then rector of Bishop's Cleeve in this 
neighbourhood, having been previously presented to the living by 
Lord Seymour, when it came into his patronage among the numerous 
other church preferments already mentioned. Katherine Parr ex- 
pired on the seventh day after the birth of her child. She was 
only in the thirty-sixth year of her age, having survived her royal 
husband, Henry VHI., but one year, six months and eight days. Her 

Robert Huyck, M.D., afterwards physician to both Maty and Elizabeth. 

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character is thus recorded by a contemporary, quoted by Strype : ** She 
was endued with a pregnant wittiness, joined with right wonderful 
grace of eloquence, studiously diligent in acquiring knowledge, as 
well of human discipline as also of the Holy Scr^tures ; of incom- 
parable chastity, which she kept not only from all spot, but from all 
suspicion, by avoiding all occasions of idleness, and contemning vain 

There is a curious poem, of 1 74 lines, ' • The Flower of Fame," 
"In prayse of the renowned Ladye, Queen Katherine Par," compiled 
by Ulpian FuUwell in 1575. In it the queen is described as worthy of 
fame and possessing every virtue, but it is too long for insertion. 
Fuller, also, in his *' Church History" speaks of her in the highest 
terms of commendation. 

Her remains were deposited with much funereal pomp in the chapel 
of the Castle, notwithstanding that the late king had left directions for 
her remains to be deposited within the same vault as his own prepared 
for that purpose at Windsor. 

The following details of her obsequies are extracted from a curious 
MS. in the Heralds' College,* and entitled ''A Bake of Buryalh of 
truly noble per softs!' A circumstance renders this doubly interesting, 
inasmuch as it is an account of the first royal funeral solemnized 
according to Protestant rites. 

** A Brevyate of th' entirement 
of the lady Katheryn Pane 
Quene Dowager, late Wiefe 
to Kinge Henry th' eight, and 
after wiefe to Sr. Thomas Lord 
Seymour of Sudeley & highe 
Admirall of Englond, 

" Itm. on Wenysdaye the Vth of Septembre between ij & iij of the Clocke in the 
mominge died the aforeseid Ladye late Quene Dowager at the Castle of Sudeley, in 
Glocestre Shyre, 1548 ; and lyethe buried in the Chapell of the seid Castle. 

** Itm. she was cearied and chested in leade accordinglie, and so remayned in her 
pryvie Chambre until things were in a redynes. 

• This is No. VI. of a "Collection of Ceremonials " made by Ralph Brooke, York herald, in the time 
of James L It is taken from a work now in the Cottonian Library, British Museum. 

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« Hereafter foHcmcth the 
Fvision in the ChapelL 

" Itm. hit was hanged w* blacke clothe garnished w*** schoocheons of maryages, 
vizd. King Henrye th' eight and her in pale under the Crowne, her own in lozenge under 
the Crowne. Allso th' armes of the lord Admyrall and hers in pale w***out crowne. 

" Itm. reyles cov'id w*** blacke clothe for the mourners to syt in w* stooles and 
cussheons accordinglie w***out eyther hersse mat" & vallence or tapres savinge ij tapres 
whereon were ij schoocheons w*** stode uppon the corps duringe the servyce. 

" Th* ordre in proceadinge 
to the chappelL 

" Fyrst ij conductors in blacke w*** black staves 
Then Gentlemen and Esquiers 
Then Knights 

Then officers of household w* theyre whyte staves 
Then the gentlemen huisshers 
Then Som'sett heraulde in the Ks cote 
Then the Corps borne by vi Gentlemen in blacke gownes w* theyre hodes on 

theyre heades 
Then xl staffe Torches borne on Eche side by Yeomen round about the Corps and 

at eche comer a Knight for essystence iiij with theyre hodes on theyre heades 
Then the ladye Jane (Doughter to the lorde M'ques Dorsett) chefe mourner, ledde 

by * * * * her trayne borne uppe by a younge ladye 
Then vi other ladye mourners ij & ij 
Then all ladyes and gentlewomen ij & ij 
Then all other followinge. 

" The Mann' of the Service 
in the Churche. 

" Itm. when the Corps was sett w^^'in the Rayles and the mourners placid the hole 
Quere began and song certen Salmes in Englishe and read iij lessons. After the iij"**" 
lesson the mourners accordinge to theyre degrees & as yt ys accustomyd offerid into the 
alms boxe. And when they had don, all other as Gentlemen or Gentlewomen that wolde. 

"The offeringe don Doctor Cov'dall [Coverdale] the Quenes Aimer began his 
Sermonde wh*^ was verie good and godlie. And in one place thereof he toke A occasion 
to declare unto the people howe that thei shulle none there thinke Seye nor spredde 
abrode that the offeringe wh*"** was there done was don anye thinge to pTytt the deade but 
ffor the poor onlye. And allso the lights wh*=^ were carid and stode abowte the Corps 
were ffor the honnour of the parsson & for none other entente nor purpose. And so went 
throughe w*** hys Sermonde and made a Godlye prayer. And th' ole Churche annswerid 
and praied the same w^ hym in th' ende. 

" The Sermonde don the Corps was buried duringe w** tyme the Quere songe Te 
Deum in Englisse. 

" And this don aftre dinn' the mourners and the rest that wolde retumid homeward 
agayne all w** aforeseid was don in a momynge." 

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The beautiful alabaster monument erected in the Chapel to her 
memory bore the following Latin epitaph, written by her chaplain, Dr. 
Parkhurst : 

" Hoc Regina novo dormit Katharina sepulchro, 

Sexus foeminei flos, honor, atque decus : 
Haec fuit Henrico conjux fidissima regi, 

Quern postquam e vivis Parca tulisset atrox, 
Thomae Seymero (cui tu, Neptune, tridentem 

Ponrigis) eximio nupserat ilia viro : 
Huic peperit natam ; a partu cum septimus orbem 

Sol illustrasset, mors truculenta necat 
Defunctam madidis famuli deflemus ocellis 

Humescit tristes terra Britanna genas : 
Nos infelices moeror consumit acerbus, 

Inter caelestes gaudet at ilia choros." 

Of which the following is an elegant translation : 

" In this new tomb the royal Katharine lies ; 
Flower of her sex, renowned, great and wise ; 
A wife, by every nuptial virtue known, 
And faithful partner once of Henry's throne, 
To Seymour next her plighted hand she yields — 
Seymour, who Neptune's trident justly wields ; 
From him a beauteous daughter bless'd her arms, 
An infant copy of her parent's charms. 
When now seven days this infant flower had bloom'd, 
Heaven in its wrath the mother's soul resumed." 

There is every reason to suppose that this is the tomb represented 
in Bentley's " Monument of Matrones " or " Seven Lamps of 
Virginitie" (Lond. 1582), to which this curious woodcut forms the 
frontispiece. It is in two divisions, separated by rainbow and clouds.* 
In the lower division are the dead rising out of their graves, the 
principal subject being the monumental figure of Katherine Parr, with 
hands clasped as in prayer, lying on a mattress, on the left hand corner 
of which is inscribed the words '* Queen Katherine : " also in this lower 
division are the words, " We must all appear before the judgment seat 
of Christ'' 

• This suggested the present east window in the restored Chapel at Sudeley. 

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In the upper division, which represents the Resurrection, is Christ 

Facsimile from the Monument of Matrones. 

on the judgment seat, in one hand holding a palm branch, in the other 
a crown which He appears to be placing on the head of a female figure. 

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supposed By Herbert* to be the Virgin Mary, but, considering the 
very Protestant spirit of the work, this must be erroneous, and it can 
be none other than the Queen risen from the dead. This idea is 
corroborated by the text which adorns the upper division of the wood- 
cut : ** Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of 
life/' ** Hallelujah, Hallelujah " proceed from the Queen's mouth. 
Other figures represent David and Solomon, virgins with lamps, 
angels blowing trumpets, and allegorical figures at the four corners. 

It will be seen from the sketch here given of the only remaining 
fragment of the original tomb, that the pattern of the mattress and 
folds of the robe correspond with those of the monumental figure. 

Fragment of Queen Katherine Parr's MoNUMENT.f 

Katherine Parr not only encouraged others to write, translate and 
publish, but was herself a scholar, as various Latin letters of hers 
testify, particularly one to the University of Cambridge, and another 
to the Princess Mary, the purport of which was to encourage her to 
publish in her own name the translation into English of Erasmus's 
Paraphrase of the Gospel of St. John after a careful revision by Dr. 
Mallet. The translation was finally accomplished by the queen engag- 
ing several learned men in the work, and defraying all the expenses 
herself Erasmus, the prince of scholars, by the impetus he gave to 

♦ Ames, " Typographical Antiquities." 

t This was not originally over the remains of Queen Katherine Parr, but was part of the monument 
inserted in the wall near to her grave. 

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the cultivation of languages connected with the Scriptures, greatly for- 
warded the Reformation. " But for languages," said one of those 
times, " the Church would still have been sitting in darkness ; the 
scabbard which contains the Sword of the Spirit would have been 
lost, the casket which holds the jewels, the vessels containing new 
wine, the baskets of loaves and fishes for the multitudes would have 
still remained unopened/' 

Her first composition seems to have been that entitled "Queen 
Katharine Parr's Lamentation of a sinner, bewailing the ignorance 
of her blind life" (London, 1^2, 1563). This discourse was found s^i\j 
among her papers after her death, and was published by Secretary 
Cecil, who prefixed to it a preface. In it she acknowledges the sinful 
course of her life for many years, in which relying on external perform- 
ances, such as fasts and pilgrimages, she was all the time a stranger 
to the true internal power of religion, which she came afterwards to 
experience by the study of the Scriptures, and she prays to God for 
the assistance of that Holy Spirit by whose direction they were indited. 
She explains clearly the ideas she had of justification by faith, so that 
holiness was its necessary consequence, and lamented the great scandal 
given by many " Gospellers," a name by which those were distinguished 
who gave themselves to the reading of the Scriptures.* 

She also published a book of ** Prayers and Meditations " collected 
out of Holy works. It contained fifteen psalms in imitation of the 
Psalms of David, each having its particular subject This work was 
translated the same year by the Princess Elizabeth into Latin, French 
and Italian. Katharine Parr also translated and published " A Goodlie 
Exposition of the Fifty-first Psalm which Hieron of Ferrara made at 
the latter end of his days ; " to this she added some smaller pieces 
of her own composition. 

The miniature by Holbein, from which the illustration of the Queen 
is taken, was formerly at Strawberry Hill, where it was purchased, by 
John Coucher Dent, Esq., when that valuable collection was dispersed. 
It was greatly admired by Miss Strickland, to whom we had the 

♦ Ballard's ** Life of Katherine Parr," p. 6i. 

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pleasure of showing it in 1848. The subsequent description of it 
published in her " Life of Katharine " is here given, as it is full of 
detail which may interest the admirers of Holbein's works. 

" The miniaUire is in a small oval, on a deep smalt-blue background. Her age is 
stated, in gilt figures in front of the picture, to be XXXII. ; so that the likeness must 
have been taken in the year 1545, about two years after her marriage with Henry VIII. 
Katharine is there represented with very small and delicately marked features, hazel eyes, 
and golden hair, folded in simple Madonna bands. Her forehead is lofty and serene, 
indicative of talent and sprightly wit. She wears a round crimson velvet hood or cap of 
state, edged with pearls, and surmounted with a jewelled band of goldsmith's work set 
with rubies and pearls, which confines a long black veil, that flows from the back of the 
head-dress over the shoulders. The bodice and sleeves of the dress are made of rich 
gold brocade, and set tight to the shape : the bodice is cut plain across the bust, like 
the corsage of a modem dress, and is edged with a row of pearls between pipes of black 
and crimson velvet. She wears a double row of large pearls about her neck, from which 
depends a ruby cross finished with one fair pendant pearl. Her bodice is ornamented 

with a large ruby brooch, set in filigree gold I enjoyed last summer the 

opportunity of a second inspection through a powerful magnifying glass, which enabled 
me, to my own surprise as well as that of every one else, to unfold an unsuspected 
mystery connected with the brooch that decorates the front of the bodice. That 
ornament, in actual measurement not much bigger than a large spangle, contains the 
miniature portrait of King Henry, croi^Tied and royally robed, seated on his throne under 
a canopy of state, supported by pillars, holding an orb in one hand, a sceptre in the other, 
having his foot on an ornamental stool : the whole is richly and elaborately decorated 
with burnished gold and imitations of coloured gems, principally rubies, sapphires, and 
pearls, — in fact, it is the smallest specimen of illumination ever seen. The marvel is, 
that eyes and fingers were ever formed to execute so diminutive a work of art. Perhaps 
this was the veritable miniature which the Admiral, Sir Thomas Seymour, obtained from 
Katharine, when he subsequently entreated her * to send him one of her little pictures, if 
she had not given them all away.' * A proof that several original miniatures of this Queen 
were painted, although they are now almost as rare and difficult to identify as those of 

Katharine Howard Katharine Parr was petite in form, with remarkably small 

and delicately cut features, and her complexion was that of a genuine Westmoreland 
beauty, brilliantly fair, and blooming, with hazel eyes and hair of a golden auburn, 
realising the beau ideal of Petrarca, when he exclaims : — 

* Love ! from what precious mine of gold didst thou 
Bring the rich glories of her shining hair ? 
Where pluck'd the opening roses, fresh and fair, 
Which on her cheeks in tender blushes glow ? ' " 

We have at Sudeley three locks of Katherine*s hair, which quite 

* See letter from Seymour to the Queen, Miss Strickland's " Katharine Parr," p. 261. 

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m^m ' 

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Katherine Parr. 

From a Miniatvrr by Holbein. 

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justify Miss Strickland's epithet of " golden auburn." One was given 
to us in 1817 by Edward Browne, Esq., of Winchcombe, another we 
received from Mrs. Stocker, of Twyning Manor- House, niece of the 
Mrs. Constable Maxwell who is named in Miss Strickland's " Queens " 
as being in possession of some of Katherine Parr's hair; and in 1866 
Mr. Samuel Lunell, of Clevedon, through Mrs. Townsend, of Bishop s 
Cleeve Rector)% presented us with a third. In the paper containing it 
was a note, as follows : — 

"A lock of Queen Catherine Par, sent me 20th June, 1793, by my friend Miss Wills 
of Cheltenham. It came with a letter (franked), and it remains in the identical strange 
package in which my friend folded it up. Catherine Par, the last wife of Henry VII I., 
was buried in the Chapel of Sudeley Castle on the left of the altar as you stand facing it 
Her body, to gratify the curiosity of many, was taken up three times. I had a lock of 
Catherine's, with a pin in it, just as it was taken from her head. It was given me by 
Mrs. Durham of Postlip Paper Works, in the neighbourhood of Winchcombe, which 
I had set (pin included, just as taken off), in a locket, and' given to the celebrated 
Elizabeth Hamilton." 

"Scripsit Wm Peter Lunell, 2d March, 1838." 

I feel that no apology is needed for quoting so freely from Miss 
Strickland's ''^Life of Katharine Parr." The talented authoress was 
herself descended from Katherine's kinsfolk, the Stricklands of Sizergh 
Castle,* and she made her life a special study. An engraving from the 
miniature thus minutely described illustrates her work, but is not an 
accurate copy, inasmuch as the hands are introduced, which are not in 
the original. It is now preserved with the other Holbein miniatures, 
also from Strawberry Hill, of Sir Thomas and Jane Seymour, in the 
little apartment which still retains the name of **The Queen's 
Nursery." f With these miniatures, were transferred from Strawberry 
Hill to Sudeley Castle, a valuable collection of portraits, well known as 
copies by Vertue from Holbein's portraits, many of which directly or 
indirectly are associated with the Sudeley Chronicles. 

The other portrait of Queen Katherine Parr in the same room with 
the Holbeins, is a copy of an original by Holbein in Lambeth Palace. 

* All who are interested in Queen Katherine Parr should take the opportunity, when at the Lakes, to 
visit Sizergh Castle, one of the most picturesque castles in Westmoreland, and where several of her most 
valuable relics are preserved. 

t On the backs of these miniatures are the initials of Horace Walpole, in his own hand. 

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The late Archbishop Sumner (formerly Bishop of Chester), kindly gave 
us permission to have it copied by Mr. Henry Shaw, F.S.A.* At the 
same time it must be observed, the portrait lacks all the characteristics 
of the Queen, and is more probably, as Miss Strickland suggested to us, 
that of Katherine Howard. 

The portrait of Katherine Parr in the Cumnor room is treated quite 
differently to that by Holbein ; it was the gift of Samuel Kent, Esq., 
of Levant Lodge, near Upton on Severn, in whose possession it had 
been for many years, with the tradition that it originally came from 
Sudeley Castle. It has been engraved. 

Among Katherine Parr's relics at Sudeley, the most interesting may 
be considered a book called " Devotional Tracts." It is thus described 
by its former owner, Dr. E. Charlton, in a communication to '* Notes 
and Queries," dated Newcastle-upon-Tyne, August i8, 1850. 

" The volume is a small duodecimo, bound in red velvet, with gilt leaves, and it has 
had ornamental borders and clasps of some metal, as the impressions of these are dis- 
tinctly visible upon the velvet covering. The contents of this volume are as follows : — 

" I. * A Sermon of St. Chrysestome,' &c., &c, translated into Englishe by the floure 
of lerned menne in his tyme, Thomas Lupsete, Londoner, 1534.' At the bottom of this 
title-page is written, in the well-known bold hand of Katherine Parr, *Kateryn the 
Queen, K. P./ with the equally well-known flourish beneath. 

"2. 'A Swete and Devoute Sermon of Holy Saynet Ciprian.' *The Rules of a 
Christian Life made by Picus/ &c., both translated into Englyshe by Sir T. Elyot. 
London, 1539. 

"3. 'An Exhortation to Younge Men,' &c, by Thomas Lupsete, 1534. 

"4. *0n Charitie,' 1534. 

" 5. * Here be the Gathered Counsailes of Sainte Isidorie/ &c., 1539. 

"6. * A Compendious Treatise on Dyenge Well,' &c. Thomas Lupsete, Londoner, 

" Almost all these treatises are printed by Thomas Berthelet, &c. On the fly-leaf 
opi)osite the first page we find the following scriptural sentences, which are in my 
opinion, and in that of others to whom I have shown the book, evidently wTitten by the 
hand of the Queen. It will only be necessary to give the first and last of these sentences : 

" ' Delyte not in y« multytude of ungodly men, and have no pleasure in y", for they 
feare not God.' 

" * Refuse not y« prayer of one y* is in trouble, and tume not away thy face from the 
nedye/ ^__ ^ 

• Some peculiarities respecting the original picture are noticed in a letter to us on the subject, from 
Mr. Shaw, 

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Seal of Queen Katherine Parr.— arch^ologia, vol. v., p. 232. 

The Parr Jug, the lid full size showing the 

From the Strawberry Hill Collection. 

PARR9Miifey Google 


" On the opposite side of the fly-leaf are some verses of a different character, and 
which I suspect to be from the royal pen of Henry VIII. The writing is uncommonly 
difficult to decipher, but it bears a strong resemblance to all that I have seen of Henry's 
handwriting. A portion of the verses, as far as I can make them out,* are here 
subjoined : — 

" Respect. 
" * Blush not, fayre nimphe, tho (nee ?) of nobell blod, 
I fain avoutch it, and of manners good, 
Spottles in lyf, of mynd sencere and sound, 
In whoam a world of vertues doth abowend, 
And sith besyd y' ye lycens giv withall, 
Sit doughts asyd and to some sporting fall, 
Therefoor, suspysion, I do banyshe thee.' 

" Then follows a line I cannot decipher, and at the bottom of the page is — 

" * You will be clear of my suspysion.' 

" Are these verses from some old poet, or are they composed, as well as written, by 
the royal tyrant ? for no other would, I think, have addressed such lines to * Kateryn the 

** 1 have only to add that the volume was given me by the sister of the late President 

of the English College at Valladolid, and that he obtained it during his residence in 

Spain. It is not unlikely it may have been carried thither by some of the English 

Catholics who resorted to that country for education. In 1625 it seems to have belonged 

to John Sherrott 

"E. Charlton, M.D." 

Another interesting relic is the Parr Jug, from the Strawberry Hill 
Collection, said to have belonged to Queen Katherine. The arms on 
the lid are those of her uncle, Lord Parr, of Horton, who, upon her 
elevation to the throne, was promoted to the office of lord chamberlain. 
He left no son, but the letters M. L. on the inside of the lid show 
that it became the property of his eldest daughter, Maud, who married 
Sir Ralph Lane. 

The following is a list of the few letters preserved of Queen 
Katherine : several of them have been printed by Strype, in the 
Appendix to Vol. H. of his "Annals." Among these are : 

Three to the King during his expedition to France in 1544 (from the Calais Corre- 
spondence, State Paper Office, Bundle IV., No. 411 B.).t A Latin letter to the Princess 

• Some of our friends have tried to decipher them, but without success, which will not appear surprising 
to any one who has seen the undoubted handwriting of the King, 
t Now in the Public Record Office. 

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1 84 


Mary (Cotton MS., Faustina). A Latin letter to the University of Cambridge. A 
letter to the Lady Wriothesley, comforting her on the loss of her only son. 

In other collections are the following : • 

To the College of Stoke, among the MSS. of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 

To the Lord Admiral. In the Sylloge Epistolarum, printed by Hearne. 

Two to the same. In the Salisbury Collection. 

Others to the same. In the Ashmolean Collection, and at Sudeley Castle. 

To the Mayor and Sheriffs at Okinge. . Harl. MS. 442, fol. 297. 

To her Council. In the Cottonian Collection. 

Many of her letters, written to her brother, the Marquis of Nor- 
thampton, and her sister, the Countess of Pembroke, it is believed, 
perished in the great fire at Wilton House in the 1 7th century. Beside 
these, Miss Strickland suggests that Lord Seymour may have destroyed 
as useless or dangerous many a precious letter or record from among 
** the great sort of old papers belonging to the late Queen Katharine,'* 
and which -he diligently searched when endeavouring to find a sufficient 
proof for reclaiming jewels and " stuff" detained by the Protector from 
his late royal consort 


Sir Thomas Seymour. 

From a copy by Lady Lucan, formerly in the Strawberry Hill Collection, now at Sudeley Castle. 

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" There is a history m all men*s lives, 
Figuring the nature of the times deceased." 

IN a very short period after the grave had closed over his unfortunate 
wife, Seymour recommenced his importunities with the Princess 
Elizabeth, and eagerly endeavoured to procure her consent to a 
clandestine marriage. We read * that, on the death of the Queen, he 
sent the news to the Princess ; and, on Mrs. Ashley suggesting she 
should write him a letter of condolence she answered : " I will not 
do it, for he needs it not." The letter, however, was written by Mrs. 
Ashley, and tacit permission given to its being sent to the widower. 
Shortly after he went in person to make his proposals of marriage, but 
finding no encouragement from the royal lady, he endeavoured to 
strengthen his cause by making friends of her attendants. So fully 
bent was he on his ambitious determination to ally himself with the royal 
family, that he was also reported, at this time, to be thinking of the 
Princess Mary. Conversations are recorded between Seymour and Lord 
Russell, in which he was warned of his danger should he attempt to 
marry either of the Princesses ; whereupon Seymour argued that it 
would be better for them to marry within the realm than foreigners. 
Oaths followed on both sides ; but Seymour, evidently in no wise 
daunted, soon after endeavoured to win favour with the Princess Mary, 
by sending her an mstructor of music with a letter ; this, however, was 
considered only a ruse for the musician to forward Seymour s suit.+ 
Most historians concur in thinking that Elizabeth was deeply 

* Hajmes' State Papers, 
t Tytler's ** England under Edward VI. and Mary." 

B B 

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attached to this bold and dangerous man ; therefore all the more to 
her credit must it be remembered that she never received his visits after 
he became a widower. Strong-minded and of great discernment must 
she have been for one so young, having but just attained her fifteenth 
year ! The oft-repeated words of her step mother, "God has given you 
great qualities, cultivate them always and labour to improve them, for 
I believe you are destined by Heaven to be Queen of England^''^ must 
have sounded in her ear like a warning from above to help in fortifying 
her against the persuasions of those around her, and not least the 
dangerous flattering words of one twenty years her senior, and so well 
versed in the art of gallantry. 

It has been already stated that Lady Jane Grey was among the 
attendants of the Queen at Sudeley Castle, that she was with her at 
the time of her death, and acted as chief mourner at her funeral. It 
was the ambitious project of the Protector to match the Lady Jane to 
his son, and his daughter, the learned Jane Seymour, to the King. 
This plan was frustrated by Lord Seymour's entering into private 
negociations with the parents of Lady Jane Grey, who, it is said, fell 
into his views on receiving a bribe of J^soo. Full particulars are 
preserved f of how Seymour represented to her father his plan for 
marrying her to the young King, if he would entrust her to his care. 
To this an apparently unwilling consent was at last conceded by the 
Marchioness of Dorset. J 

On the death of the Queen, Seymour's aged mother took charge of 
the Sudeley household, and Lady Jane was under her care. His first 
impulse was to send her back from Sudeley to her parents ; but 
thinking that having her in his hands might possibly further his 
ambitious schemes, he quickly changed his mind, and wrote to the 
Marquis, explaining that his previous letter was written at a time when, 
overwhelmed with the sudden death of the Queen, he thought to have 
broken up his household. On further consideration, however, he had 
decided it would be unnecessary, and if the Lady Jane remained under 

* Miss Strickland*s "Queens of England." 

t Haynes' State Papers. 

t " Memorials of Lady Jane Grey," by Sir Harris Nicolas. 

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his roof, he should retain not only all the servants and ladies-in- waiting 
of the deceased Queen, but one hundred and twenty gentlemen and 
yeomen always to reside in the house. To this the parents replied, 
that owing to her tender age it was advisable for her to remain under 
her mother's guidance, but that they should be ready to take his advice 
when the time came for her to be given in marriage. 

That this correspondence ended in Lady Jane leaving Sudeley, at 
least for a time, is evident from an afifectionate and grateful letter she 
addressed to him (endorsed Oct. ist, 1548). But after this, Seymour 
was so persistent in wishing to retain her under his care, that he went 
to the house of the Marquis, and would take no refusal till he gained 
his consent, promising again and again that he would see her betrothed 
to the King. So it ended in her returning to his house, where she 
remained till he was conveyed to the Tower. 

As it was during a visit of the Marquis of Dorset to Sudeley that 
some of Seymours treason was plotted, the following interesting 
details are given verbatim from the Marquis s own statement : — * 

" When I was with the Admiral at Sudeley towards the end of summer, he, desiring 
to make me strong in my country, advised me to keep a good house, and asked me what 
friends I had in my country ; to whom I made answer, that I had divers servants that 
were gentlemen, well able to live of themselves. *That is well,' said the Admiral, *yet 
trust not too much to the gentlemen, for they have somewhat to lose ; but I will rather 
advise you to make much of the head yeomen and frankelyns of the country, specially 
those that be the ringleaders, for they be men that be best able to persuade the multitude, 
and may best bring the numbers ; and therefore I will wish to make much of them, and 
to go to their houses, now to one, now to another, carrying with you a flagon or two of 
wifUy and a pasty of vmisofi^ and to use a familiarity with them, for so shall you cause 
them to love you, and be assured to have them at your commandment ; and this manner, 
I may tell you, I intend to use myself,' said he." * ♦ • * 

Another interesting conversation referring to Seymour's intrigues is 
recorded to have taken place at Sudeley. This was between Nicholas 
Throckmorton and one Wightman, servant to the Admiral. | 

" After lamenting the great loss he had sustained in the death of so admirable a 
lady, and that it had not had the effect of withdrawing him from the world, they went on 
to say, that if Seymour were in any way politic he would now make up the grudge that 

Haynes' State Papers. t Wightman's Confession, in Haynes' State Papers. 

B B 2 

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had existed between him and the Lady Somerset, who was jealous of the Queen's taking 
precedence of her, and so had fanned the flame of discord between the two brothers : 
that now it was to be hoped that Seymour * would make him more humble in heart and 
stomach towards the Protector.' They spoke with regret of his ambition and desire to 
match with one of the Princesses, adding they would rather see him in his grave than 
meddle with any thing so treasonable. There had been a great dispute between the 
brothers touching certain of the Queen's jewels, which Seymour wished to retain ; and 
Wightman concluded his statement by saying that on one occasion, when Seymour had 
returned to Sudeley after seeing the Protector in London, he observed that they had- 
deter mined to have the jewel controversy settled by Parliament." * 

But the subject of the Queen's jewels was soon to be absorbed by 
others of more importance. ' The unfortunate Lord of Sudeley seemed 
now to be blinded to all sense of propriety and danger, even con- 
templating taking possession of the young King's person. " Lounging 
one morning into St. Jamess Palace, and seeing the gates open and 
unguarded, he observed to Fowler, *A man might steal away the King 
now, for there come more with me than is in all the house besides.' 
For the moment the enterprise was practicable enough, but he was 
perhaps suspected, and the palace was better defended for the future/' t 
These plots and political intrigues were happily soon to draw to a 
close. Seymour's prosperity was on the wane, as his daring ambition 
and interference in the affairs of the realm caused him to be regarded 
with the utmost suspicion. His most hazardous game was to under- 
mine the Protector in the confidence of the young King. Affairs, how- 
ever, were brought to a climax early in January, 1549, when he refused 
to attend a summons to the Protector's house. Resistance was now 
in vain, he had overshot his mark, the net was cast over him from 
which there was no escape ; he was deprived of his seals of office and 
committed to the Tower January 1 7th. 

Not only were Seymour and his servants arrested, but the principal 
persons of the household of the Princess Elizabeth, her governess, Mrs. 
Ashley, her cofferers, and others. The Princess also was under 
restraint, while examinations were carried on to ascertain how far she 
herself might be implicated. An interview with the King or Protector 

Haynes' State Papers. See also Depositions of the Earl of Warwick, in the same collection. 

t Froude. 

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was denied her, but she wrote to the latter in a style worthy of a 
King's daughter, thanking him for his kindness in requesting her to 
divulge all she knew respecting the Admiral. Unhesitatingly she 
gave satisfactory explanations, boldly grappled the most delicate 
questions, and thus ended her letter : — 

" Master Tyrwhitt and others have told me that there goeth rumours abroad which 
be greatly both against my honour and honesty, which above all things I esteem, which 
be these, that I am in the Tower and with child by my Lord Admiral My Lord, these 
are shameful slanders, for the which, besides the great desire I have to see the King's 
Majesty, I shall most heartily desire your Lordship that I may come to the Court after 
your first determination, that I may show myself there as I am. Written in haste 
from Hatfield, this 28th of January, [1549]. 

" Your assured friend to my little power, 

" Elizabeth.'* 

Seymour's tragic end was now fast approaching. A bill of attainder 
was framed against him containing thirty-three articles, which are here 
summarized, as they give us a curious insight into the plots, falsehoods, 
and designs in which the Lord of Sudeley was undoubtedly implicated. 

"Articles of High Treason and other Misdemeanors against the King's 
Majesty and his Crown, objected to Sir Thomas Seymour, Kt, Lord Seymour of Sudeley, 
and High Admiral of England* 

"Article i. He was charged with endeavouring to get into his own hands the 
government of the king. 

" 2. With bribing certain members of the Privy Chamber. 

" 3. With dictating a letter for the king to send to Parliament, tending to the disturb- 
ance of the government. 

"4. For endeavouring to gain several of the nobility to join him in making changes 
in the affairs of state. 

" 5. For threatening to make the Blackest Parliament ever known in England. 

" 6. For refusing to answer a summons to explain certain things laid to his charge. 

" 7. For prejudicing the king against the protector. 

" 8. For suggesting to the king to take upon himself the affairs of government 

" 9. For plotting to take the king into his custody. 

" 10. For plotting that the king should apply to him alone for all he needed. 

"11. For intending to control the king's marriage. 

" 1 2. For confederating with discontented noblemen to make a strong party abroad, 
ready to serve them when occasion required. 

* Summarized from the Council Book, Vol. 236. 

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''13. For planning that certain noble partisans should countenurt those who opposed 
hi in. 

"14- For winning over the yeomanry to be ready to serve in case of need. 

" 15. For strengthening hLs party by giving away various stewardships. 

'* 16. For retaining in his service too great a number of gendemen and yeomen 
reariy \f) strengthen his cause if needed- 

" 17. For having 10,000 available men* 

" 18. And having in readiness sufficient money to support the 10,000 for a month. 

" 19. For endeavouring to bring about a clandestine marriage with the Princess 
Elizabeth, second heir to the throne. 

" 20. For having married the queen scandalously soon after the death of the king. 

" 21. For deceiving the king and others in persuading them to plead with the queen, 
they being already married- 

" 22. For refusing to promote, every way, tVat was to the king's advantage, and of 
s^j strengthening his own party by sea and land as to bring within his reach the power of 
aspiring to the throne. 

•* 23. For endeavouring to obtain the public authority for his having the Mint of 
Hristolf and which, by fraud, he had already got into his hands. 

" 24. For having aided and abetted Sir Wm. Sherrington, who was known to be a 
traitor to the king. 

" 25. For defrauding the king of ;;^2,8oo, having conspired for this object with Sir 
Win. Sherrington. 

"26. For extorting large sums of money from ships. 

** 27. For having taken possession of goods seized by pirates. 

" 28. For wrongfully imprisoning those who had captured pirates. 

** 29. For letting go free head pirates thus captured and brought before him. 

" 30. For openly disobeying the Protector's orders for the restitution of goods taken 
from pirates. 

*' 31. For robbing foreign ships wrecked on the English coast 

" 32. For betraying the king's secret counsel 

"33. For laying in provisions and money for a great number of men; for his 
servants spreading the report the king was dead, of a riot in consequence being expected, 
had it not been stopped by his apprehension and committal to prison." 

The bill was immediately brought before the House of Peers, where 
it was read on the 25th of February, the 26th and 27th, when it passed. 
On the 2nd of March it was introduced into the House of Commons, 
where It met with a strong opposition. On the 4th of March the bill 
was read the third time, and on the following day received the royal 
assent. These proceedings are recorded in the " Privy Council 
Register," under the date of the 25th of February. 

In the '' Life of Sir Thomas Seymour," lately published by Sir John 
Maclean, full particulars are given of this proceeding, for trial it was 

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H. Holbein. 

From Vertue's Copy at Sitdelky Castle. 

Katherine, Duchess of Suffolk. 

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not, too long for insertion here, but well worthy the perusal of those 
interested in these Sudeley Annals. The king's consent to his death 
being obtained, and the warrant signed, the Bishop of Ely was deputed 
to take to the Admiral the decision of the council, and to state that 
his execution was arranged for the following Wednesday, March 20, 
1549, and that he was to suffer on Tower Hill. Seymour requested 
that the day of his execution might be postponed, that Latimer might 
attend him with his counsel and prayers, and that his little daughter 
might be committed to the care of the Duchess of Suffolk. The 
two last requests were granted, but the day for execution was not 
changed. The list of those who signed his death warrant was of 
necessity headed by the Protector, though " for natural pity's sake he 
had desired license to be absent at the time of the passing of the bill."* 

Hayward, in his *' Life of Edward VI.," describes the Protector and 
Seymour as the most devoted of brothers, and the most faithful of 
friends to the young king ; so that the one might well be termed his 
sword, and the other his target. This continued till mischief was made 
between them by Lady Anne Stanhope, the Protectors wife, who 
seemed to possess every cruel and unwomanly vice. Above all was her 
hatred to Katherine Parr, whose precedence as queen dowager was 
gall and wormwood to her ; and even after the queen's death, when all 
animosity should certainly have ceased, she insinuated to her husband 
that Seymour was of the old religion, and aspired to take his place as 
Protector and deprive him of life. But that the Admiral was of the 
reformed faith there can be no doubt, from his requesting the presence 
of Latimer at the last, and bequeathing his child to the care of a staunch 
Protestant, the dowager Duchess of Suffolk, f 

In Tudor times, especially when the bill of attainder was resorted to, 
the offences for which men suffered were very imperfectly known,' and 
the people naturally saw with horror one brother sending another to 

* In " Nugae Antiquse," vol. ii. p. 329, will be Found " Lines written by Seymour the week before he 
was beheaded.*' 

f Katherine, the widow of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk. She married Richard Bertie, a Lincoln- 
shire gentleman, and went abroad during the Marian persecution, where she endured many hardships, her 
son, the famous Lord Willoughby of Queen Elizabeth's time, being born in a church porch, so destitute 
was then her condition. She returned to England, and died in 1 580. We have a copy, by Vertue, of 
Holbein's portrait of her at Sudeley. 

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the scaffold. " Many of the nobles cried out upon the Protector, calling 
him a blood-sucker, a murderer, a parricide, and a villain." Seymour 
died boldly, declaring the injustice of his doom from the scaffold. 
When about to lay his head upon the block, he turned to one of the 
attendants, saying : " Ayd my servaunte ; spede the thyng he wottes 
of" The servant was arrested and examined ; and he confessed that 
his master had obtained some ink in the Tower, and had plucked off 
an aglet from his dress, with the point of which he had written a letter 
to each of the princesses, which he had hidden within the sole of a 
velvet shoe.* 

Of his death Latimer says in one of his sermons : 

" As touching the kind of his death, whether he be saved or no, I refer that to God. 
In the twinkling of an eye He may save a man, and turn his heart What he did I 
cannot tell. And when a man hath two strokes with an axe, who can tell but between 
two strokes he doth repent ? It is hard to judge. But this I will say, if they will ask me 
what I think of his death, that he died very dangerously, irksomely, and horribly. He 
was a wicked man, and the realm e is well rid of him." 

In another sermon he said : 

" I have heard say, when that good queen that is gone had ordained in house prayer 
both before noon and after noon, the Admiral gets him out of the way like a mole digging 
in the earth. He shall be Lot's wife to me as long 1 live. He was a covetous man, an 
horrible covetous man. I would there were no more in England He was an ambitious 
man. I would there were no more in England. He was a seditious man." f . . . . 

That Seymour's life might have been spared had he been permitted 
an interview with his brother, appears probable from the following 
words of the Princess Elizabeth in a letter to her sister, when charged 
with a knowledge of the treasonable designs of Wyatt. As she herself, 
when under arrest, was refused an interview with the King or Protector, 
the words seem full of unusual meaning, expressing that sympathy 
which had been denied herself. After disclaiming any connection with 
Wyatt's conspiracy, she continues : 

" I have heard in my time of many cast away for want of coming to the presence of 
their princes, and, in late days, I heard my Lord Somerset say, that if his brother had 

* Tytler's State Papers. Latimer in his sermons speaks of them as of a wicked and dangerous nature, 
lending to excite the jealousy of the king's sisters against the Protector Somerset as their enemy. 
t Latimer's Sermons. Edition of 1549. London : by Thos. Daye and Wm. Sens. 

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been suffered to speak with him^ he had never suffered; but the persuasions were made to 
him so great, that he was brought in belief that he could not live safely if the Admiral 
lived, and that made him give his consent to his death.'* * 

It was naturally expected that the death of Seymour would greatly 
affect the Princess Elizabeth ; but when the news was brought to her 
she merely said : " This day died a man with much wit, and very little 

Seymour had a staunch ally in Sir John Harrington ; during the 
examination he revealed nothing that could criminate either his friend 
or the Princess. For this he was afterwards taken into her household ; 
and to the end of his life he remained faithfully attached to her interest 
When she had long been Queen of the realm he ventured to present 
her with the portrait of his deceased master, which was accepted. 
With the lines which accompanied the portrait we will close this sketch 
of S.eymour, remembering that they were penned by a devoted friend, 
whilst on the other hand the articles of accusation were drawn up by 
his enemies — between these two extremes a fair estimate perhaps may 
be formed of his character : — 

" Of person rare, strong limbs, and manly shape, 

By nature framed to sea or land ; 
In friendship firm in good state or ill hap, 

In peace headwise, in war-skill great, bold hand 
On horse or foot, in peril or in play, 
None could exceed, though many did essay. 
A subject true, to king a servant great. 
Friend to God's truth, and foe to Rome's deceit ; 

Sumptuous abroad for honour of the land, 
Temperate at home, yet kept great state with stay, 

And noble house, that fed more mouths with meat 
Than some, advanced on higher steps to stand ; 
Yet against nature, reason, and just laws. 
His blood was spilt, guiltless, without just cause." f 

Thus sadly terminated, a few short months after the death of the 
Queen, the life of the daring, ambitious Lord of Sudeley. With pity 

* Ellis's Letters, Second Series, vol. ii. p. 256. 

t "The Hospitable Cake," an allegorical poem, said to have been written on the Lord Admiral after 
his being beheaded. " Nug£c Antiquae," p. 330. 

c c 

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we turn from the parents to learn what befell their little daughter, the 
Lady Mary, whom we left in the care of Lady Suffolk. All historians, 
with the exception of Miss Strickland, record their belief that she died 
young. Miss Strickland's authority, however, takes high rank, from 
the indefatigable and tender care with which she entered into all 
researches connected with the interesting life of her mother, and the 
following account of the little lady is copied almost verbatim from her 
** Life of Katharine Parr." 

" It IS probable that Lady Jane was the godmother, as she was at Sudeley at the 
time of her birth, and acted as chief mourner at the Queen's funeral As the sole repre- 
sentative of both parents, the young Mary Seymour ought to have been the heiress of 
great wealth; and even if the act of attainder which had been passed on her father 
operated to deprive her of the broad lands of Sudeley, and the rest of his possessions, 
she was fully entitled to inherit the large fortune of her royal mother, if she had had 
friends to assert her rights. According to Strype, she remained a little while at her uncle 
Somerset's house at Sion ; and then, according to her father's request, was conveyed to 
Grimsthorpe, in Lincolnshire, where Katharine, the dowager Duchess of Suffolk, lived. 
There she was brought, with her governess, Mrs. Aglionby, her nurse, two maids, and 
other servants, consonant to the high quality to which, for their own misery, her unfor- 
tunate parents had been advanced. Her uncle, upon her leaving Sion, promised that a 
certain pension should be settled upon -her for her maintenance, and that a portion of her 
nursery plate and furniture brought to Sion House, was to be sent after when she went to 

These promises were never fulfilled. Miss Strickland, who gives 
specimens of Lady Suffolk's letters to the " gentle Cecil," in which she 
begs something may be granted as a pension for the helpless, penniless 
babe, asserts that they betray " a worldly spirit and sordid temper/' 
and that the little one, though the child of a lady who had honoured 
the duchess with her friendship, and shielded her from persecution, 
whom she regarded as a saint, had become the unwelcome recipient of 
her charity. But the letters by no means warrant this uncharitable 
construction. The facts, as brought out in them, only require to be 
fairly represented in order to vindicate the duchess from censure. The 
maintenance of the babe with her retinue, consisting of some dozen 
persons, involved considerable expense, and the duchess, found herself 
unable, without running into debt, to support this large train, in a style 
suitable to the etiquette of the times. The assistance promised by the 

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Protector for the maintenance of the child had been withheld ; under 
these circumstances it was not unwarrantable, not a proof of ingratitude 
or worldliness, that the duchess should be urgent in her endeavours to 
obtain the fulfilment of Somerset's promises, especially as the Jittle 
lady had been cruelly wronged of the vast wealth which she ought to 
have inherited from her parents. 

If she had been befriended by her uncle, the Marquis of Northamp- 
ton, who then held an important position at court, she might have 
retained some of her patrimony, but, on the contrary, he came in for a 
great part of her possessions ; an Act of Parliament passed to disinherit 
Mary Seymour, and Sudeley Castle was bestowed upon the Marquis. 
Though another Act was passed for the restitution of Mary Seymour in 
the same year, we do not hear of its being carried out, and it is not 
known with whom she finally found a home. Strype affirms that she 
died young; Lodge that she only lived to be thirteen, but without 
giving any authority ; while Miss Strickland gives her pedigree, and 
states that she married Sir Edward Bushel ; that their only daughter 
married Silas Johnson, whose daughter married the Rev. Francis 
Drayton, of Little Chart, in Kent, where he and his wife lie buried. 
From that marriage, the pedigree, down to the Johnson Lawsons, of 
Grove Villa, Cleyedon, seems clear and certain, and it is an interesting 
fact that they possess several relics of Katherine Parr's personal 
property, which have been carefully preserved in the family from 
generation to generation. 

C C 2 

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** A prince can make a belted knight, 
A marquis, duke, and a* that ; 
But an honest man 's aboon his might, 
Guid faith, he mauna fa' that." 


THE Marquis of Northampton, who became possessor of Sudeley 
Castle in the fifth year of the reign of Edward VI.,* was a 
great favourite with Henry VHI., who conferred upon him 
his earlier titles of Lord Parr of Kendal and Earl of Essex, and with 
the young King Edward, who styled him his ** honest uncle/' It is said 
his delight was music and poetry, and his exercise war, being a happy 
composure of the hardest and softest discipline. In 1549 we find he 
was engaged in Norfolk, attempting to put down Kett's rebellion ; but 
the rebels were victorious, and he and others had to flee for their lives, 
the fault of his "being more acquainted with the witty than the warlike 
part of Pallas. f On this he was superseded by the Earl of Warwick, 
one of the best military leaders of the day, who wrote to Cecil to allow 
him to serve with or under the Marquis rather than discourage him ; 
together, they defeated the rebels.;); In the following year his name is 
among those who took a copy of the Prayer Book to Gardiner when 
imprisoned in the Tower, with an offer of pardon if he would accept it 
without reserve. Again in 1551, when King Edward was seeking to 
cultivate the friendship of France by a marriage with that crown, the 

♦ Patent Roll, 5 Edw. VI. This is, so far as Sudeley is concerned, practically a repetition of the 
preceding grant of 4 Edw. VI., transferring to the Marquis of Northampton "all that our manor of 
Sudeley, lately part of the possessions of Thomas Seymour, attaintetl." 

t Fuller's "Church History." 

X The best account of this insurrection will be found in the Rev. F. W. Russell's *' Kctt's Rebellion," 
1858, which corrects many misstatements of Hay ward and Blomefield. 

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J; Ki 




From the original Portrait at Sudeley Castle. 

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Marquis of Northampton was sent with a splendid embassy to treat of 
the matter, and to invest Henry II. with the Order of the Garter, 
which he received from the hands of the Marquis on the feast of St. 
George. In Tytlers '* Edward VI.'' there is a most interesting letter 
from the Marquis and the other ambassadors to the Lords of the 
Council. **The letter,'' as the historian describes it, "abounds with 
little touches and anecdotes, which bring before us the gay court of 
France, its monarch, its statesmen, warriors, carpet knights, and beau- 
tiful dames, more vividly than any account of the embassy to be found 
in the general historians or contemporary memoirs of those times."* 

In December, 155 1, when Somerset was brought as a prisoner to 
the bar, there among the twenty-six peers sat the Marquis of North- 
ampton. The prisoner, but two short years before, had sanctioned 
the death of his own brother, Seymour, Northampton's brother-in-law. 
Those were not the days of either justice or pity ; all seemed actuated 
by personal ambition or religious fanaticism ; the trial ended, and 
sentence of death was pronounced on Somerset Thus the Protector 
fell, and his rival, the Duke of Northumberland, rose to hold for a 
while the reins of government. 

Time was creeping on, and death with its unerring aim was prema- 
turely bringing the hours of the young king to a close. Under the 
shallow pretence of zeal for the Protestant religion, Northumberland 
worked on the fears of Edward for his own aggrandizement. North- 
ampton hovered about the precincts of the sick room ; keeping watch 
as to who were admitted, and swearing others to secrecy as to the real 
state of the dying king. " Five hundred men had been quietly intro- 
duced into Windsor Castle by Northampton, and it was rumoured 
that he (with Suffolk and two or three others) was going down into 
Hertfordshire, to form a cordon silently round Hunsdon, where the 
Princess Mary was, and to take possession of her person when the 
signal should be given from London. '' f 

In the presence of Northampton the dying king was persuaded to 

* It has been stated there are letters of the Marquis preserved among the Harleian MSS., but on 
examination only one could be found, addressed to Lord Cobham, 24 Jan., 1549-50, about the promotion 
of a servant f Froude. 

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name Lady Jane Grey as his successor to the throne. Edward died, 
and the plot utterly failed. " The government of Lady Jane Grey was 
overthrown, not on account of its Protestantism, which was accidental 
to its existence, but as being, what it was in truth, a conspiracy of a 
few ambitious and daring nobles to make themselves masters of the 
State."* No wonder then that Northampton was disgraced, attainted, 
and Sudeley Castle taken from him, when Mary ascended the throne. 

Early in Queen Elizabeth's reign he was restored to his titles and 
some of his lands (but not Sudeley) f by her letters patent, bearing 
date at the Tower of London, January 13, 1560; and in addition he 
was made one of the Lords of the Privy Council, and had conferred 
upon him the Order of the Garter. Advanced in years, and having 
unexpectedly recovered those comforts which the close of life most 
requires, he wisely resolved to apply them accordingly ; and we hear 
of him after this period only as a commissioner for the pious work of 
reforming the Liturgy. He died in 1571. Of his death we read the 
following account : J — 

"On the 27 th of Sept., 1571, Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, celebrated in St. Mar}''s 
Church in Warwick, the French order of St. Michael, assisted and attended by the 
Marquis of Northampton, the Earl of- Hertford, the Lord Berkley, the Lord Dudley, the 
Lord Chandos, and other noble men. Shortly after this splendid ceremony, the Marquis 
of Northampton was taken ill and died suddenly at the Priory. * Not being the richest 
man in England,' as the Black Book § quaintly expresses it, he was buried at the cost of 
Queen Elizabeth, who appointed Garter King of Arms and Norroy and Lancaster 
Heralds to attend and direct the ceremony." 

Dugdale adds, that 

"The Marquis of Northampton was buried in the north side of the quire of St Mary's 
Church, Warwick, towards the upper end, as by his achievements, viz., coat of arms, 
sword, shield, helm, and crest, which I have seen hanging there, appeareth ; but foras- 
much as there is no monumental inscription, I have here transcribed what Mr. Cambden 
in his Annals of Queen Elizabeth, Anno 1571, hath said of him : 

"*Supremum vitae diem, hoc anno placid^ egit Gulielmus Farms, Marchio North - 
amptonise, amoenioribus studiis, musicis, amatoriis, et ceterae Aulse jucunditatibus 

• Dean Stanley. 

t Only to the value of £$00 a year, as we learn from a document in the Public Record Office, dated 
November i, 1559. 

X Field's " History of Warwick." 

§ A MS. belonging to the Corporation, written in the time of Queen Elizabeth. 

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versatissimus, qui ab Henrico octavo primlim ad dignitatem Baronis Parr de Kendalia, 
deinde, ad nuptias Annae Bourchierae, Comitis Essexiae unicae haeredis, et. simul ad 
Comitis Essexiae titulum, cum Rex ejus sororem duxisset ; atque ab Edwardo sexto ad 
Marchionis Northamptoniae st>^lum et honorem provectus. Sub Maria, quod pro Jana 
Greja Regina subomata arma sumpserit, Majestatis damnatus, ab eadem tamen mox 
condonatus, et ad patrimonium, ut postea ab Elizabetha ad honores restitutus. Liberos 
genuit nullos, sed Henricum Herbertum Pembrochiae Comitem, ex altera sorore nepotem, 
reliquit haeredem.* 

"The achievements hungat his funeral did remain till of late years : and where his 
body, about fifty years since, being dug up, to make room for the burial of an ordinary 
gentleman, was found perfect, the skin intire, dried to the bones \ rosemary and bay 
lying in the coffin fresh and green. All which were so preserved by the dryness of the 
ground wherein they lay ; it being above 'the arches of that fair vault, which is under the 
quire, and of a sandy condition, mixt with rubbish of lime, as hath been related to me by 
those who were eye-witnesses thereof.'** 

The marquis was thrice married ; first to Anne, daughter and 
heiress of Henry Bourchier, earl of Essex, in consequence of which 
marriage that title was afterwards conferred on him ; secondly to 
Elizabeth, daughter of George, Lord Cobham ; and thirdly, to Helen, 
daughter of Wolfgang Suavenburgh, a Swedish gentleman ; who, after 
the marquis's death, became the wife of Sir Thomas Gorges, of Long- 
ford, in Wiltshire, Knt In consequence of the infidelity of his first 
wife, he procured an Act of Parliament within two years after their 
nuptials, to bastardize her issue; and afterwards, in April, 1549, a 
second Act, to strengthen the former, by expressly confirming and 
legalising his second marriage. These proceedings being contrary 
to the canon law, which required a papal dispensation for a new 
marriage whilst both parties to the original one were alive, even though 
legally separated, Mary's first Parliament passed an Act to relegitimate 
the issue of the first match, and to annul the second. This, in its turn, 
was repealed under Elizabeth ; and the marquis, leaving no children 
by his second or third wife, was succeeded in his possessions by Henry, 
earl of Pembroke, his sister's son. 

• Dugdale's "Warwickshire." 

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" * The crown they put upon my head was a crovni of blood and sighs; 
God grant me soon another crown more precious in the skies ! ' 
These words she spake, then down she knelt, and took the headsman*s blow; 
Her tender neck was cut in twain, and out her blood did flow." 

Spanish Ballad. 

THE first day of Jane's short reign, if reign it may be called, 
sets before us the next owner of the Castle. When she was 
brought to her royal lodgings,, landing at the Queen's Stair, 
conducted by the great men who had made her queen, among her 
other kneeling subjects was Sir John Brydges, the Lieutenant of the 
Tower, the same who was appointed Constable of Sudeley Castle by 
Henry VUI., resigning his office when Seymour became its lord, and 
after a while receiving Sudeley as his own from the hands of the 
triumphant Mary.* With Sir John Brydges was his brother Thomas, 
whom he had appointed deputy-lieutenant of the Tower, and who was 
then actually the prison warder. When Lady Jane's short reign was 
over, and her partisans were being hurried to the Tower, Sir John 
Brydges found difficulty enough where and how to lodge them all. 
Northumberland was placed in the Garden Tower, Northampton in 
the Develin Tower, behind St. Peter's Church, and Lady Jane was 
detained in the house of Thomas Brydges, where she had her lady 
attendants, and was left to her own sad thoughts, her studies, and pre- 

* Among the Sudeley MSB. is a copy of this grant to Sir John Brydges, Lord Chandos. " The Queen 
to all to whom, &c. Whereas King Henry VIII. granted to John Lord Chandos the site, &c., of the 
monastery of Winchcombe, &c., for a term of 21 years, &c., know ye that We, to enable the said John 
Brydges the better to support the dignity of a baron to which we have called him, grant him, &c. &c, and 
all our lordship and manor of Sudeley and our Castle of Sudeley, &c. in as ample a manner as it had been 
ever granted to Lord Seymour or Lord Northampton, to hold to him and Elizabeth his wife, tlieir heirs, &c. 
forever." May 12, 1554.— Patent Roll, i Mar. 

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parations for that heavenly crown which she could not but feel would 
soon be hers. 

It is very interesting to think that some of the brightest and sunniest 
days of that short sad life must have been spent at Sudeley Casrie, 

Lady Jane Grey. 

when the guest of Katherine Parr, whose influence over her and the 
Princesses seems to have won their love and confidence. 

Knowing so well the beauty of Sudeley in the gay summer and 
bright autumnal days, when all the flowers and golden-tinted leaves 
are like jewels set against the rich sombre grey of the old Castle walls, 
it is pleasant to picture how that sweet young girl, even then with her 
staid thoughts and power of appreciating the beautiful, must have 

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delighted in the peace and comparative quietude of the Castle and old 
Pleasaunce, when Katherine was happy with her beloved Seymour. 
What an interesting trio do we not in imagination see grouped under 
the shadow of the trees ; the Queen, happier than she had ever been 
since first she plighted love to man, and in the fond expectation of 
soon becoming a mother ; Seymour, the handsome, gay, and fascinat- 
ing ; and the young and interesting Lady Jane. Alas ! how soon was 
their short-lived happiness shattered ! the Queen dying so soon after 
the birth of her infant, Seymour within the year disgraced and 
executed, and here within the cruel precincts of the Tower is incarce- 
rated the sweet Princess, under the surveillance of one, soon to be the 
new possessor of Sudeley, one of her fellow prisoners being the man 
who had in his turn owned and forfeited the Castle. 

" But in the flush of triumph, the desire for peace and to forget the 
past, there was no vindictiveness in Mary's heart ; she would certainly 
if possible have Northumberland spared. Northampton was certainly 
to be pardoned — and as to Lady Jane, justice forbade, she said, that an 
innocent girl should suffer for the crimes of others."* Northumberland 
and Northampton were brought to trial. They pleaded guilty, the usual 
sentence was pronounced, the Duke of Norfolk, who presided, broke 
his wand, and the cold glimmering edge of the Tower axe was turned 
against them ! Northumberland was executed with two of his associ- 
ates in August ; but the marquis was respited, and released from the 
Tower ; disgraced of course ; his estates and titles were withheld from 
him during the remainder of Mary's reign, "and he supported with 
difficulty the character of a private gentleman." Lady Jane, her hus- 
band, and his three brothers, were brought to trial, and pleaded guilty ;t 
but it seems almost certain that none of them would have suffered had 
not the mad rebellion of Wyatt alarmed the government, as even after 
condemnation their imprisonment was by no means rigorous,:j; and the 
three Dudleys were all released in the course of the next year. 

• Froude. 

t Guilford, Ambrose, and Henry Dudley, were tried with Lady Jane, Nor. 13, 1553 ; the fourth 
brother, Ro))ert (afterwards Earl of Leicester), by himself on Jan. 20, 1554. 

X This is shown by the Privy Council Book, where there is an order, dated December 17, 1553, for 
them all to have the liberty of the walks within the Tower Garden. 

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Sad must have been the hearts of many in Sudeley Castle on that 
cold February morning, when the news came of the death of Lady 
Jane and her husband. 

It may easily be supposed that as the Castle had so rapidly passed 
from Seymour to his brother-in-law, and from him to the crown, there 
might yet be many retainers there who had served the Queen, and 
who would bring to mind the gentle girl, as she sojourned among them, 
under the care of thtir royal mistress ; often seen in the deep shadow 
of an oriel window, rapt in the study of the books she loved so well, or 
listening with intense eagerness and delight to the teachings of those 
early holy Reformers. We know that among Katherine Parr's friends 
and chaplains ranked Parkhurst, Latimer, Miles Coverdale, Roger 
Ascham, Nicholas Udal, and Dr. Mallet Again, they would recall the 
scene when the gentle girl stood as sponsor to the little Mary Seymour, 
and covering with her fond caresses the hapless babe so soon, alas ! to 
be left motherless — then again, but a few days later, walking sadly and 
slowly, the " chief mourner " in that funeral procession which was bear- 
ing h^r royal friend to the tomb. Startling and sad would be the 
news to them all ; and who could say what might be in store for 
themselves ? Among the many changes that had passed over them, 
the worst, perhaps, was now to come. The peaceful, studious spirit 
of the Reformers was about to give place to the fiery persecuting spirit 
of the Romanists, and the next Lord of the Castle would soon be 
attending the great martyrdom so near his home as Gloucester. 

Before passing on to the stirring events in which Sir John Brydges 
took so active a part in the Tower, we would fain linger for a few 
minutes over those whose memories will for ever be associated with 
the Castle. 

The publication of the Greek Testament by Erasmus is allowed on 
all hands to have been a most important step in the early history of the 
Reformation. It encouraged William Tyndal and Miles Coverdale to 
undertake the translation of the Scriptures into English, which they 
happily accomplished, although Tyndal received the crown of martyr- 
dom as his reward, and Coverdale only escaped the same fate by living 
in exile until the death of Henry ; then he returned, and was made 

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Bishop of Exeter. On the accession of Mary, he was persecuted and 
imprisoned But finding a friend in Christian III., king of Denmark,* 
he was released, and allowed to leave England. He afterwards 
repaired to Geneva, where, in company with Knox, Whittingham, 
and other Reformers, he laboured at the revision of the "great 
English Bible " which had employed Tyndal and himself twenty 
years before ; thus was produced the version of the Bible known 
by the name of the " Geneva translation." He was recalled in 
Elizabeth's reign, and having refused a Bishopric by reason of his age 
and a recent attack of the plague, he was presented to the living of Sl 
Magnus, London Bridge, where he died and was buried. 

" Martyrs in heroic story. 
Worth a hundred Agincourts." 


The first who died for the reformed faith in Mary's reign, who led 
the way for the ** noble army of Martyrs/' whose going to the stake 
was described by Noailles "as of one going to his wedding," was John 
Rogers, a prebendary of St. Paul's. The one who next followed in his 
train was none other than the bishop of this diocese, the brave, gentle, 
saintly Hooper. His trial is too well known to need to be detailed 
here ; we will, therefore, only take up the sad story where the Queen s 
guards carried him to Gloucester, there to be handed over to the 
sheriffs of the city, who with Lord Chandos of Sudeley and other 
commissioners were appointed to see the sentence of death carried out 
Lord Chandos' orders were to the following effect, according to a 
document preserved in the British Museum, and endorsed : " A true 
copy of an old paper in my custody, which seems to be the first draught 
of a letter from the Queen to the Lord Chandos, etc., Thom. Tanner. "f 

" Whereas John Hooper, who of late was called Bishop of Worcester, is, by due 
order of the laws ecclesiastic, condemned and judged for a most obstinate, false, detestable 
heretic, and committed to our secular power, to be burned according to the wholesome 
and good laws of our realm in that case provided : forasmuch as in those cities and the 

♦ He had a brother-in-law, who was one of the Danish court chaplains, and, in consequence of his 
entreaty, the king asked for Coverdale's liberty, 
t Cottonian MS., Cleopatra, E. v., fol. 330. 

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diocese thereof, he hath in times past preached and taught most pestilent heresies and 
doctrine to our subjects there. We have, therefore, given order, that the said Hooper, 
who yet persisteth obstinate and hath refused mercy, when it was graciously offered, shall 
be put to execution in the said city of Gloucester, for the example and terror of others, 
such as he hath there seduced and mistaught, and because he hath done most harm 
there ; and will that you, calling unto you some of reputation, dwelling in the shire (such 
as you think best), shall repair unto our said city, and be at the said execution, assisting 
our mayor and sheriffs of the same city, in this behalf. 

"And forasmuch as the said Hooper is, as heretics be, a vain-glorious person, and 
delighteth in his tongue, and, having liberty, may use his said tongue to persuade such as 
he hath seduced to persist in the miserable opinion that he hath sown amongst them ; 
our pleasure is, therefore, and we require you to take order, that the said Hooper be, 
neither at the time of his execution nor in going to the place thereof, suffered to speak at 
large, but thither to be led, quietly and in silence, for eschewing of further infection, and 
such inconvenience as may otherwise ensue in this part Whereof fail you not, as you 
tender our pleasure," 

It was a great source of rejoicing to the good bishop that he might 
die for the truth in the midst of his own peop e, and in sight of his own 
cathedral. This was on the 9th of February, 1555, and a Saturday, 
then as now the market-day in Gloucester, and 7000 people were 
present The bishop, though strictly forbidden to address the people, 
was allowed to pray.* Then the box was placed before him, containing 
a pardon if he would recant Imploring that the temptation might 
be removed, the box was taken away, when Lord Chandos said : 
•* Seeing there is no remedy, dispatch him quickly." Hooper inter- 
posed : " Good my Lord, I trust your Lordship will give me leave to 
make an end of my prayer/' Then said the Lord Chandos to Sir 
Edmund, his son, which gave ear before to Hooper's prayer, at his 
request : " Edmund, take heed that he do nothing else but pray ; if he 
do, tell me, and I shall quickly dispatch him." f 

Looking at the illustration in ** Fox's Book of Martyrs," there is no 
doubt the principal figure on horseback watching the martyrdom must 
represent none other than Lord Chandos himself, he, apparently, being 
in command to see the order of execution carried out 

The bishop's prayer ended, he was undressed to his shirt, and bags of 

• ** Why were our Reformers Burnt?" a Lecture by Rev. J. C. Ryle. 
t Fox's " Book of Martyrs." 

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gunpowder tied to different parts of his body,* he was then chained to 
the stake, and the cruel fire lighted. Let a veil be drawn over the 
frightful scene. Our beloved Bishop, though dead, yet speaketh, and 
it seems as if his voice were even now heard above the crackle and 
roar of the flames, protesting to the last against false doctrine, de- 
nouncing Popery, "the real Presence," vestments, and the like.t 

From Hooper, the Bishop of Gloucester, we turn to Latimer, once 
Bishop of Worcester, associated with Sudeley as a friend of Queen 
Katherine Parr, and also known as one of the most zealous preachers 
of the reformed religion. In September, 1555, he and his friend 
Ridley were sent to Oxford for their examination. Ridley was tried 
first. Latimer's trial was the counterpart of Ridley's, ** except that the 
stronger intellect vexed itself less with nice distinctions. * Bread was 
bread,' said Latimer, ' and wine was wine ; there was a change in the 
sacrament, it was true, but the change was not in the nature, but the 
dignity.' "J The sad story of their burning need not be repeated. 
" The horrible sight," continues Froude, *' worked upon the beholders 
as it has worked since, and will work for ever, while the English nation 
survives." Latimer's last words to his friend were : '* Be of good 
comfort, Master Ridley, and play the man; we shall this day light 
such a candle by God's grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put 
out ! " words that were as the blast of a trumpet which rings even to 
this day.§ 

Of John Parkhurst, another of the Reformers, whose name has been 
already mentioned as the author of Queen Katherine Parr's epitaph, it 
is recorded that he held Bishop's Cleeve, in this county, for three 
years, having been presented to it by Sir Thomas Seymour in 1 543. 
He did much good there by his hospitalities and charities. In Mary's 

* Horrible as this naturally seems to us, it was really meant as a mercy, and was recognised as such by 
the sufferers themselves. Their friends often supplied the powder, the explosion of which soon terminated 
their agonies. 

t Ingram's House, in Gloucester, where the Bishop was lodged, is still standing. A beautiful monu- 
ment marks the spot of martyrdom, and the late Canon Kennaway told me he had seen, at the house of 
Mr. Stuart, near Gloucester, part of the stake at which Bishop Hooper was burnt, and the chain which 
fastened his body to iL 

X Froude. 

§ ** Why were our Reformers Burnt ?" 

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reign he went into exile at Zurich, but was recalled by Elizabeth, 
made Bishop of Norwich, and was engaged in the translation of the 
Scriptures, made by command of the Queen, and known as the Bishops' 
Bible, which was meant as a corrective to the anti-prelatical Genevan 


The old Pleasaunce of the Castle, with pebbled walks and fountain, 
discovered in 1850; the site of the present garden. 

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" Here the sons of Chandos, in their day 

Of greatness, ruled in no ungentle sort: 
Here Want was succoured ; Sorrow here grew gay ; 

And Winchcombc*s Castle was no Tyrant's fort : 

Here, too, the imperial Dame with Barons girt, 
She who could make the crowns and Nations bow, 

Kelax*d, at Welcome's voice, her lion port. 
And soften'd into smiles her stately brow." 


IT has been mentioned that whilst Sudeley was in the hands of the 
crown, one of its Constables was Sir John Brydges, of Coberley, 
in Gloucestershire,* a man eminent in arms. He accompanied 
Henry VHI. in his first expedition to France, and bore an active part 
in the memorable rout of Guinegate, jocularly called the Battle of the 
Spurs, from the alacrity shown by the French in running away. In 
1537 he was appointed Constable of Sudeley, and in the same year he 
was summoned to be present with the nobility and bishops, on the 
15th of October, at the christening of the young prince. In the 34th 
of Henry VIII. (1542), he had a new grant of the constableship of 
Sudeley Castle, Edmund his son and heir, then one of the esquires of 
the King's body, being joined with him in that trust. John was 
lineally descended from Giles Brugges, Esq., son of Alice, one of the 
nieces and co-heiresses to that Sir John Chandos who died in 8 Henry 
Vl.t (1430). The male line of this ancient family becoming extinct 
in 1428, the title lay dormant, till, after some time, it was revived in 

• Coberley is situated between Cheltenham and Cirencester, and came into the possession of the Bruges 
in the reign of Edward III., remaining in that family till about the year 1608. — Rudder. 

t See Dugdale's ** Baronage " for a full account of the Chandoses, who came in with the Conqueror, 
and Froissart, who so beautifully describes the heroic deeds and death of Sir John Chandos in the reign of 
Edward III. See also ** Lord Chandos," in Wyrley's *' True Use of Armorie," London, 1592. 

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\Tofacep, 209. 


Ralph, Lord Boteler of Sudeley, K.G. 

Richard, Duke of Gloucester, ICG. 

Jasper, Duke of Bedford, K.G. 

Thomas, Lord Seymour of Sudeley, K.G. William, Marquess of Northampton, K.G. 




" . ', 

^ \ 






The Lords Chandos of Sudeley. 

George, Lord Rivers of Sudeley. 

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Richard, 2nd Marquess of Buckingham, K.O. 



this Sir John Brydges, who among his possessions held the Manor of 
Lugwardyn, in Herefordshire, and divers other lands by descent from 
Chandos. He was one of the foremost in her train when the 
Princess Mary entered London, attending her to the Tower, the charge 
of which she then committed to him. His name thus became asso- 
ciated with many of the stirring events of the time, and with the 
numerous noted characters who were committed to his care. 


Sir John Bruges, of Coberley, sixth ' 
in descent from Thomas, Lord 
Chandos, who died 1375, created 
Lord Chandos of Sudeley, April 8, 
1554; ti557 

: Elizabeth, d. of Lord Grey of Wilton, f 1559 

Edmund, 2nd Lord =F Dorothy, d. of Lord Bray, Charles, of Wilton 

+ 1573 

Giles, 3rd Lord =t= Frances, d. of Earl 
+ 1594 I of Lincoln, 1 1623 

2 daughters 

1 1 605 

5 other sons, 3 daughters 


Grey, 5th Lord=T= Anne, d. of 

William, 4th =j= Mary, d. of Sir 
Lord, + 1602 I O. Hopton 

' E 



f 1621 

E. of Derby, 
1 1647 

f c. 1629 

3 daughters 

Susan, d. of Earl of = 
Manchester, f 1 65 2 

George, 6th =f Jane, d. of Earl William, 7th ^ Susan Keere 

Lord, 1 1 6 5 5 Rivers 
2 daughters 3 daughters 

Lord 1 1676 

William, ob. v. p. 


1 a 

3 daughters 12 

Whilst holding this important post he proved himself a zealous friend 
of his royal mistress, and rendered her most important service. The 
firm hold which he kept on the Tower prevented Wyatt from eiitering 
the city of London, where he hoped to find many partisans, and greatly 
contributed to the defeat of his enterprise. When, a few days later, 
Wyatt was brought in a prisoner, Sir John could scarce refrain his 
temper, but consoled himself with the reflection, that ** the law would 
pass upon him." To others, as the feeble-minded Courtenay and the 
Princess Elizabeth, he behaved with true courtesy, and his most inter- 
esting prisoner, the gentle Lady Jane, in her last hour described herself 
as ** his friend, as the Lord knoweth." 

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As Lieutenant of the Tower it was his painful duty to attend her to 
the scaffold ; it may well be imagined how such a brave and noble 
gentleman must have suffered in witnessing her sad end. But she was 
not unmindful of his kind and courteous manAer, one of her last acts 
being a grateful acknowledgment of his attention and consideration in 
that trying time. She presented him, through his brother, Mr. Thomas 
Brydges, with one of the prayer-books she had used in prison, and 
which she carried with her to the scaffold ; a small square manuscript 
in vellum, which is supposed to have been written for the use of the 
Duke of Somerset when a prisoner in the Tower, and which had 
passed from his daughter Anne to her brother-in-law Lord Guilford 
on his imprisonment Again, after the Duke of Suffolk's commitment 
to the Tower, all communication by letter being denied them, it is 
supposed the unhappy prisoners took advantage of this manual of 
devotion which was allowed to pass from one to another, to write 
upon the margin various little tokens of love and duty, a plain proof 
this, that Sir John made the lot of his prisoners as easy as he could. 
This precious volume Lady Jane presented to him, having previously, 
at his request, written in it the following few lines — 

" Forasmuch as you have desired so simple a woman to write in so worthy a book, 
good Master Lieutenant, therefore I shall, as a friend desire you, and as a Christian 
require you, to call upon God to incline your heart to His laws, to quicken you in His way, 
and not to take the word of truth utterly out of your mouth. Live still to die, that by 
death you may purchase eternal life ; and remember how Methuselah, though, as we read 
in the Scriptures, he was the longest liver that was of a man, died at last For, as the 
Preacher saith, * There is a time to be bom, and a time to die ; and the day of death is 
better than the day of our birth/ — Yours, as the Lord knoweth, as a friend, 

"Jane Duddeley."* 

On the same day that Lady Jane was executed, Edward Courtenay, 
earl of Devon, was sent to the Tower, the suspicion being that he 
aimed at marrying the Princess Elizabeth, or rather, that he was a tool 
in the hands of others, as he was of a character pitiably weak. The 
Princess had, before this, been desired to attend at court, and disavow 
any connection with Wyatt s rebellion, but she delayed, pleading illness, 

* ** Ladies of the Reformation," p. 305. This interesting volume is carefully preserved under glass in 
the British Museum. 

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and at last, officers were sent to her at Ashridge, who brought her to 
the court at Westminster, whence she was sent in the usual way, by 
water, to the Tower, landing at the ominous Traitors* Gate, on the 
1 8th of March. Here, though it was raining, she sat down on a stone, 
as if bent on not entering the prison. Sir John said to her, " Madam, 
you had best come out of the rain, for you sit unwholesomely." '* Better 
sit here than in a worse place," she replied, " for God knoweth, not I, 
whither you will bring me." She was placed in the royal lodgings, and 
at first, strictly secluded ; after a short time she requested Lord 
Chandos (Sir John had been created a peer in the interval), to give her 
permission to take a little air and exercise. He said it was contrary 
to his orders, but he applied to the Council for instruction, and then she 
was allowed to walk in a little garden, but all the windows that opened 
to it were to be kept shut when she took her walks, which is not to be 
wondered at, when we read that her friends employed a child of four 
years old to carry letters to her, under the pretence of offering her 
flowers. Either in consequence of this, or because Lord Chandos was 
conceived to treat her with too much consideration, she was committed 
to the charge of Sir Henry Bedingfield,* who came to the Tower with 
I GO armed men to remove her to Woodstock on the 19th of May, 1554. 
As soon as Elizabeth was made acquainted with his arrival she sent 
for Lord Chandos, to learn from him her fate ; but he could not inform 
her, and she was conveyed by her new custodian to Woodstock, f 

Beside the Castle and Manor of Sudeley conferred upon him by 
Queen Mary, and being created a Peer of the realm (April 8, 1554), 
Sir John had, among other grants of lands in this county, the Manor 
and Park of BrimpsfieldJ (inherited by his successors), also Witcombe,^ 
Badgworth,|| Cranham, Bourton on the Water, Hawling, Stoke Archer, 
and Minety; also the site of Winchcombe Monastery, which was 
continued in the possession of his family. 

He died on March 4, 1557. By his will he ordered his body to be 

• Burnet's ** History of the Reformation," Book ii., p. 568. 

f Miss Aikin*s ** Memoirs of the Court of Queen Elizabetli," vol. i., p. 171. 

X Rudder's "Gloucestershire," pp. 311, 396. 

§ Griffith's " History of Cheltenhnm." 

II Rudder's "Gloucestershire," p. 375. 

£ E 2 

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buried in the chancel of Sudeley, according to his degree, but without 
any worldly pomp or vain glory. Contrary, however, to this wish, his 

HoLBBiN, pinxt. 

John Brydges, First Lord Chandos of Sudeley. 

funeral solemnities were performed on the 3rd of May with great pomp, 
the corpse being carried in a hearse of war, with four banners of images 
and all appendages of honour. He married Elizabeth,* daughter to 

^ She was buried in the church of St. Faith, London, with the following epitaph, preserved in Dugdale's 
"Si. Paul's Cathedral," p. 125 :— 

** Here buried ys Elizabeth, of honour worthy Dame, 
Her husband erst I^rd Shandoys was, her sonne hath now like name. 
Her father was of Wilton Lord, a Grey of puissant fame ; 
Her brother, left with us behind, now Lorde is of the same. 

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Edmund, Lord Grey of Wilton, by whom he had seven sons (two of 
whom died in infancy} and three daughters — Catherine, wife of 
Edmund Sutton, Lord Dudley; Elizabeth, married to John Tracy, 
of Toddington ; and Frances, wife of George Throckmorton, of 
Cough ton.* 

This lady, who is mis-named Mary in our county histories, was in 
the year 1559, in consequence of her own indiscreet conduct, accused of 
attempting to poison her husband. He charged her with giving him 
**such things to drink as did make him mad," caused her close imprison- 
ment, no one being allowed to see her but her keeper, and produced 
many witnesses against her, who were examined by a special commission 
appointed for the purpose. Elizabeth, the dowager Lady Chandos, 
then wrote a touching letter to Sir William Cecil, beseeching him to be 
** good master " to her, asserting her daughter s innocence, and declar- 
ing that the witnesses against her were " reprobate persons, of no 
honesty nor credit," suborned by her husband by mingled promises 
and threats to ** affirm such matter as he had himself devised."t Ii^ 
consequence a new set of commissioners was appointed. Sir Richard 
Sackvyle being the chief, to deal with all such as were suspected to be 
culpable in " matters of sorcery, witchcraft, poisoning, enchantment, or 
such like." They called before them such of the witnesses as were at 
hand (for one was dead, and three others seem to have absconded |), 
who one and all confessed that their evidence formerly giveii was false, 
being only what Mr. Throckmorton had induced them to say. By his 
direction they had sworn that she **went about his* destruction, whereas 
of truth they never knew or perceived in her any mind or intent to 

Her vertuous lyfe yet still doth live, her honour shall remaine ; 
Her corps though it be growne to dust, her soule the heavens containe. 
" Quse obiit 29 die Decembris, An. Dom. 1559." 

For particulars of the family of Grey, see Sir E. Brydges* " Visit of Queen Elizabeth to Sudeley," p. 32. 

* Portraits of the early Barons and their wives and daughters were in the possession of the Duchess of 
Buckingham, and dispersed at the Stowe sale. The 1st Lord Chandos of Sudeley, Frances, wife of Giles, 
3rd Lord Chandos, and their daughters, Lady Kennedy and Lady Russell, are introduced in these Annals 
through the permission of Sir H. Scudamore Stanhope, of Holme Lacy, Hereford, whose father, cousin to 
the Duchess, had copies taken about the year 1830. 

t Domestic State Papers, Elizabeth, VoL vi. No. 24. 

X Among these was *' Father Nicholas, of St. Katherine's." Probably in consequence of this, or similar 
affairs, several statutes were soon after passed against ''conjurations, enchantments, and witchcraft." 

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work the destruction or confusion of her husband." The depositions 
in the case are lost, but the judgment of the commissioners remains, 
and they report to the queen that " the lady being much given to give 
ear to fantastical practisers of palmistry and such-like devices, desiring 
to obtain her husband s entire and perfect love, had, at sundry times, 
conference with sundry persons of that sort, although she denied 
it, by which means her husband suspected that she went about his 
destruction, and by menaces and threats [they do not mention 
*' promises,"] induced the several witnesses to swear to whatever he 
told them."* How the cause ended we do not find recorded, but we 
may hope that both George and Frances profited by their dear-bought 

Holding such important posts as he did, it is somewhat remarkable 
that no letters from or to the first Lord Chandos are to be found in the 
Public Record Office ; but, under the name of " Sir John Abridges," he 
appears as one of the Gloucestershire Commissioners for the seizure of 
Church goods in the time of Edward VI. f 

The notices are numerous of his successors, and of the most im- 
portant we have copies at Sudeley ; the facts they disclose are also 
worked up in the following narrative. 

Of the seven sons of his lordship, the most distinguished were Edmund, 
who succeeded to the title and the manor of Sudeley, of whom here- 
after ; Charles, ancestor to the Dukes of Chandos,^: and who purchased 
Wilton Castle from his cousin. Lord Grey ; and Henry, the fourth son, 
who, according to his father's will, must have been left with very slender 
means, and having in those times of peace no vent for his love of 
adventure, he is said to have followed the life of a freebooter, indulging 
in deeds of lawlessness and robbery almost surpassing our modern 
powers of belief. We can readily imagine how the almost impassable 
roads, thick woods, and broken ground of this neighbourhood must 
have aided the young nobleman in his first steps as a freebooter. 
Startling to the inmates of the Castle must have been the first stories 

♦ D. S. p. Eliz., Vol. vii. No. 42. 

t Seventh Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, Appendi>, p. 318. 

X Sir E. Brydges' " Sudeley." 

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which reached them of plunder, and perhaps murder ; and from time to 
time, as they came to the ears of Lord and Lady Chandos, painful 
indeed, must have been their feelings when the horrible suspicion 
became a reality, th<it the daring young highwayman was none other 
than one of the youngest scions of their own house. We find him 
afterwards living in Kent, attracted thither perhaps by a larger field 
for booty, or possibly having made his own neighbourhood too hot to 
hold him. He, however, eventually returned, and traditions of his 
maraudings still hang about the Gloucestershire village where he lies 
buried.* He married the eldest daughter of Samuel Sheppard, Esq., 
of Avening, near Minchinhampton, where. in the church is a monument 
on which is a figure of a man in armour, kneeling and praying, 
surmounted by the family arms ; underneath is the following in- 
scription : — 

Here lyeth the body of Henry Brydges, Esquior, Son to John Lord Chavndos 
Baron of Shevdley, who departed this life, the 24th day of Janvarii, Anno Dom. 1615 

From the scapegrace of the family we turn to Edmund, the eldest 
son, who at his father's death became the owner of Sudeley. J He 
took early to arms, and served under the Earl of Hertford in France, 
in the reign of Henry VHL, and in the first year of Edward VL, 
being one of the commanders in that army sent into Scotland under 
the Duke of Somerset, and behaving himself with great bravery in the 
battle of Musselborough, was made Knight Banneret by the duke in 
the camp at Roxburgh. He was elected one of the knights of the 
shire for Gloucestershire to the first parliament of Mary, and afterwards 
served at the siege of St. Quintin, in Picardy. In October, 1560, he, 
as lord lieutenant, wrote a curious letter to the Privy Council about 
the punishment of dealers who had suddenly raised their *' corne and 
other victuells " to excessive prices, of which we have a copy at Sude- 
ley. § An interesting account is given by Atkyns,|| of how Lord 
Chandos had, at a later period, to aid the mayor and aldermen of 

• Sir E. Brydges. t Bigland*s Collection. 

X Collins's *• Peerage," vol. i., part 2, p. 686. § D. S. P., Eliz., Vol. xiv., No. 20. 

II ** Gloucestershire," p. 123. 

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Gloucester in making due inquiry as to the whole number of men 
who were fit for service, and how he certified that there was to be 
levied in the shire of Gloucester 20,000 able men. 

"The certificates of Edmund Lord Chandos," writes Mr. Cripps,* "as 
commissioner of musters for the levies of 1569 and I570,f as destined 
for service in Ireland and in the north, are amongst the best preserved 
of the returns of those days relating to Gloucestershire with which the 
Public Record Office is so richly stored, to the advantage of the 
historian. From the former may be gathered that the total number of 
able men in the county was 6,520, and that they must have constituted 
a formidable contingent, for, adds the certificate, " the greatest part have 
been trayned by captains and others of good skill appoynted for that 

In 1570 he was active in procuring conformity to the reformed 
worship, being one of the commissioners for the purpose of enforcing 
the observance of the Act of Uniformity ; his letter and certificate on the 
subject is in the Public Record Office, as also his returns as to raising 
men to send to the north against the Earls of Northumberland and 
Westmoreland ; with warm local feeling he describes the men, horses, 
and armour, as " mete to serve under any prince's banner in Christen- 
dom ; " and he furnishes lists of the '' gentilemen and men of lese 
welthe," who may be called on to supply others ; of all these interesting 
papers we have copies.^ 

In September, 1 571, he was associated with the Earl of Leicester and 
other noblemen in a pompous ceremony at Warwick in honour of the 
French Order of St Michael ; and on the i6th of January, 1572, he 
was one of the peers who sat on the trial of Thomas Howard, duke of 
Norfolk. Soon after Queen Elizabeth appointed him a Knight of the 
Garter in the place of the first Marquis of Winchester, then lately 
deceased. He was installed at Windsor, the 17th of June, 1572, as 
appears by a plate yet remaining in the Chapel of St. George at 

* " Royal North Gloucestershire Militia," p. 20. 

t Among the Sudeley copies from the originals in the British Museum, there is a letter from Edmund, 
Lord Chandos, to the Earl of Sussex, referring to the restitution of certain county armour, dated Sudeley, 
Jan. 13, 1570. 

* O. S. P., Eliz., Vol. Ixvi., Nos. 12, 12 1. ; Vol. Ixvii., Nos. 30, 36. 

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From Tapestry Map in York Museum. 

Cofiy of Card attached to the Tapestry Maps in York Museum : — 

*' These three Maps formerly lined the Hall of Weston in Wanvickshire, the seat of William 
Sheldon, Esc;., who first introduced Tapestry weaving into Engkind, of which these Maps were the 
earliest specimens ; 1578. They were purchased by the Earl of Oxford, and given by him to tlie 
Earl of Harcourt, on whose death they came into the possession of the Arcnbishop of York, by 
whom they were presented to the Yorkshire Philosophical Society in the year 1827." 

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Windsor, in the ninth stall on the Prince s side.* We have a copy of 
the very interesting account of the ceremony drawn up by W. Penson, 
Lancaster Herald, from which it appears that the Duke of Mont- 
morency, the Earl of Essex, Lord Burghley, and Lord Grey of Wilton, 
were installed with him. The fees and rewards paid by the new 
knights are duly set forth : for the Earl of Essex they amounted to 
;^45 14^. 2d, (the duke probably more), for the Lord Chandos and the 
other barons £^i ^s. 2d.i 

But before this, on the ist of March, 1572, being then sick, Lord 
Chandos made his last will and testament, wherein he ordered his body 
to be buried in the parish church of Sudeley, and bequeathed to the 
poor of* that place and of Winchcombe, £13 6s. Sd., as also ;^3 to the 
poor of High worth, and /^^ to the poor of Cricklade. He bequeathed 
to his most faithful and loving wife (Dorothy, daughter of Lord Bray,) 
for her obedience, truth, and faithful love towards him, as that he had 
aliened and sold some of her inheritance, his manors and lordships 
of Blunsdon-Ansdrowe, Blunsdon-Gayebrode, Blunsdon Wyddel, West 
Wyddel, Haydon Strutton, Pirton Keynes, and Sevenhampton in 
the county of Wilts, for term of life, paying William Brydges, his 
youngest son, ;^40 per annum, and after her decease to remain to the 
said William and his heirs male, and in default to Giles Brydges, 
his son and heir, and heirs male ; remainder to the right heirs of him 
the said Edmund Lord Chandos. And that the residue of his manors, 
lordships, &c., should descend to Giles Brydges, his son and heir, and 
*the Lady Frances, his wife, and their heirs ; in default to his right 
heirs. He further wills to Eleanor his daughter ;^2000. To his 
beloved nephew John Tracy, Esq., the best gelding he will choose 
among all his geldings. To his cousin Thomas Throgmorton, his 
next best gelding. To his friend Edward Ferrys, his own gelding 
he was wont to ride on, called Turner; and to his neighbour and 
friend Humphrey Dyke, his grey nag called Eaton. He makes his 
lady Dorothy, his well beloved wife, sole executrix, and his soa-in- 

• It Vas originally in the 13th stall on the Sovereign's side, as stated by Dugdale ; the period at which 
it was removed is unknown. 

t D. S. P., Eliz., Vol. Ixxxviii., No. 20. 

F F 

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law William Lord Sands, his brother Charles Brydges, his nephew 
John Tracy, and Thomas Throgmorton, Esq., overseers. It further 
appears by his will, that he was a generous friend, a noble housekeeper, 
and a bountiful master, and had many gentlemen, his retainers and 
servants, to whom he left annuities for their lives, if they did not refuse 
to serve the Lady Dorothy, his wife, and Giles, his son and heir. 

The Chandos Mantel-Piece. 

The initials of Edmund Lord Chandos are clearly cut on the mantel- 
piece in the room which bears the Chandos name, " E. C," and the 
family motto " Mainteine le droit." It is supposed by some that 
this was only a restoration, otherwise the exterior of the chimney would 
prave that it was built at the same time with the Castle ; others are of 
opinion that the Chandos room was never completed, or, if so, that in 
subsequent years the floor was destroyed, for at the time of the late 
restoration of the Castle this mantel-piece was the only uninjured part 

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^ h - 



^'- ^^^^^^^—^'S^f:^-- 

Window of Inner Quadrangle, Sudeley Castle, 

Surmounted by Leopard's Head, with the Initials and Date, E. C, 1572. 

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of the interior building ; the flooring was gone, and it could only be 
seen through the beams from the rooms below, which were then cow- 
houses, or otherwise used for farm purposes. The same initials " E. C." 
are found over the ruined window near the western gateway in the 
quadrangle, with the date 1572. 

It appears by the inquisition taken after his death at the castle of 
Gloucester, on the 17th of September, in the 15th Elizabeth (1573), that 
he died on the i ith of September, 1572, seized of the castle and manor 
of " Sudley," the house and site of the monastery of Winchcombe, the 
manors of Coberly, Blysfield, Norton, Harsfield, Burton, Badworth, 
Stokechard, with lands in Myntie,* also a wood called Depwood, and a 
wood called Hemlyehoo (now Humblebee Howf), in Winchcombe 
which had lately belonged to the Abbey,{ all in Gloucestershire ; and 
that Giles, his son and heir, was then twenty-five years of age. He had 
also another son, William, and two daughters : Catherine, wife to William, 
Lord Sands ; and Eleanor, who afterwards married George Giffard, of 
Chillington, in Staffordshire, Esq.§ One of these daughters (we cannot 
say which) was among the maids of honour who accompanied Queen 
Elizabeth on the occasion of her visit to the University of Oxford in 
1566, where she stayed seven days, and was entertained with orations 
and banquets. In the course of these festivities the maids of honour 
were highly eulogized ; and the fair daughter of the House of Sudeley 

thus : 

" Bridges is a blessed wight. 

And prayeth with heart and voice, 
Which from her cradle hath been taught 
In virtue to rejoice." || 

• Rudder, p. 549. 

t The weather-gauge of the neighbourhood : — 

" When the clouds Humblebee touch, 
There will be rain little or much." 

Again : — 

*' When Humblebee Hoo puts on his cap, 
The weather ere long is sure to be wet ; 
But when on Humblebee the sun do shine, 
You may expect fair weather for a time." 

X Dugdale's "Monasticon.'* 

§ Rudder, p. 549. 

II Miss Strickland*s " Queens of England." 

F F 2 

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The following poem in praise of the eldest daughter, by George 
Gascoigne, was brought back into notice by Dr. Percy in his Ballads * 



" In court whoso demands 

What dame doth most excel ; 
For my conceit, I must needs say, 
Fair Bridges bears the bell. 

" Upon whose lively cheek, 

To prove my judgment true, 
The rose and lily seem to strive 
For equal change of hue. 

" And therewithal so well 
Her graces all agree. 
No frowning cheer dare once presume 
In her sweet face to be. 

" Although some lavish lips, 
Which like some other best, 
Will say, the blemish on her brow 
Disgraceth all the rest ; 

" Thereto I thus reply, 

God wot, they little know 
The hidden cause of that mishap, 
Nor how the harm did grow. 

" For when Dame Nature first 
Had framed her heavenly face, 
And thoroughly bedecked it 
With goodly gleams of grace : 

" It liked her so well, 

* Lo here,' quod she, * a piece, 
For perfect shape, that passeth all 
Apelles' work in Greece. 

• Vol. ii., p. 150, ed. 1765. 

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•'* * This bait may chance to catch 
The greatest God of Love, 
Or mighty thund'ring Jove himself, 
That rules the roast above.' 

" But out, alas ! those words 
Were vaunted all in vain, 
And some unseen were present there, 
Poor Bridges, to thy pain. 

" For Cupid, crafty boy, 
Close in a corner stood, 
Not blindfold then, to gaze on her : 
I guess it did him good. 

" Yet when he felt the flame 
'Gan kindle in his breast, 
And heard Dame Nature boast by her 
To break him of his rest, 

"His hot, new-chosen love. 
He changed into hate, 
And suddenly, with mighty mace, 
'Gan rap Tier on the pate. 

" It grieved Nature much 
To see the cruel deed : 
Meseems I see her, how she wept 
To see her darling bleed. 

" * Well yet,' quod she, 'this hurt 
* Shall have some help, I trow ; ' 
And quick with skin she cover'd it, 
That whiter is than snow. 

" Wherewith Dan Cupid fled. 
For fear of further flame. 
When angel-like he saw her shine. 
Whom he had smit with shame. 

" So thus was Bridges hurt 
In cradle of her kind ; 
The coward Cugid brake her brow 
To wreak his wounded mind. 

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" The scar still there remains -, 
No force, there let it be : 
There is no cloud that can eclipse 
So bright a sun as she." 

The Lady Dorothy, their mother, was the fifth daughter and co-heiress 
of Edmund, Lord Bray. She married secondly Sir William Knowles, 
Lord Knowles, Knight of the Garter, and died on the 31st of October, 
1605, Grey Brydges, Lord Chandos,. her grandson, being found heir to 
the estate, and at that time* twenty-one years of age.* It was this Lady 
Dorothy who founded the almshouses in Winchcombe, containing twelve 
apartments for as many poor persons. They are yet standing, and 
appropriated to their original use ; over the entrance door the Chandos 
arms are carved in bold relief. 

• Collins's "Peerage," vol. i., p. 686. 

Chapel Bell, St Mary's, Sudeley Manor. 

** Sancte Georgi ora pro nobis. 
Ladik Doratie Chandos widdowe made this. 1577." 

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Door-way to old House in Winchcombe. 


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" Mo! strike the flagstaff deep, Sir Knight: ho! scatter flowers, fair maids: 
Ho ! gunners, Are a loud salute : ho ! gallants, draw your blades : 
Thou sun, shine on her joyously : ye breezes, waft her wide ; 
Our glorious semper eadem, the banner of our pride." 


WE now pass on to Giles, third Lord Chandos, the eldest son 
of Edmund, who was born in 1547, and was in the lifetime 
of his father elected to Parliament for the county of 
Gloucester, in the fourteenth year of Elizabeth (1572). He married 
Lady Frances Clinton, daughter of Edward, Earl of Lincoln, and Lord 
High Admiral of England. He it waS who had the honour of enter- 
taining the Queen at Sudeley on no less than three occasions, and 
which he did in a manner worthy of those times. The first visit was 
in August or September, 1574, in her progress westward to Longleat, 
Bristol, and Wilton. It was on this occasion that " the old Lady 
Shandowes " (Dorothy, widow of Edmund Brydges) presented a jewel 
with a gold chain to the queen. It was a. falcon or parrot, the body 
crystal, the head, tail, legs and breast of gold, fully garnished with 
sparks of rubies and emeralds, hanging by a very short and small chain 
of gold.* John Tracy, whose mother, as before mentioned, was second 
daughter of the first Lord Chandos, was knighted by Queen Elizabeth 
in her progress to Bristol, f 

The queen's second visit to Sudeley was in 1575, on her way to 
Woodstock. She slept at Elmley Castle- on Saturday ai)d Sunday, 
August 20th and 2 ist, and was then on her way from Worcester, passing 

• Nichols* " Progresses of Queen Elizabeth." t Ibid. 

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" through Battenhall Park, by made ways, with a great train, both 
before and behind." On the Monday the Mayor and Aldermen of 
Worcester, with a large company of nobility, attended the queen on 
horseback from Elmley to the borders of the county on her way to 
Sudeley Castle.* 

Soon after this visit we find Lord Chandos seriously at variance with 
the Council of the Marches of Wales,t so much so that a formal com- 
plaint of his '* insolent and contemptuous bearing " to the court \^ 
forwarded to the Privy Council in April, 1577, with what result does 
not appear, J but probably not unfavourable to him, as he does not seem 
to have lost the royal favour. Indeed the complainants were in bad 
odour at the time, and among the Public Records of the year 1576 are 
many heavy charges of abuse, to remedy which Secretary Walsingham 
drew up a Memorial of things to be reformed in Wales.§ It is there- 
fore not unreasonable to suppose that their case against Lord Chandos 
is a great exaggeration. As they stated it, it is very serious. 

According to them, he appears as the haughty feudal baron, who 
resented any complaint against his retainers as an insult to himself 
One John Yate, his servant, it seems, was ** vehemently suspected " of 
having murdered a man, and Lord Chandos attributed the spreading 
of this report to one Thomas Bushell, a neighbouring gentleman, 
who was called in to view the dead body. ** Conceiving that his 
man's trouble grew by BushelFs information," he not only supported 
Yate in vexatious actions against him, but sent him the following 
peremptory epistle : — 

• ** History of Elmley Castle," by Rev. Hujjh Bennett ; Prattington MS., belonging to the Society of 

+ The Council was established in 1543 by Henry VIII. on the model of the Star-chamber, but it had 
also Chancery jurisdiction. There was a Lord President and a Justice, who were bound by oath to reside 
in the castle of Ludlow, and were not at any time to quit their district without special leave. The sum of 
;f 20 per week was allowed for the " diet " of themselves and the officers of their court. The direction as 
to residence was soon disr^arded, the Lord President very frequently absenting himself, but still drawing 
the major part of the *'diet." The officers thus left without control, and poor, according to representations 
made to Sir Francis Walsingham, remaining among the Public Records, managed all cases with a view to their 
own profit, or ** according to affection." The court was very unpopular, and the English border counties 
frequently petiiioned to be exempt from its jurisdiction. Its Star-chamber powers were taken away in 1641, 
when the English Star-chamber was voted down, and the court was abolished in 1689, very shortly after 
the Revolution. 

:; 1). S. P K iz., Vol. cxii., No. 51. § D. S. P., Eliz., Vol. cvii., No. 7. 

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" To Thomas Bushell give this. 

" Thomas Bushell, Whereas thou hast made thy boast, that thou hast laid fast one 
of my knaves, and now dost provide for another, these are to let thee understand that 
the worst in my house is good enough to be thy fellow, and for that thou hast wrongfully 
and falsely accused them, thou shalt justly and truly be answered in the Starchamber. 
Thus,' as one that I care not for, I bid thee farewell. 

"From Cobarkeley, the 13th April [1577], 

" By me. Gyles Chandoes." 

Other charges are made against Lord Chandos, as of encouraging 
fraudulent suits to deprive Bushell of land that he had purchased, 
and of threatening to " pull the white hairs from the face '' of Mr. Justice 
Smith, of Campden, beside styling him " knave," the occasion of his 
fury being a quarrel between their servants about " a wine quart pot." 
Being duly summoned by the Council, he refused to appear, contemned 
their authority, and wrote letters in which he assumed the air of the 
injured party. In one of these letters he complains bitterly that a 
nobleman should be dealt with " like a common subject," and with his 
mind full, no doubt, of the late royal visit, he tells the Council that he 
will appeal to the queen, " who, of her gracious goodness, will have due 
consideration to the complaints of her poor nobility." 

We next meet with him as the recipient of a letter from Secretary 
Walsingham, dated in 1578, from which it appears that the com- 
missioners for causes of piracy for Gloucestershire had neglected to 
make their return, " which is marvellous to the Council," and he is to 
call on them to be quick in doing so.* 

It was between the second and third visits of the queen to Sudeley 
Castle that the country was threatened by the Spanish Armada, t Lord 
Chandos was then appointed to issue out commissions of array, and to 
model a standing militia. He was made Lieutenant of the county, and 
had to send considerable bands of trained men into Wales, as a defence, 
if necessary ; 3000 men and 250 horse were in readiness. The Severn 

• D. S. p., Eliz., Vol. cxxiii., No. 36. 

t Among the archives of the Corporation of Gloucester there is a MS. book of the date of 29th of 

Queen Elizabeth (1586) having reference to the threatened invasion. In this is entered a certificate by the 

I^rd Chandos of Sudeley, with names of able men meet for the war, &c., &c., of the beacons to be set 

up on Robin Hood's Hill, Cleeve Hill, Tewkesbury, and near Cheltenham, the seat of Lord Chandos. 

— Mr. R. H. Fryer's Paper on the Gloucester Arcliives. 

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also had to be guarded, as a part of the Armada was to penetrate to 
the Forest of Dean for the purpose of destroying as many as possible 
of the young oak trees, which supplied timber in abundance to the 
English merchants * 

Several of Lord Chandos' letters of this period are preserved in the 
Public Record Office. On the ist of April, 1588, he writes from 
Sudeley, that he has exhausted the stock of powder levied on the 
county in training men, who are not as perfect as he could wish, and 
he asks authority to raise more money for the purpose. f On July 21 
of the same year he writes to say that his forces are much diminished, 
many being summoned to other places, and he knows not how to raise 
more. His uncle, Anthony '* Brugges," the bearer of the letter, has 
acted as his muster-master, and he begs Sir Francis Walsingham to 
procure him a **fee for his labour." He writes a second letter on the 
same day, saying that the gentry of the shire have agreed to raise 
300 more men " very serviceably furnished.'' \ There was a limit, 
however, to the resources of the county, and in June, 1589, we 
learn that he had memoralised the Government, setting forth the 
poverty of the shire, " by the murrain of cattle, the rot of sheep, and 
the [lack of i^] vent for cloth and corn,'' as reasons for asking the abate- 
ment of ;^iooo of the ;^40CXD required for the loan in the county of 
Gloucester. § 

It was on the occasion of the queen's third visit to Sudeley that the 
most extensive preparations were made for her reception. Early in 
September, 1592, she was again in Gloucestershire, where she visited 
John Higford, Esq., of Dixton, lord of the manor of Alderton, and 
upon whom she conferred the honour of knighthood. 

Then it was that Sudeley Castle became all astir to give becoming 
welcome to so great a queen. The poet's wit (probably Gascoigne's) 
was in requisition to compose verses to her honour, to conceive some 
classic scenes which might express through fiction the compliments 
they designed to pay to her or to her government. 

The lord and lady of the Castle prepared emblematic and costly 

♦ Mr. Cripps' *« Royal North Gloucestershire Militia." t D. S. P., Eliz., Vol. ccix., No. 60. 

X D. S. P., Eliz., Vol. ccxiL, Nos. 74, 75. § D. S. P., Eliz., Vol. ccxxiv., No, 106. 

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gifts ; shepherds and shepherdesses, Cotswold sheep and locks of 
wool, gods and goddesses, were all introduced to play their part in the 
pageant Speeches and holiday clothes were prepared, dogs and bears 

M. Gbrrakd, pinxt. 

Frances Clinton, Wife of Giles, Lord Chandos. 

trained, mummers rehearsed, colours were hoisted, nobility and gentrj^ 
from far and near assembled, the poor were all excitement to see their 
queen, hoping to participate in the largesse which it was then the 
custcm to dist'ibute in the form of roasted oxen and barrel? of beer 

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and ale, set in the thoroughfares for all passers by. According to 
Strype, beer was then fabulously cheap — in the preceding reign it was 
sold for sixpence the barrel (the cask and all), and three great loaves 
for a penny. Wine too was in abundance for the rich, for on this great 
occasion the inhabitants of Tewkesbury presented Lord Chandos with 
a hogshead of claret, then worth £(>. 

But let us, in imagination, join the crowd on that bright September 
morning, and hurry on with them to see the procession start. At this 
time of the year our country is decked in its fairest and richest hues ; 
and as we push forward with the crowd, we cannot but notice the 
beauty of the scene. Woods on either side stretching far away over 
the hills and along the vales ; white colossal clouds towering over the 
dark tree tops, chasing each other up the woodlands in quick succes- 
sion ; in many of the fields the golden sheaves still waiting to be 
housed so soon as the great holiday is over and the reaper can return 
to his work. 

Our fancy carries us on to Dixton, where the cavalcade is already 
forming; the queen is mounted, surrounded by a brilliant escort, 
composed of her own retinue and the dlite of the neighbourhood. 
Foremost among them all are her host, Sir John Higford, the newly 
created knight, and Lord Chandos, whose guest she soon becomes. 
But now the cavalcade is in motion ; the queen, always a little in 
advance of her attendants, rides alone. What the road must have 
been by which the procession passed it is impossible to imagine ; most 
probably a mere path or track, such as the highways then were, leading 
from one place to another. We may be sure there was no turnpike 
road; for though Gloucestershire boasts of having had the first in 
England,* we may be pretty certain it was not in this remote district. 
Through Stanley Pontlarge, skirting the woods at the foot of the hills, 
they wend their way, that brilliant glistening cort^e, the air ringing 
with the voices of the good people of Gretton and Greet as they press 
forward ; for it is the first and possibly the last time that so great a 

♦ Such is the statement of Rudder ("Gloucestershire," p. 44), but it is a mistake, as new and improved 
roads were made in the Weald of Kent by the authority of Parliament as early as 1523 (stat. 14 & 15 
Henry VIII., c. 6).— Furley's " Weald of Kent," vol. u., p. 490. 

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Queen Elizabeth. From the Bemal Collection ; now at Sudeley Castle. 

[Edith L. Wedgwood, ddt 

[To /ace p. 228. 

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queen will ever pass that way. Soon they enter the Borough of 
Winchcombe, where the bailiff and burgesses await them. Gratefully 
they remember a former visit, with its grant of market and fair. Thus 
accompanied, they arrive at Winchcombe, passing on through the gay 
but narrow streets, till they reach Sudeley, Lord Chandos' own domain, 
where he dismounts, and, bareheaded, leads the queen the short in- 
tervening distance ; and then, still mounted on her superb charger, 
through the throng of her loving Cotswold subjects, amid the roar of 
their hearty acclamations, the sound of trumpets, and cannons thunder- 
ing from old Sudeley's ever-loyal walls, the daughter of a hundred 
kings, our noble Tudor Princess, passes beneath the ancient gateway, 
alights, and graciously accepts the warm reception by Sir Giles and the 
Lady Frances ; thus for the thiVd time is their Castle honoured by 
their Sovereign's presence ! Soon the signal is given for the pageant to 
commence ; silence is commanded, and an old shepherd is introduced 
who gives the following oration : — 

"Vouchsafe to hear a simple shepherd; shepherds and simplicity cannot part. 
Your Highness is come into Cotswold, an uneven country, but a people that carry their 
thoughts level with their fortunes : low spirits, but true hearts ; using plain dealings, once 
counted a jewel, now beggary. These hills afford nothing but cottages, and nothing can 
we present to your Highness but shepherds. The country healthy and harmless ; a fresh 
air, where there are no damps, and where a black sheep is a perilous beast ; no monsters ; 
we carry our hearts at our tongues' ends, being as far from dissembling as our sheep from 
fierceness \ and if in anything we shall chance to discover our lewdness, it will be in over 
boldness, in gazing at you, who fills our hearts with joy, and our eyes with wonder. As 
for the honourable Lord and Lady of the Castle (the lx)rd and Lady Chandos), what 
happiness they conceive, I would it were possible for them to express ; then should your 
Majesty see that all outward entertainment were but a smoke rising from their inward 
affections, which as they cannot be seen, being in the heart, so they cannot be smothered, 
appearing in their countenance. This lock of wool, Cotswold's best fruit, and my poor 
gifl, I offer to your Highness ; in which nothing is to be esteemed but the whiteness. 
Virginity's colour : nor to be expected but duty, shepherds' religion." 

According to the custom of the period, various amusements followed 
this speech of welcome, such as bear and bull-baiting, mummers, jousts, 
and feasting. Fireworks having ended the day's entertainment, the 
queen retired to the apartment in the Castle to which tradition has 
ever since attached the name of " Queen Elizabeth's bed-room." It 

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was then a comparatively small apartment, but at the time the Castle 
was restored, part of an adjoining room was added to it, which intro- 
duced the second north-east window, and made it its present size. 
When the noise of the boisterous festivities had died away and the 
queen was left to her own thoughts, sad feelings, we may imagine, 
must have passed through her mind as she pondered upon the vicis- 
situdes of life, feelings which the Castle would have a peculiar power 
of inspiring in her heart. For within her own memory, had it not been 
in the gift of her father, Henry VIII. — and her brother, Edward VI. 
— the residence of her stepmother, and of Lord Seymour, whom the 
world had said was her first love } After so long a lapse of time — for 
the queen was then nearly sixty years of age — did she give a thought 
to the handsome Lord High Admiral of her youth, whose ambitious 
aspirations to an alliance with her had brought him to the block ? 
Did she remember with regret, perhaps with shame, the thoughtless 
indiscretions of those times when she had allowed him to take the 
unbecoming liberties which caused so much anxiety to Katherine Parr ? 
With sorrow and gratitude must the thoughts of the good old queen 
have gone forth towards one, who, lying in her grave in yonder chapel, 
had so tenderly guarded her reputation in those young and thoughtless 
days 1 And then would follow the too sad remembrance of her youthful 
companion, the unfortunate Lady Jane Grey ! and of William Parr, her 
father's favourite — he, too, in his grave at Warwick, once the owner of 
the Castle, but disgraced by Mary. With a smile would she recall to 
mind her own narrow escapes, and of the wet, cold March morning 
when she was taken to the Tower, sitting on the steps in the rain 
rather than enter the "worse place." Yes, he too, who then be- 
friended her, was at that time Lord of Sudeley. And last of all, 
when committing herself to the safe keeping of the King of kings, 
we can imagine how her thoughts would be filled with the remem- 
brance of the early reformers and martyrs whose spirits still seemed 
to linger where once they so bravely taught, and thanking God for 
having made her His instrument to extinguish fire and faggot, 
would at last sink to rest, overcome with so great a crowd of painful 

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" The mystical twilight deepens, 

And the shadows darker grow, 
Till the stain'd and pictured casement 

Loses its crimson glow, — 
Till the scenes on the ancient arras 

A sombre veil assume, — 
Till the stem old warriors' portraits 

Fade away in the gathering gloom," 

In this apartment (the present Oriel or drawing-room) now hang 
several pictures which recall many associations connected with 
Elizabeth as she rested there nearly 300 years ago. Among the 
portraits, are her own, taken when in her prime, Lord Seymour, 
the Marquis of Northampton, and Sir Francis Walsingham ; but 
the most interesting is the painting* by Sir Antonio More, which 
represents Henry VIII. seated on his throne, presenting his sword of 
state to Edward, who kneels beside him. On one side is Mary bringing 
in Philip of Spain and an allegorical figure of War ; on the other side 
is Elizabeth introducing also allegorical figures of Peace and Plenty. 
As this picture possesses much artistic as well as historic interest, it 
will be a pardonable digression from the main story here to add the 
following quaint lines taken from an engraving of this painting in the 
British Museum : — 

" Behold the figure of a Royal King, 

One whom sweet Victory ever did attend. 
From every part where he his power did bring, 

He homeward brought the Conquest in the end, 
And when the fates his vital thread had spun, 
He gave his glory to a virtuous son. 

" Now prudent Edward dying in tender youth. 

Queen Mary then the royal sceptre swayed, 
With foreign blood she matched, and put down truth, 

Which England's glory suddenly decayed ; 
Who brought in war and discord by that deed, 
Which did in commonwealth great sorrow breed. 

" But sorrow, care, and civil broils likewise 
This sacred Queen Elizabeth exiled \ 

• Purchased at Uie Strawberry Hill sale by J. C. Dent. 

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Falsehood did fall before her gracious eyes, 

And persecution tum'd to mercy mild ; 
Plenty and Peace throughout her days are seen, 
And all the world admires the Maiden Queen." * 

On the frame of the picture are painted in gold letters : 

** A Face of muche nobilitye loe in a little roome, 
Fowr states with theyr conditions hear shadowed in a showe, 
A father more than valyant, a rare and virtuous son, 
A zealous daughter in her kind what els the world doth knowe, 
And last of all a virgin queen to England's ioy we see, 
Successively to hold the right and virtues of the three.** 

and in smaller letters at the foot of the picture : 

" The . Qveen . to . Walsingham . this . Tablet . sent * 
Mark . of. her . peoples . and . her . own . contente. * " 

To return to Sudeley and its festivities. The day after the queen's 
arrival was Sunday, but this seems to have interposed no obstacle to 
the amusements. Though no mention is made of the queen's having 
attended divine service, most probably she did so, and then, as at 
Kenilworth, the remainder of the day was spent in dancing among the 
lords and ladies. Our present strict observance of the Sunday had 
not, as yet, been generally received by Protestants, and plays were 
performed in the presence of the queen. Here, at Sudeley, there was 
a wonderful display ; but again Nicholls must be quoted, as he gives 
at length the details of the scene, which commenced with Apollo 
running after Daphne, a shepherd following, uttering this : — 

" Nescis temeraria : nescis 
Quern fugias : ideoque fugis. 

" A short tale, but a sorrowful : a just complaint, but remediless. I loved (for shepherds 
have their saints), long I loved (for Beauty bindeth 'prentices) a nymph most fair, and 
as chaste as fair, yet not more fair than I unhappy. Apollo, who calleth himself a god 
(a title among men, who when they will commit injuries term themselves gods), pursued my 
J )aphne with bootless love, and me with endless hate ; her he wooed with fair words, the 

* This was engraved by W. Rogers about the year 1585, and was sold in 1842 for ^f 22 loj. Only three 
engravings of this picture are known. One is in Paris, one in the Queen's collection at Windsor, and this 
in the Briti!>h Museum. 

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Oak Bedstead from CnHwon flack, wt tm Carvei> Pi lasted remuvkd from before a Secjlet CRUCifiXi 

Small Table^ said to have been useb bv Quien Elizabeth on her visits ftoS^^^liV ©i^mi,^^ l^- 

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flajteries of men ; with great gifts, the sorceries of gods ; with cruel threats, the terrifying 
of weak damosels. Nee preee nee pretio^ nee mavet ille minis. Me he terrified with a 
monstrous word metamorphosing, saying that he would turn me into a wolf, and of a 
shepherd make me a sheep-biter : or into a cockatrice ; and cause mine eyes, which 
gazed on her, to blind hers, which made mine dazzle ; or to a mole ; that I should hear 
his flattering speech, but never behold her fair face ; Tautatie animis eaUstibus im ? 

" Sometimes would he allure her with sweet music ; but harmony is harsh when it is 
Trust's broker; often with promise of immortality, but Chastity is of itself immortal ; ever 
pursuing her with swiftness ; but Virtue tying wings to the thoughts of virgins, swiftness 
becometh surbated. Thus lived he 'twixt love and jealousy ; I 'twixt love and danger ; 
she 'twixt fear and virtue. At last and alas, this day, I fear of all my joys the last, I 
cannot as a poet (who describing the morning, and before he tell what it is, make it 
night) stand on the time ; Love coineth no circumlocutions ; but by the sun, a shepherd's 
dial, which goeth as true as our hearts, it was four of the clock, when she flying from his 
treason, was turned into a tree ; which made me stand as though I had been turned into 
a stone, and Apollo so enchanted as wounded with her loss, or his own cruelty ; the 
fingers, which were wont to play on the lute, found no other instrument than his owti 
face ; the golden hair, the pride of his head, pulled off" in locks, and stampt at his feet ; 
his sweet voice turned to howling ; and there sitteth he (long may he sorrow !) wondering 
and weeping, and kissing the laurel, his late love, and mine ever. Pleaseth your Majesty 
to view the melancholy of Apollo, my distress, and Daphne's mischance ; it may be the 
sight of so rare perfection will make him die for grief, which I wish ; or Daphne return to 
her old shape, which must be your wonder ; if neither, it shall content me that I have 
revealed my griefs, and that you may behold his." 

This speech ended, her Majesty saw Apollo with the tree, having 
on the one side one that sung, on the other one that played : 

" Sing you, play you : but sing and play my truth ; 
This tree my lute, these sighs my notes of ruth : 
The laurel leaf for ever shall be green. 
And Chastity shall be Apollo's Queen. 
If gods may die, here shall my tomb be placed, 
And this engraven, * Fond Phoebus, Daphne chaste.' " 

After these verses, the song : 

" My heart and tongue were twins, at once conceived : 

The eldest was my heart, bom dumb by destiny ; 
The last was my tongue, of all sweet thoughts bereaved, 

Yet strung and tuned to play heart's harmony. 
Both knit in one, and yet asunder placed. 

What heart would speak, the tongue doth still discover ; 
What tongue doth speak, is of the heart embraced. 

And both are one to make a new-found lover ; 

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New found, and only found in gods and kings, 
Whose words are deeds : but deeds nor words regarded, 

Chaste thoughts do mount, and she with swiftest wings, 
My love with pain, my pain with loss rewarded : 

Engrave upon this tree, Daphne's perfection, 

* That neither man nor gods can force affection.' " 

The song ended, the tree rived, and Daphne issued out ; Apollo ran 
after her, with these words : 

Nymplui mane^ per me concordant carmia nervis, 

" Fair Daphne, stay, too chaste because too fair. 

Yet fairer in mine eyes, because so chaste : 
And yet because so chaste, must I despair ? 

And to despair I yielded have at last. 
Shepherd, possess thy love, for me too cruel. 

Possess thy love, thou knowest not how to measure : 
A dunghill cock doth often find a jewel. 

Enjoying that he knows not to be treasure. 
When broomy beard to sweep thy lips presume, 

When on thy neck his rough-he\vn arms shall move, 
And gloat on thee with eyes that drizzle rheum, 

When that his toothless mouth shall call thee love, 
Nought will I say of him, but pity thee. 
That beauty might, but would no wiser be/' 

Daphne, running to her Majesty, uttered this : 

** I stay, for whither should Chastity fly for succour, but to the Queen of Chastity ? By 
thee I was interred in a tree, that by craft, way might be made to lust : by your Highness 
restored, that by Virtue there might be assurance in Honour. These tables, to set down 
your praises long since, Sybilla's prophesies, I humbly present to your Majesty; not 
thinking that your virtues can be deciphered in so slight a volume, but noted. The whole 
world is drawn in a small map, * Homer's Iliads * in a nutshell, and the riches of a 
monarch in a few ciphers ; and so much odds betwixt the explaining of your perfections 
and the touching, as is betwixt painting and thinking : the one running over a little table 
in a whole day, the other over the whole world in a minute. With this vouchsafe a poor 
virgin*s wish, that often wish for good husbands ; mine only for the endless prosperity of 
my Sovereign." 

These verses, written in the tables which were given to her Majesty : 

" Let Fame describe your rare perfection, 
Let Nature paint your beauty's glory, 

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Let Love engrave your true affection, 

Let Wonder write your virtue's story : 
By them and gods must you be blazed : 
Sufficeth men they stand amazed^' 

The third day the High Constable of Cotswold should have been 
presented to her Majesty, but the weather was so unfit, that he was 
not But this it should have been ; one clothed all in sheep-skins, face 
and all, spake this by his interpreter : — 

'* May it please your Highness, this is the great Constable and Commander ot 
Cotswold : he speaks no language but the Rammish tongue ; such sheepish governors 
there are, that can say no more to a messenger than he (bad). This, therefore, as 
signifying his duty to your Majesty, and all our desires, I am commanded to be his 
interpreter, or shepherd's star, pointing directly to Cotswold, and in Cotswold to Sudeley, 
made us expect some wonder, and of the eldest ask some counsel; it was resolved 
by the ancientest, that such a one should come, by whom all the shepherds should 
have their flocks in safety, and their own lives, all the country quietness, and the whole 
world astonishment. Our Constable commands this day to be kept holiday ; all our 
shepherds are assembled and if shepherds* pastimes may please, how joyful would 
they be if it would please you to see them; which if you vouchsafe not, as pastimes 
too mean for your Majesty, they mean to call this day the shepherds' black day. In 
all humility we entreat, that you would cast an eye to their rude devices, and an ear 
to their harsh words, and if nothing happen to be pleasing, the amends is, nothing 
shall be tedious " 

After this speech, her Majesty was to be brought among the 
shepherds, among whom was a king and queen to be chosen, and 
thus they began : — 

Mdibotus, Nisa. Cutter of Cotswold. 

Mel. Cut the cake : who hath the bean, shall be King ; and where the peas is, she 
shall be Queen. 

Nis. I have the peas, and must be Queen. 

Mel. I the bean, and King : I must command. 

Nis. Not so : the Queen shall and must command ; for I have often heard of a 
king that could not command his subjects ; and of a queen that hath commanded 

MeL I yield : yet is it within compass of my authority to ask questions : and first 
I will begin with you in love, I mean shepherd's love : for I will not meddle with 
gentlefolk's love : which is most constant, the man or the woman ? 

Nis, It is no question, no more than if you should ask, whether on a steep hill, a 
square stone or a globe stood most steady. 

H H 2 

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MeL Both loving, which is most loving ? 

Nis. The woman, if she have her right ; the man, if he be his own Judge. 

Mel, Why doth the man ever woo the woman, the woman never the man ? 

Nis, Because men are most amorous and least chaste; women careless of fond 
affections, and, when they embrace them, fearful But, unless your questions were wiser, 
I command you to silence. You, sirrah, that sits as though your wits were a wool- 
gathering, will you have a question, or a commandment ? 

Cut No question of a Queen, for they are hard to be answered : but any com- 
mandment, for that must be obeyed. 

Ni . Then sing. And you, sir, a question or commandment ? 

Cu/. A commandment I ; and glad that I am ! 

Nts, Then play. 

Cut I have played so long with my fingers, that I have beaten out of play all my 
good fortunes. 


'* Herbs, words, and stones, all maladies have cured ; 

Herbs, words, and stones, I used when I loved ; 
Herbs, smells, words, wind, stones, hardness have procured ; 

By stones, nor words, nor herbs, her mind was moved. 
I ask'd the cause : this was a woman's reason— 

'Mongst herbs are weeds, and thereby are refused ; 
Deceit, as well as Truth, speaks words in season, 

False stones by foils have many one abused. 
I sigh'd, and then she said my fancy smoked ; 

I gazed, she said my looks were Folly's glancing ; 
I sounded dead, she said my love was choked ; 

I started up, she said my thoughts were dancing. 
O, sacred Love ! if thou have any Godhead, 
Teach other rules to win a maidenhead. " 

Md, Well sung, and well played ; seldom so well among shepherds. But call 
me the Cutter of Cotswold, that looks as though he only knew his leirpoop \ amorous he 
is, and wise ; carrying a sheep's eye in a calf s head. 

Nis, Will you three questions, or three commandments ? 

Cut Half a dozen of each. My wits work like new beer \ and they will break my 
head, unless it vent at the mouth. 

Nis, Sing. 

Cut. I have forsworn that since cuckoo-time ; for I heard one sing all the summer, 
and in the winter was all bald. 

Nis, Play on the lute. 

Cut Tailor's craft; a knock on the knuckles will make one fast a fortnight ; my 
belly and back shall not be retainers to my fingers. 

Nis, What question shall I ask ? 

Cut Any, so it be of love. 

Nis, Are you amorous ? 

Cut No : but fantastical. 

Nis, But what is love ? 

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Cut, A single accidens. In love there are eight parts. 
Joy, \ Sorrow, \ 

""^Pf ' \ All tolerable. ^^f^' \ All intolerable. 

Truth, 1 Jealousy, j 

Constancy. -' Despair. / 

These contain all till vou come to the rules, and then, in love, there are three concords. 

1. The first, betwixt a bachelor and a maid. 

2. The second, betwixt a man and his v^ife. 

3. The third, betwixt any he and she that loveth straggling. 

Nis, The fool bleeds : it is time to stop his vein \ for having wet his foot, he carelh 
not how far he wades. Let us attend that which we most expect : The star that directs 
us hither. Who hath an almanac ? 

Cut, What mean you, a starmonger, the quipper of the firmament ? Here is one. 
I ever carry it, to know the highways to every good town, the fairs, and the fair weather. 

Mel, Let me see it The seventh of September, happiness was bom into the 
world : it may be the eleventh is some wonder. The moon at the full, 'tis true, for 
Cynthia never shined so bright; the twelfth, the weather inclined to moisture, and 
shepherds' devices to dryness : the thirteenth, summer goeth from hence ; the sign 
in Virgo : Vivat clarissima Virgo, The diseases shall be melancholies : some proceeding 
of necessity, some of superfluity : many shall be studying how to spend what they have ; 
more beating their brains to get what they want. MaUce shall be more infectious than 
the pestilence ; and drones more favoured than ants ; as for bees, they shall have but 
labour for their pains, and when their combs be full, they shall be stilled ; the war shall be 
'twixt hemlock and honey. At four of the clock this day, shall appear the world's 
wonder, that leads England into every land, and brings all lands into England. 

Then, espying her Majesty, he and all the shepherds, kneeling, con- 
cluded thus : — 

"This is the day, this is the hour, this is the star; pardon, dread Sovereign, 
poor shepherds' pastimes, and bold shepherds' presumptions. We call ourselves kings 
and queens, to make mirth; but, when we see a king or queen, we stand amazed. 
The sun warms the earth, yet loseth no brightness, but sheweth more force; and 
kings' names that fall upon shepherds lose no dignity, but breed more fear. Their 
pictures are drawn in colours ; and in brass their portraitures engraven. At chess, there 
are kings and queens, and they of wood. Shepherds are no more, nor no less, wooden. 
In theatres, artificers have played emperors; yet the next day forgotten neither their 
duties nor occupation. For our boldness in borrowing their names, and in not seeing 
your Majesty for our blindness, we offer these shepherds' weeds : which if your Majesty 
vouchsafe at any time to wear, it shall bring to our hearts comfort, and happiness to our 

During the Queen's visit to Sudeley the following letter was written 

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by Sir Thomas Heneage, her chamberlain, to the Lord Keeper 
Puckering : — 

"My GOOD Lord, 

" Upon the receipt of your letters I acquainted her Majesty with your joy of her 
so well passing so long a progress, and your great desire to know how her Highness did, 
now at the furthest of her journey, the good news thereof (being so far divided from her 
Majesty) did give you life and most contentment I also showed her Majesty (as this 
gentleman the bearer hereof told me) how your Lordship had been in Waltham forest, 
and was not pleased to take your sport alone, but would have the company of the 
Ambassador, whom you waited to dinner, and made partner of your pastime. Touching 
the first, her Majesty willed me to tell you, that she found by your often sending, your 
love and care of her. And for the next, she bad me say, that she found you would not 
only speak well, but also do well, and perform things with judgment and honour, praising 
you to me exceedingly. For I could not use any one word of just commendation of your 
Lordship, that she gave not allowance of and adding to of her onvn gracious conceiving. 
Whereof I (that will never be found to deceive you) can assure your Lordship you have 
great cause to take comfort This is the best news that I can now, or at any time, send 
your Lordship. But as soon as any come out of France or Italy, worthy the writing, I 
shall send your Lordship a brief of them. And so, with my hearty commendations, rest 

assuredly at your Lordship's commandment, 

"T. Heneage. 
** At the Court at Sudley, the I2lh Sept,^ IS92." 

Mr. Edward Jones, secretary to the Lord Keeper Puckering, in a letter 
dated Stepney, Sept 1 2th, says, " The plague increaseth in London," 
-which probably was the cause of the Queen's visit at this time.* 

The royal visit to Sudeley ended, the Queen departed, escorted as 
before to the borders of the county, rested a few days at Woodstock, 
and thence proceeded to Oxford 

We now leave this brilliant page of Sudeley s history, illumined as 
it is by the splendid visits of Queen Elizabeth and her retinue, and 
turn to Giles Lord Chandos,f who departed this life on the 21st of 
February, 1594, at the early age of 47. By his last will, bearing date 
23rd July, 1592, he bequeathed his body to be buried in the parish 
church of Sudeley. His burial is entered in the parish register of 

• In Nichols* ** Progresses," pp. 451, 501, there are descriptions of New Year's gifts (1599) m money, 
plate, and dress ornaments, from and to the Queen and Lord and Lady Chandos : **A kirtell of silver 
cliainlei, with silke of sondryc colors. A doublet! of networke, tufted up with white knytworke, florished 
with silver;" et cetera. 

t He was, a.d. 1593, possessed of the lands of Eldersfield, which were afterwards held by Sir Heniy 
Spiller, Knt. The manor is now the property of Sir Edmund Lechmere. 

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Winchcombe, but there is every reason to believe his wish was carried 
out, and that he lies buried with his ancestors in the Chandos vault. 

MYTkNS, pinxit 

Elizabeth, Wife of Sir John Kennedy, eldest daughter to Giles, Lord Chandos. 

He left no son, but two young daughters, Elizabeth and Katherine, of 
the ages of 16 and 14, to be educated under the judicious care of the 
noble Lady Frances, their mother. 

Elizabeth had an unhappy history, which, though passed over by 

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our county historians, is told in letters preserved in the Public Record 
Office. About the year 1 603 she married, evidently against the wish 
of her mother, Sir John Kennedy, a member of the royal household, 
who had influence enough with the King to procure from him a letter 
to Lady Frances, exhorting her not to use " hard measure " to the new- 
married pair, as the gentleman was one whom he had much regard for ; 
adding that he should be inclined to favour her ladyship " in any just 
thing that might concern her," according as he perceived that she 
attended or not to his recommendation.* What was the result of this 
letter we know not, but eventually the discovery was made that Sir 
John had another wife in Scotland, and " Mrs. Brydges," as she then 
came to be termed, of course separated from him. Several letters 
relating to this affair are preserved at Hatfield House,t but these not 
being accessible, we are obliged to confine ourselves to those in the 
Public Record Office. 

From these we learn that in the year 1609 Mrs. Brydges was 
residing in the house of Sir William Paddy, a physician, at Barn Elm. 
On the 3rd of September, in the middle of the night, Sir John assailed 
the house with " a band of furious Scots," and both the lady and her 
protector were obliged to flee for their lives to the house of Sir Arthur 
Gorges, who reports the affair in a letter to the Earl of Salisbury, J and 
disclaims any idea of interfering between man and wife, but pleads that 
the lady is his wife's cousin, and came to them in such miserable plight, 
"lyker to dye than lyve," that he could not refuse her shelter until 
such time as her mother shall send for her. The story is also told, 
but in a bantering tone, in another letter from Dudley Carleton to 
John Chamberlain. § The poor lady lived several years after in 
sickness and poverty, and died in 161 7. There is a curious passage 
regarding her death, in the Extracts of Letters among Birch's MSS. 
in the British Museum, in these words : — 

"Oct. 18, 161 7. Mrs. Bridges, alias the Lady Kennedy, died at Westminster a 
fortnight since, being taken with strange convulsions, which made some, perhaps, suspect 

• D. S. P., Jas. I., Vol. vi., No. 65, dated February 19, 1604. 

+ Historical Manuscripts Commission, Third Report, Appendix, p. 148. 

t D. S. P., Jas. I., Vol. xlviil., No. 7. 

§ D. S. P., jas. I., Vol. Ixviii., No. 81. 

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more than there was cause ; that she had done herself some wrong. She lived of late, and 
died very poor : her maintenance being little or nothing, but as it were the judicious alms 
of her friends." 

There are several notices in the Public Records of Sir John Kennedy, 
but none to his credit. In June, 161 5, we read of his being committed 
to the Gatehouse as a false accuser ; * at another time we have an un- 
dated statement of his debts,t in which he asserts that he has been at 
" extraordinary charges upon herself and her friends, as is well known," 
mentioning, among other things, " money I borrowed for her when she 
lay at Dr. Paddye's house, and yet by me owing, JiZ^of ";^ioo before 
she lay down in childbed ;" and "in clothes, physic, and spent by her in 
Christmas-times, ;^i50o; to her servant Newton a copyhold worth 
;^i6o.'' It is noticeable that he never mentions his wife's name, only 
*' her." He says he owes debts to the amount of ;^6200, and has suits 
against him for ;^5500 more. From the report of a committee for 
Petitions of the House of Lords, it appears that he was dead before 
May 28, 1624, and he seems to have left a plentiful crop of debts and 
lawsuits behind him.J 

Katherine married Francis, Lord Russell of Thornhaugh, afterwards 
Earl of Bedford, and left a son and heir, William, who became the first 
Duke of Bedford. Katherine was buried at Cheynies, in Bucking- 

The Lady Frances Chandos lived during her widowhood at 
Wobum, and dying there, was likewise interred at Cheynies. in the 
burial-place of the Russell family. A noble monument is erected to 
her memory, on the north side of the chapel, her figure, in full pro- 
portion, lying thereon in a recumbent posture, dressed in the habit of 
the age, and underneath, the following inscription, in a black marble 
compartment, in Roman letters of gold : — 

" To the Memory of the truly noble and virtuous I-ady, the Lady Frances Chandos, 
wife to Giles Bruge, Lord Chandos, Baron of Sudley, daughter to Edward, Earl of 
Lincoln, and mother to Katharine, Countess of Bedford. She died at Woobum Abbey, 
and was interred here September, 1623. 

D. S. P., Jas. I., Vol. Ixxx., No. 15. t D. S. P., Jas. I., Vol. xlviii., No. 75. 

X Historical Manuscripts Commission, Third Report, Appendix, p. 34. 

I I 

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" This was erected at the charge of the Right Hon. William, Earl of Bedford, as well 
in testimony of the great honour due from him to his noble grandmother's memory as 
in execution of his noble father's last will and testament" * 


Katherine, Countess of Bedford, daughter of Giles Lord Chandos. 

We are indebted to E. Smith Wood, Esq., of Winchcombe, for the 
following abstracts of documents in our possession. The first is a con- 

♦ Collins' "Peerage," Vol. L, part 2, p. 637. 

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veyance executed by the Lady Frances relating to old Church property 
in Winchcombe and Sudeley, and is of great local interest. 

24 June, 43rd Elizabeth (1601). Feoffment and eonveyance from "The righte 
" honorable Frauncis Ladie Chandos of Sudeley in the County of Gloucester widowe " to 
one "Walter Ridelow of Winchombe," in consideration of J[^2<^ then paid and of 
:;^2o. 10. o, to be paid at a day therein named "in or at the Casde of the said Ladie 
Chandos in Sudeley aforesaid," of 

" Twenty and foure wridges or lands of arrable grounde and the hades and meeares of 
" the same landes " " p*cell of the Sextery of Winchombe " " lyenge and beinge in the fildes 
" and Pishe of Sudeley or Winchombe or in one of them." 

" All and singular V* said p'mises late weere p*cell of the Rectory of Winchombe afore- 
" said and to the office of the Sexston of the late dissolved Monestary of Winchombe 
" aforesaid belonginge or app'tayinge w** said Rectory of Winchombe and other the said 
" p*mises belonginge to the said office of Sexston of the said late dissolved Monestary of 
" Winchombe lately weere by our saide soveraigne I^die the Queene in and by her highnes 
" Trs pattents under the greate seale of England bearinge date the eighteene daie of 
" December in the thirtieth year of her highnes raigne, amonngest other thinges graunted 
" to one Edmond Downynge and Myles Doddinge to them and theire heires in fee, to 
" hold of our said soveraigne Ladie the Queene her heires and successors as of her highnes 
" Mannor of Easte greenwiche by fealtie only in free and common socage and not in 
" capite yealdinge therefore to our saide soveraigne Ladie the Queene her heires and suc- 
" cessors the yearly rent or fee farme of twelve poundes nyne shillings and fivepence as 
" in and by the saide Frs pattents more at large it doth & may appeare w*^** saide 
" Fdmond Dowynge and Myles Doddinge by theire deed indented beringe dafe the 
" Nyneteenth daie of Marche in the thirtieth yeare of the Raigne of our soveraigne Ladie 
" Queene Elizabeth inroUed in her Ma**** high courte of Chauncery did bargaine and sell 
" the said P'myses amoungest other thinges to one Arthur Swayne and Phillipe Tyse to 
" them and theire heires in fee, The w'^** Arthur Swayne and Phillipe Tyse by theire Inden- 
" ture beringe date twentithe daie of Marche in the thirtieth yeere aforesaide inrolled in 
" the said courte of Chauncery did bargaine and sell the saide p'mises amoungest other 
" thinges to one Charles Wedmister & Bennett his wife and to the heires and assignes 
" of the said Charles for ever w^** saide Charles Wedmister and Bennett his wife in and 
" by their Indenture beringe date the eleventh daie of February in the seven and thirtieth 
" yeere of the Raigne of our saide souveraigne Ladie Queene Elizabeth inrolled in her 
" Ma^** high courte of Chauncery did bargaine and sell the saide p'mises amoungest other 
" thinges to the said Frauncis Ladie Chandos to her and her heires for ever And the w*=** 
" Bennett the wife of the said Charles Wedmister after the decease of the said Charles 
" did also by her Indenture beringe date the sixthe daie of June in the nyne and thirtieth 
" yeere of the Raigne of our saide souveraigne Ladie Queene Elizabeth sufficiently bargaine 
" sell convey and assure her estate in the saide p'mises amoungest other thinges to the 
" saide Ladie Frauncis Chandos and to her heires in fee." The deed contains the usual 
covenants for title on the part of Lady Chandos, and after reciting that she had bargained 
with certain other persons therein named for the sale to them of other portions of the 
hereditaments belonging to the said Rectory, and to the office of the Sexton of the said 

I I 2 

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Monastery, fixes the proportion of the said rent or fee farm to be paid on the heredita- 
ments retained by her as J[fi, 1 1. 5, and the hereditaments so bargained to be sold at 
j[,l. 18. o, of which 5J. \d, was to be payable out of the hereditaments so sold to the said 
Waiter Ridelow. 

From the next it appears 
(1632) : 

** Gyles Ridler of Winchombe 
" Clarke," and Ann Ridler of *^ Shudely *' 
combe, Yeoman, in con s idem ti on of 
ground called Fullbrooke " Peece " 
of Sudeley or Winchcombc iind all 

that on 28 Feb. 7 Charles I. 

Yeoman, Walter Ridler of Campden 
^\'idow, sold to Walter Roane of Winch- 
^58, *^ 17 Ridges or Landes of Arable 
situate in a Common Field in Parish 

Lanterv, XlVth century work. Formerly 

in the Strawberry Hill Collection, now 

at Sudeley Castle. 

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** And many a banner floated free, 

In days when Chandos held his state, 
Within the ancient Castle gate. 
And woke the courts with revelry.'* 

Francis R. Traill. 

GILES leaving no male issue, was succeeded by his brother 
William, of whom personally little is recorded, except his 
participation in the wild plot of the Earl of Essex ; but his 
household would seem to have been a disorderly one, as we have full 
details of a daring highway robbery committed by "some of my 
Lord Chandos' men " on clothiers returning with ;i^400 from Bristol 
fair, in papers in the Public Record Office.* It seems also from 
letters in the British Museum*, that he had a dispute with his widowed 
sister-in-law about Sudeley. Lady Frances, in a letter to the Lord 
Keeper (without the date of the year), complains that though she 
resided in the Castle, the new lord had placed servants of his own to 
keep the gates. He indulged in threatening speeches, so that her 
tenants knew not to whom to pay their rents ; and, worst of all, he 
spread a report that the queen favoured his side of the question. She 
therefore besought his lordship to give her troubles his earnest 
attention, and to arrange that the counsel on her behalf might have as 
speedy a meeting as possible with their opponents. How the matter 
was arranged we know not, but as before stated, Lady Frances passed 
the latter years of her life at Woburn with her daughter, the Countess 
of Bedfordf 

♦ D. S. P., Eliz., Vol. cclii., Nos. 61-64. 

t There are letters in the British Museum from Lady Frances Chandos to Sir Julias C£«ar, Master of 
the Courts of Requests, dated ** Sudeley, xxii Jan. and xth of March, 1603 [1604]," the latter endorsed by 
Sir J. C, *' Th' olde Lady Shandois touching an answer to a peticion of Lewes Jones, parson of Cobherley ;" 
of these we have copies. 

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Lord Chandos was in 1597 required to send up 150 men from 
Gloucestershire "on the coming of the Cardinal of Austria into 
France, and nearing Boulogne." In 1601 his brother-in-law, Lord 
Sands, joined in Essex's schemes, and Lord Chandos accompanied 
him to Essex House ; but when the earl set out for the city, Chandos, 
according to the testimony of one Ellis Jones, wrapt his black 
cloak about his face, and went another way.* He seems to have 
escaped without punishment, though Sands was heavily fined, and 
even to have retained his official position, for we have in our pos- 
session an autograph letter from him to the Lords of the Privy 
Council, as Lord-Lieutenant, dated from Prinknash, August 12, 1602, 
informing them that he has levied threescore men out of the county, 
and has sent them to the port of Bristol under the conduct of Captain 
John Lewes, and that he has also sent to Sir Thomas Tasborough 
;^2io for arming and apparelling the same. 

He married Mary, daughter of Sir Owen Hopton, Lieutenant of the 
Tower, and died late in the year 1602, leaving his eldest son Grey, heir 
to the title and the Sudeley estates ; and another son named Giles, "who 
died without issue." Such is the only notice of Giles that our county 
histories afford ; but among the Public Records are some documents 
that give a glimpse of a passage of his private life, hitherto unknown, 
which may be here told, though it belongs to a somewhat later period. 

Among the " causes specially appointed to be heard " in the Star- 
chamber on the 20th October, 1637, is one in which George, Lord 
Chandos, is the plaintiff, and Dame Jane Bridges, William Saunderson, 
Margaret Willy, Anthony Fortescue, Anne Pikede .... Richard 
Davison, Anne, his wife, and James Bagg, Knt., are the defendants, 
charged with " plots, practices, perjury, subornation of perjury, false and 
untrue oaths and allegations, slandering of titles, troubling of posses- 
sions, and other offences ;" but only Jane Bridges and Margaret Willy 
are proceeded against. f As is well known to students of history, but 
few of the records of the Starchamber are now to be met with ; some 
are in the Public Record Office, some among the Harleian MSS. in the 

* D. S. P., Eliz., Vol. cclxxviii., No. 87. f E). S. P., Car. I., Vol. ccclxx., Nos. lo, li. 

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Chandos Buffet, 1598. 

At Si'DELEY Casti.k. 

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British Museum, and others in private hands, particularly in the Duke of 
Northumberland's library at Alnwick Castle;* but in all probability the 
far greater number have been destroyed. Hence we have but meagre 
materials for the history of what was, no doubt, a cause cdibre in its 
day. The information exhibited in the name of George, Lord Chandos, 
who was a minor, the interrogatories addressed to the several parties, 
and their answers, seem to have perished, and we have only the entry 
on the cause paper, and a summary of the main points in the depositions 
of eight witnesses for the plaintiff; none appear for the defence. 

Putting together the scattered hints, it appears that Jane Willy, the 
natural daughter of one William Saunderson (probably Margaret Willy 
was her mother), asserted that she had been married to Sir Giles 
Bridges, and assuming the title of Lady, under that pretence cozened 
one William Uvedale of jewels and clothes ; but it was not until a 
year and a half after the death of the knight that this came to the 
knowledge of his executors, of whom she claimed a debt. She had, 
however, before this induced Thomas Writ (i*), a clergymen, to swear 
falsely that he had. married her to Sir Giles, saying that the minister 
who had married her had gone abroad, and she conquered his 
reluctance to forswear himself by a promise of ;^5 for the service. 

Her father also tampered with Edward Thurman, who had been the 
curate at the Savoy in 1627, offering him 50 or 100 angels f to swear 
that he had married her to Sir Giles, who was a Romanist When 
Thurman replied that he remembered no such marriage, Saunderson 
explained that " a good license " had been procured, and the marriage 
was celebrated at the back door of the church by a Romish priest. 
Another witness, Timothy Gates, parson of Clewer (?), deposed that 
" after the death of Bridges, Jane Willy brought him two blank papers 
to set his hand to." Thomas Hancock deposed that " she was married 
in her bed/' but does not say who was the husband ; and Uvedale 
further stated that Saunderson acknowledged to him that he was 
forsworn for her. 

• Historical Manuscripts Commission, Third Report, Appendix, p. 45. 

t A gold coin, the value of which varied considerably at different times. In the reign of Charles I. it 
was settled at ten shillings. 

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The court on this occasion consisted of eleven members, and against 
each name appears the measure of punishment that he recommended, 
the judgment pronounced being that of the majority. Lord Cottington, 
whose name appears first, was satisfied with " ;^500 fine to the king — 
Jane Bridges," and two others agreed with him. Lord Chief Justice 
Finch evidently thought this too lenient for such an offender, and his 
vote runs, " Lord Cottington's fine, corporal punishment, whipping ; " 
seven others concurring, this became ** the general vote " of the court, 
pronounced by the Lord Treasurer. The corporal punishment, no doubt, 
was inflicted on the unhappy creature, but it is not likely that the fine 
could be paid. It does not appear that any judgment was then pro- 
nounced on Margaret Willy, but the Starchamber must have been a more 
merciful tribunal than other courts at that day, if she went unpunished. 

Of the three daughters of Lord Chandos, Frances married first Sir 
Thomas Smith, Secretary to King James, and secondly, Thomas Cecil, 
Earl of Exeter. The tomb of the earl is in Westminster Abbey, and he 
is represented at full length in the unmeaning style of the period, with 
his first wife laid on his right side, and a vacant place on his left for his 
second wife, Frances Bridges ; but she, with the pride of the Chandoses, 
declined occupying the left side, and the space is therefore left vacant.* 
Her name often occurs in the State Papers of the reign of James L, 
she having been accused of attempting to poison Lady Roos, the 
daughter of Sir Thomas Lake, Secretary of State. What was their 
motive does not appear, but the Secretary, his wife, his son, and his 
daughter, were leagued in a conspiracy against her. The cause was 
in part heard by the King in person, and the proceedings were so 
protracted, that they filled no less than 17,000 sheets of paper, f At 
last it was decided in the Starchariiber, in February, 16 19, and the 
documents relating to it are in the Duke of Northumberland's library.^ 
The innocence of the countess was " proved very sufficiently," says the 
judgment, and heavy punishment was inflicted on the accusers. The 
Secretary, his wife and son, were to be imprisoned in the Tower for 

* Ackermann's "Westminster Abbey," Vol. ii., p. i8i. 

t D. S. P., Jas. I., Vol. civ., No. 4. 

X Historical Manuscripts Commission, Third Report, Appendix, p. 64. 

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Van Dyck, Pinxt. 

John Otfhor 

Daughter of William, Lord Chandos. 

(T/ie Original Painting was in the Strawberry Hill Collection.) 

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life, to pay ;^3000 as damages to the earl and countess, and to make 
an open confession of their guilt in the Starchamber. The men were 
to lose all offices, and being declared "infamous," could hold none in 
future. Sir Thomas and his wife were to pay each a fine of ;^50oo to 
the King, and Lady Roos one of 100 marks; whilst Sarah Swarton, a 
humble confederate, was to be " whipped at a cart's tail from the prison 
to Westminster, there to be marked with the letters F. and A., for a false 
accuser, and to be whipped to Cheapside, and from thence, on a market 
day, and then to remain in prison in Bridewell during his Majesty's plea- 
sure." Two suits that the Lakes had brought were dismissed with 
costs, as " nothing proved," and damages amounting to ;^500 in one case, 
and ;^i2oo in the other, awarded to the injured parties ; together with 
two fines of ;^200 each to the King for their false accusation. Her 
portrait, here given, is a copy of an old engraving by Faithorne, from a 
picture by Vandyke, formerly in the Strawberry Hill Collection. 

The second daughter married Sir Thomas Turvile, and Beatrice, the 
youngest, became the wife of Sir Henry Poole, of Saperton. Their 
son, Sir William, married . Marial, daughter of Lord Tracy, and was 
succeeded by his son Sir Henry Poole, who was the last heir male of 
his family, and sold the Manor of Saperton in the year 1660 to Sir 
Robert Atkyns, Kt* 

Grey Brydges succeeded his father as the fifth Lord Chandos. 
Whether he had any cause of discontent at the accession of James L 
is not known, but Brooke, one of the parties to the plot to place 
Arabella Stuart on the throne, says in his confession of July 17, 1603, 
*' My Lord Grey did name my Lord Chandos, saying he thought he 
could bring him into the action ; " f apparently he was wrong, as 
Chandos evidently was in favour at court. Thus he was made one of 
the Knights of the Bath at the creation of Charles, Duke of York, on 
the 5th of January, 1604, the duke and ten noblemen's sons receiving 
the order at the same time ; and when waiting on the King to Oxford, 
he was created Master of Arts on the 30th of August, 1605. 

In 161 2, when England was plunged in grief by the sudden death of 

♦ Rudder's "Gloucestershire." + D. S. P., Jas. I., VpL ii., No. 69. 

K K 

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Henry, Prince of Wales, we find the Lord of Sudeley attending his 
funeral in Westminster Abbey.* 

A few scattered notices of Lord Chandos occur among the State 
Papers, but he seems to have taken little part in public affairs, probably 
on account of bad health, which occasioned him to make frequent visits 
to Spa and elsewhere. In June i6i i, he wrote to the Earl of Salisbury, 
thanking him for having given his name to a son of his, who, however, 
did not live long to enjoy itf In 1 613 we find a quarrel and threatened 
duel between him and Lord Hay, one of the courtiers, mentioned,J and 
in 1 61 6, he endeavoured to obtain the post of Lord President of Wales, 
but did not succeed. § He had a dispute with Sir Thomas Lowe, a 
London alderman, about a lease of some lands at Blunsdon, in Wiltshire, 
and taking advantage of his opponent's compulsory absence (serving as 
Lord Mayor, in 1604), forcibly re-entered on the premises without 
waiting for legal process. The case was referred by the King to the 
Lord Chancellor and others, and their judgment being decidedly against 
him, he received a letter of severe reprimand, directing him to allow Sir 
Thomas again to hold the lands until he might be evicted by due course 
of law. The letter concludes, " And hereof we will you not to fail, as you 
tender our favour, whereof you have already tasted to your comfort"j| 

Lord Chandos seems to have a right to a niche in the Temple of 
F'ame raised by Lord Orford in his " Royal and Noble Authors,'* he 
being considered the author of a work entitled " Horae Subsecivae, 
Observations and Discourses," published by Blount in 1620, with a 
preface by the same, ending with : — 

" I will hold you no longer from that to which this but introduceth : But if the book 
please you, come home to my shop, you shall have it bound ready to your hand, and 

" At your command, 

" Ed. Blount." 

A few passages from the chapter on country life may here be in- 
serted, as they gave an insight into the life and sentiments of a noble 

* Nichols' "Progresses," Vol. ii., p. 501. + D. S. P., Jas. I., Vol. Ixiv., No. 51. 

X D. S. P., Jas. ., Vol. Ixxiv., No. 56. § D. S. P., Jas. I., Vol. Ixxxvii., No. 57. 

II D. S. P., Jas. I., Addenda, Vol. xxxix., No. 71. 

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hi ^ 


Door-way between the First and Second Quadrangle, Sudeley Castle, 

Surmounted by the Initials and Date, G.C, 1614. 

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gentlemen, and might serve as a worthy model for all future owners 
of the Castle ! 

Speaking of how a man of quality is to conduct himself in a country 
life, he says : — 

" One of his first endeavours should be to expresse freedome and hospitality in his 
house, and bountifull liberality towards his poorer neighbours : these be the true ornaments 
of a country housekeeper; an honourable custome, so peculiar to our Nation, that that 
way we have outgone all others ; and howsoever of late it hath been declining and decay- 
ing, yet it is worthy of renovation, being so great a stay to the country, such a releefe to 
the poore, so honourable for themselves, and exempilary for posterity, the very knot which 
contracts society and conversation, a receptacle for ones friends and children, which be 
the chiefest solaces of a man's life," &c 

" The next means of doing good in the country is in composing of differences 
and discontents, betwixt neighbour or friend and another: it is the principall act of 
charitie. This is the proper work of a superior power. . . . It is the best worke 
wherein a man in the country can employ himselfe to bee a Peace-maker and ender of 
controversies," &c. 

Of country sports he says : 

"All field delights, as hunting, riding, and hawking, commendable if used with mode- 
ration, are properly belonging only to this life, and certainly they greatly enable and 
active men's bodies making the difficulty of enduring labour and other accidents, that in 
time of warre a man may be subject unto, more easie than any other preparative or 
imitable practise that I know." 

Collins says of Grey, Lord Chandos, that he was a noble house- 
keeper, and by a winning behaviour contracted so great an interest in 
Gloucestershire, and had such numerous attendants when he came to 
Court, that he was commonly called the King of the Cotswold. For, 
having an ample fortune, he expended it in the most generous manner ; 
his house being kept open three days every week for the gentry, and 
the poor were as constantly fed with the remnants of his hospitable 
entertainments. In short, his ability and disposition were so exacdy 
proportioned to each other, that it was difficult to determine which had 
the greatest share in his numberless acts of beneficence. 

He entered into some negotiations with the Earl of Cumberland for 
the hand of his daughter Anne (afterwards the celebrated Countess of 
Dorset), as we learn from a very curious letter from her mother to the 
Earl of Salisbury, the Master of the Wards, in the Public Record 

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Office,* but he eventually married Anne, daughter of Ferdinando, Earl 
of Derby. He died in his coach on a journey near Spa, August lo, 
162 1, leaving George his heir, little more than a year old, and another 
son, William, who eventually succeeded to the title. His body was 
brought home, and although buried in Sudeley, his name is thus entered 
in the Winchcombe Register, "1621, Aug. 24th, Dominus Grayus 
Chandoes sepult fecit." 

Sir John Beaumont, of Gracedieu, in Leicestershire, the brother of 
Francis Beaumont, the dramatist, wrote the following elegiac lines, 
styling them 


Let him, whose lines a private loss deplore, 
Call them to weep, that never wept before ; 
My grief is more audacious : give me one, 
Who ev'ry day hath heard a dying groan. 
The subject of my verses may suffice 
To draw new tears from dry and weary eyes. 
We dare not love a man, nor pleasure take 
In others' worth for noble Chandos* sake : 
And when we seek the best with Reason's light, 
We fear to wish him longer in our sight 
Time had increased his virtue and our woe. 
For Sorrow gathers weight by coming slow : 
Should him the God of life, to life restore 
Again, we lose, and we lament the more. 
If mortals could a thousand lives renew. 
They were but shades of death which must ensue. 
Our gracious God hath fitter bounds assigned, 
And earthly pains to one short life confined ; 
Yet when His hand hath quench'd the vital flame, 
It leaves some cinders of immortal fame ; 
At these we blow, and (like Prometheus) strive 
By such weak sparks to make dead clay alive ; 
Breath flies to air, the body falls to ground. 
And nothing dwells with us but mournful sound. 
Oh I might his honour'd name live in my song, 
Reflected as with echoes shrill and strong ! 

♦ D. S. P., Jas. I., Vol. xix., No. 9. 

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But when my lines of glorious objects treat, 
They should rise high, because the work is great 
No quill can paint this Lord, unless it have 
Some tincture from his actions free and brave : 
Yet from this height I must descend again, 
And (like the calm sea) lay my verses plain. 
When I describe the smoothness of his mind. 
Where Reason's chains rebellious passions bind : 
My poem must in harmony excel, 
His sweet behavioiu: and discourse to tell ; 
It should be deep, and full of many arts. 
To teach his wisdom, and his happy parts ; 
But since I want these graces, and despair 
To make my picture (like the pattern) fair ; 
These hasty strokes unperfect draughts shall stand, 
Expecting life from some more skilful hand." 

Associated with this period and district was the " yeerely celebration 
of Mr. Robert Dover's Olimpick games upon Cotswold Hills " (near 
Campden), immortalised in Drayton's Poly Olbion, and in Dover's 
Annalia Dubrensia, the frontispiece of which curiously illustrates the 
games and pastimes, the latter being made up by contributions of 
various authors, among whom were Michael Drayton, Ben Jonson, and 
Thomas Heywood. Gladly would we linger over these pleasant topics, 
for our next is the saddest in the Sudeley chronicles. 

Ruins of Sudeley Castle, 

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** The King is come to marshal us, all in his annour drest, 
And he has bound a snow-while plume upon his gallant crest. 
He look'd upon his people, and a tear was*in his eye ; 
He look'd upon the traitors, and his glance was stem and high. 
Right graciously he smiled on us, as rolled from wing to wing, 
Down all our line, a deafening shout, ' God save our Lord the King ! * ** 

Macau LAY. 

WITH the entrance on the stage of George, the sixth Lord 
Chandos, the concluding act commences; a darkening 
shadow begins to creep over Sudeley's far-famed towers, 
the hand of the destroyer is about to lay her beauty in the dust, war to 
do her cruel work. But history must tell the tale ! 

George Chandos was born August 9, 1620; so was but an infant 
at the death of his father. His mother contracted a most unhappy 
second marriage with Mervin Touchet, Earl of Castlehaven, but the 
young lord found a vigilant guardian in his grandmother, Alice, 
dowager Countess of Derby, and after her death in Henry, Earl of 
Manchester, whose daughter Susan he married. Among our papers 
at Sudeley is an official transcript of a letter written by the countess 
on behalf of her " poor ward," complaining of his estate being unduly 
burdened with ship-money to relieve others, and she succeeded in 
obtaining prompt redress.* Soon after this. Lord Chandos; still a 
minor, prosecuted ** Dame Jane Bridges " in the Starchamber, as 
already related t and about the same time we meet with him in the 
State Papers, as a petitioner to the King, craving that the tenure of some 
waste ground in the forest of Bray don, Wilts, which he desired to 

• D. S. P., Car. I., Vol. cccxliii., Nos. 30, 57. t See pp. 246-48. 

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C Jansen, pinAt.J 

George, VIth Lord Chandos. Formerly in the possession of Lord Rivers ; 

now at Sudeley Castle. 

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improve, might be converted from knight's service to socage, without 
which the neighbouring copyholders would not become tenants for 
the same.* On the i8th December, 1637, he had licence to travel 
abroad for three years, and in February, 1638, he passed over from 
Dover in a king's ship,f in company with Lord Spencer, a youth of 
about his own age, who was afterwards created Earl of Sunderland, and 
was killed at the first battle of Newbury. Whether they travelled 
long together we do not know, but it is certain that they were both 
loyal noblemen, of whom Lord Clarendon speaks highly ; \ and one 
lost his life, the other his fortune, in the royal cause. 

When the Great Rebellion broke out, the young lord had just 
attained his majority, and was in possession of an estate of ;^3i20 
a year, but burdened with an annuity of ;^6oo to his mother, who 
had married the Earl of Castlehaven, ;!f^i50 to his brother William, 
and certain payments to churches, hospitals, &c., which reduced his 
income to ;^i789.§ The Parliament had long been demanding the 
right to embody the militia from the King, and when he positively 
refused to agree to this, they told him plainly, in what they chose to 
style a " humble petition," that they would settle the business without 
him ; and they kept their word. Without delay they issued one of 
the Ordinances which afterwards became so famous, appointing fifty- 
five persons as commissioners of array, who were to call to their help 
all lord lieutenants and deputy lieutenants, and draw together the 
trained bands, to suppress all who should levy soldiers by any com- 
mission from his Majesty, seize upon all horses, arms, ammunition, 
money, plate, or other provision whatsoever, raised or provided for 
his Majesty's service ; be ready to assist the Earl of Essex, with horse 
and foot, and fight with, kill and slay all such as should by force 
oppose them : they were ordered to disarm all papists and ill-affected 
clergy, to take possession of the magazines, and to raise what fortifi- 

♦ D. S. p., Car. I., Vol. ccclxxv., No. 38. 

t D. S. P., Car. I., Vols, ccclxxiv., ccclxxxiii. 

X ** History of the Rebellion," 8vo. edition, pp. 430, 486. 

§ These particulars appear in the application of Lord Chandos to be allowed to compound for delin- 
quency, preserved with some 2000 similar applications in the Public Record Office. Ro3ralist Composition 
Papers, Second Series, vol. xv., p. 95. 

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cations should be thought fit. These directions were sent to every 
county, and were obeyed or not, as either the King or the Parliament 
happened to be the strongest. The King on his part issued similar 
commissions, and the young Lord Chandos set himself to work in 
earnest for his royal master. The active part that he took in the 
early part of the war naturally links the history of Sudeley so closely 
with that period that no apology is needed for introducing the following 
particulars principally extracted from Clarendon's " History of the 
Rebellion," and from contemporary pamphlets in the British Museum. 

No county in England was so much affected or engaged in the civil 
wars as Gloucestershire, which arose partly from King Charles having 
made Oxford his head-quarters. South Wales having declared in his 
favour, it was expedient that a clear communication should be kept 
open with that country, Gloucestershire intervened,* and so it came to 
pass that Sudeley Castle, from its proximity to Gloucester, Cirencester, 
Tewkesbury, and Evesham, was frequently attacked by the contending 

Shortly before the breaking out of the troubles, fearful prodigies were 
said to be seen in various parts, and our neighbourhood was not without 
them. Thus, the Tewkesbury carrier asserted, that as he was passing 
over the Cotswold hills, with his men and pack-horses, a little before 
the dawn of day, they saw most sensibly and very perspicuously in the 
air, musketeers, harnessed men, and horsemen, moving in battle array, 
and assaulting one another in divers furious postures.* Soon, alas! were 
these sad omens verified ! 

In August, 1642, about the time that the royal standard was set up 
at Nottingham, Lord Chandos came down to Cirencester to execute 
his commission of array on behalf of the King. The people in general 
were vehemently Puritanical, and, .not content with reviling him as a 
traitor, they rose upon him, threatened his person, and tore his carriage 
to pieces, so that it was not without difficulty that he escaped with 
life. The "Perfect Diurnal "t of August 23, 1642, adds: — "From 

♦ Howeirs "Familiar Letters." 

t Both parlies used the printing press freely, and issued ** Diumals," &c., giving highly coloured picttires 
of the events of the time. There is a very fine collection of these in the British Museum, styled, ** King's 

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Gloucestershire the House of Commons received letters, intimating 
that the Lord Shandois was coming into the said county with an intent 
to execute the commission of array, but the whole county stands for the 
Parliament, and had like to have took Sir Wm. Swig prisoner, who 
came to execute the said commission." 

Undaunted by this reception. Lord Chandos raised a troop of horse 
at his own cost, in which his kindred served,* and joined the King, and 
he afterwards added a regiment of foot. 

The same paper for Jan. 30 to Feb. 6, 1643, states that Lord Chandos 
was taken prisoner by the rebels, but this is clearly a mistake, as we 
shall see hereafter : " Saturday, 4th . ; . . Lord Shandois with some 
troops of horse being possessed of Sudeley Castle, Cicester and 
Teuxbury men, joining with the forces in Gloucester, they marched out 
to Sudeley Castle and took the same, and a hundred horse and above 
two hundred foot, with their arms, and many commanders and the said 
Lord Shandois prisoner. The cavaliers in Oxford having notice 
thereof, enraged with madness, have sent out another party of horse 
against Cicester," &c. Lord Chandos is thus mentioned in the Royalist 
" Mercurius Aulicus " a few days after : 

''Sixt Week, Monday, Feb, 6, 1642 [1643]. 

" This day, in the afternoon, his Majesty rode forth to take a view of the prisoners 
which were brought from Cyrencester, being in all 1187 in number, conducted by troops 
of horse. The one being that of the Lord Chandoys, the other being Colonel Croker's. 
Together with these prisoners, came news as acceptable, viz., that the rebels which had 
put themselves the week before into Sudeley Castle — which place Prince Rupert passed 
by in his march to Cirencester, as well because it might have been an hindrance to his 
main design, as that he was not willing to batter and deface an house belonging to so 
honourable and brave a gentleman, — did presendy upon the first news that the town was 
taken, betake themselves to their heels, and left the place without much injury done 
unto it" 

At the beginning of the war Lord Chandos had armed his tenants 

Pamphlets," the catalogue of which is in twelve volumes. The " Perfect Diurnal " is on the Parliamentary 
side, and is probably the best known of its class. Its statements, however, meet with strong condemnation 
and contradiction from the Royalist "Mercurius Aulicus," "Mercurius Rusticus," and the "Querela 
Cantabrigiensis. " 

* There is an interesting letter from Prince Rupert, dated Nov. 26, 1642, referring to this, in which he 
writes : "Sir Robert Tracey sent the King ;f 200 this week, and his third son to serve in the Lord Chandos' 

troop My Lord Chandos also raiseth a regiment." — " Memoirs of Prince Rupert" 

L L 

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and servants, and garrisoned his Castle, which was seated, says Loyd, 
*' commodiously on the meetings of the vales and woulds, to defend 
and command the country, especially my Lord's three darlings, the 
woods, the clothing, and the iron works." Then there was confusion 
and excitement in the Castle such as had never been the case before. 
The sound of war had gone forth, armour was hurriedly taken down 
from the walls, the trumpet thrilled through the quadrangles. "For 
the King ! " " To horse ! " was the cry. Then were the young eager for 
the fray. The old and trustworthy were left in charge, the watchmen 
stationed on the towers, and with the decision and energy of youth did 
the young loyal Chandos away to the King at Shrewsbury, with 1000 
armed men, and plate to the value of ;^5000. At that time Sudeley 
Castle was considered "the strongest hold" of the district, and it was left 
in charge of Captain Brydges. On Friday, January 27, 1643, ^^ ^^s 
assailed by Colonel Edward Massey, in the absence of Lord Chandos, 
who, with the Princes Rupert and Maurice and others, had retired to 
Oxford after a fruitless attempt on Cirencester. Captain Brydges at 
first refused to yield, but Massey found means to intimidate him, and 
he surrendered on the third day. In Corbet's " Military Government 
of the City of Gloucester," the following description is given of this 
affair : — 

"About the ist of January 1642-3, the main strength of the King's army came before 
Cirencester prepared and resolved to storm it, yet they only faced the town, and after 
two days were strangely taken off, either disabled by the extreme cold on the hills, 
or some sudden misfortune, or daunted by the show of the unanimity and resolution 
in the people, or else clouded in their thoughts by the secret will of God in the nick 
of action, that they made not the least attempt, but threatened an after-clap. 

"A few days after our forces had their design upon Sudeley Castle, at that time 
kept by Captain Brydges in the behalf of the Lord Chandos. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Massey was entrusted with the manage of this action, who drew from Gloucester 
a party of three hundred musketeers with two sakers, assisted with four score horse, 
and four companies of dragoons from Cirencester, by order of a council of war held 
there, and consent of the deputy lieutenants ; there were in the Castle near three score 
soldiers, with provision and ammunition sufficient Our men drew up before it in the 
evening, made several shots, and the cannon did some execution; the same night 
summons was given; the enemy refused to render upon quarter, but craved time till 
the next day, which in part was granted ; guards were set upon them all night. The next 
morning our men were drawn out to make an assault, beds and wool-packs were fetched 

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out of the neighbourhood, which they tumbled before, and saved themselves from shot ; 
the horse and dragoons came up before the foot approached the wall, and possessed 
themselves of a garden under the Castle, and got hay and straw which they fired, 
that the smoke driven by the wind smothered the house, in the shadow of which 
the ordnance were brought up undiscovered, and planted against the weakest part 
of the Castle, which when the enemy perceived they sounded a parley, and immediately 
rendered upon agreement The conditions were, that all might have liberty of person, and 
pass to their own houses, leaving their arms behind, and taking an oath never to serve 
against the Parliament : they compounded also for the goods in the house, for which 
they were to pay five hundred pounds within six days, or to leave them a free prize 
to the soldiers. 

" Within two days after Prince. Rupert faced Sudeley with about four thousand 
horse and foot, pretending an attempt to regain it, but in the mean time marched 
his artillery towards Cirencester. Lieutenant-Colonel Massey made provision to main- 
tain the Castle by taking in water, and store of hay and corn, and having left there 
Lieutenant-Colonel Forbes, with a sufficient guard, himself retreated to Gloucester. 
The Prince with his forces kept the hills, and after three days fell before Cirencester, 
a straggling and open town, neither well fortified nor capable of defence. The cham- 
paign country round about was most advantageous to the horse, in which the enemies' 
strength did chiefly consist, and which was 
then wholly wanting to that garrison, for their 
horse and dragoons were sent to the taking 
of Sudeley ; most of their officers were drawn 
out upon that service except the captains of 
the volunteers, and Lieutenant-Colonel Karre 
was the only experienced soldier left there : 
their cannoneers were quite wanting, the 
common soldiers quite off the hinges, either 
cowardly or mutinous." 

Thus appeared for the first time 
in our Sudeley history the Kings 
nephew — the hero of the wars, 
Prince Rupert, the brave, dashing 
Cavalier. He quartered, on Januar)' 
30th, at two miles' distance from the 
Castle, in the open field, having with 
him his brother. Prince Maurice. 
They had both been sent to the 

assistance of Lord Hertford, who had made an unsuccessful attempt 
the previous month on Cirencester. It was not Prince Rupert's inten- 
tion to waste his time there, when he had an undertaking of greater 

Prince Rupert. 

L I. 2 

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importance before him, on the success of which the Castle would be 
sure to fall. It was enough his having shown himself to keep the 
garrison close, while he advanced once more to Cirencester, which, 
after a contest of two hours, was taken by assault.* 

Upon the news of the fall of the town, Sudeley was abandoned by 
the Roundheads, as Rupert had anticipated. In the meantime they 
had executed their disgusting work of desecration. Now let " Mer- 
curius Rusticus " say : — 

"On the 28th of January, 1642-3, the Ca^^tle of Sudeley, upon composition, was 
dehvered up to the rebels ; there were articles agreed on and sworn to, but as he 
spake truly. Children were deceived with apples, and men with oaths, the rebels as 
they swear to articles for their advantage, so they break them as easily for their 
advantage, and make perjury an easy uninterrupted passage to theft and robbery, 
for these rebels brake as many articles as they swore unta They plunder not only 
the Castle, the seat and house of the Lord Chandos, and Winchcombe, a neighbouring 
village, to the utter undoing the poor inhabitants, but in defence of the Protestant 
religion, and vindication of the honour of God, they profane His house. There is 
in the Castle a goodly fair church, here they dig up the graves, and disturb the 
ashes of the dead : they brake down the ancient monuments of the Chandoses, and 
instead thereof, leave a prodigious monument of their sacrilegious profaneness, for 
each part of the church they find a peculiar way to profane it : the tower part of it 
they make their stable, the chancel their slaughter-house. Unto the pulpit (which 
of all other places in probability might have escaped their impiety) they fasten pegs 
to hang the carcases of the slaughtered sheep ; the Communion Table, according to their 
own language, they make their dresser or chopping-board to cut out their meat; into 
the vault, wherein lay the bodies of the Chandoses, an ancient and honourable family, 
they cast the guts and garbage, mingling the loathsome entrails of beasts with those 
bones and ashes which did there rest in the hope of a joyful resurrection. The nave 

or body of the church was all covered with the dung and blood of beasts. 

Going away they left nothing behind them in the church (besides walls and seats) 
but a stinking memory that part of the Parliament army raised for the defence of 
Religion had been there. Let that railing Rabshakeh, or jeering Sanballat, I mean the 
author of the ridiculous pamphlet intituled * One Argument more against the Cavaliers,' 
read this story, and then tell me which are most guilty of profanation of churches, 

* History of the Grand Rebellion in Verse," p. 332 :— 

"The King 

Commanded Rupert with four thousand Horse 
And Foot, t'attempt the latter Town by force 
Who marching near it made a cunning Feint 
As if alone to Sudeley Castle bent, 
Then of a sudden turning all his Power 
Upon the Town, subdued it in an hour." 

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the Cavaliers or Roundheads? which are most profaned, either St Mary Maudlins 
in Oxford, or the church at Sudeley Castle? and yet this dog sticks not with Shimei 
to bark at his Sovereign and blaspheme his piety, as if the rebels brought from Cyren- 
cester had been quartered in this church by his approbation, who to expiate that 
guilt gave an hundred and fifty pounds to adorn and beautifie that church. The 
truth is, there was a fault in commanders for lodging them in churches who, if they 
had had their due, had been hanged for rebellion, their carcases exposed to the fowls 
of the air, and the beasts of the field, that the ravens of the valleys might have had 
their due portion, and never suffered them to come so near the church, as to have 
the privilege of Christian burial in the church-yard. So, even so, let all the King's 
enemies perish, O Lord ! and let all the people say. Amen." 

The Castle then suffered much as may be supposed, both from friend 
and foe, but it was soon re-garrisoned by Lord Chandos, and in April 
1643 we find that forces drawn thence did good service by strength- 
ening their friends in a skirmish they had with the rebels near 

In August the King was at Bristol presiding at a council of war, 
where the important question was under consideration, whether to 
march upon London or raise the siege of Gloucester — the latter was 
decided upon ; the Royalists feeling certain of success, as receiving 
encouragement from various quarters, not the least from Sir William 
Morton, then in charge of Sudeley Castle, as seen by the following 
letter from him to Lord Chandos : — 

" My much honoured Lord, 

** By my last I advised your Lordship that Forbes was come from Berkeley to 

Gloucester, which was the fact, but now is gone from Gloucester towards Warwick. Old 

Hill, the town-clerk of Tewkesbury, went as soon as I sent to him (since I waited on 

your Lordship) to Gloucester, to persuade, so he pretends, the citizens and soldiers to 

deliver up the town, and is there laid up in prison, but I fear it is by his own consent. 

We have taken his son Nat. Hill, who was under-sheriff, and a great collector for the 

Parliament, and a cornet in their army : he promises to do the King good service in 

information against the rebels. I desire to know your Lordship's pleasure, whether he 

shall continue here with the provost marshal of our regiment, or that you will have him 

sent up to you. I am confident the city of Gloucester will yield if it be demanded, for 

the soldiers that come forth tell me the town soldiers have resolved not to strike a stroke 

against the King. And this is all that for the present I can trouble your Lordship, 

saving that I am 

" Your Lordship's most humble servant, 

•* Wm. Morton. 
** WiNCHcoMBE, Au^, 3, 1643." 

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Soon after the date of this letter Prince Rupert came face to face on 
our Cotswold hills with the Earl of Essex, who was on his way to 
relieve Gloucester, then besieged by the Royalists. The Prince had 
neither foot nor artillery, so he dared not attack the earl, but retreated 
before him and his army as they, marched onward, pressed in close 
order, six deep, and eight hundred or a thousand abreast, such a 
body of men that it is reported Prince Rupert swore he thought all 
the Roundheads in England were there ! Onward they marched over 
our Sudeley Hill, through Winchcombe, till they came to the top of 
the hill above Prestbury, whence they could see Gloucester, and the 
quarters of the Royalists in flames. Then was discharged a warning 
piece to give Massey notice in Gloucester that help was at hand ; 
part of the army descended to Prestbury, Southam, and the adjoining 
villages. After a three days* march they were nearly famished for 
want of food, fire and provender. Night came on, and with it such 
a storm of rain and wind that the remainder who had halted on the 
top of the hill were forced to remain there, partly owing to their 
waggons having been overthrown, but more to the difficulty of moving 
in the dark down that " very craggy and dangerous hill : *' many 
Londoners were among them, and it is not difficult to imagine how 
their military zeal must have been put to the test. In the midst of the 
storm, to add to their troubles, the Cavaliers gave them two alarms at 
midnight. The General had to fight for his quarter at a market town 
called Ckeltnam. 

The earl did not at once lead his men into Gloucester, but distributed 
them for two days in Cheltenham and Winchcombe, for they sadly 
needed recruiting after all they had suffered from the storm and wet 
The entrance into Gloucester was accomplished on Sept. 6th, not, 
however, before the Royalists had fallen upon some of them ; for while 
the Roundheads were drying their drenched doublets and hose, and 
refreshing the inner man, lo ! the trumpet of the Cavaliers rang clear in 
the midnight air, troopers clattered through the streets of Winchcombe, 
dashed in among them, and before the Parliamentarians had time to 
collect their scattered senses, to seize their swords or shoulder their 
muskets, many of them were killed or taken prisoners, and some of 

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their colours carried off by the enemy. All this was done with the 
characteristic dash and impetuosity of the Royalists — one of those 
daring and sudden attacks which must have often given a zest to their 
otherwise too frequent disappointing and monotonous warfare. This 
was, however, but a slight success. 

At Gloucester the Royalists were defeated. Thousands marched 
up Painswick Hill in the pouring rain, and encamped in an old 
entrenchment ; then it was that the unfortunate King, sitting on a stone 
near the camp, when asked by one of the young Princes when they 
should go home, for he was weary of their present work, made the 
sad rejoinder, " I have no home to go to." He slept that night at 
Painswick, and then came with a great part of his 
forces to Winchcombe and Sudeley. Once again 
was the loyal Castle honoured with a royal guest, 
alas ! not as on the last occasion, to be received 
with pageant and plays ; but the noble Chandos 
gave his King a welcome which must have been all 
the more acceptable from the unhappy circumstances 
in which he was then placed. 

" His Majesty lodged at the Castle," watching and 
hoping the Earl of Essex might return that way, 
being anxious to force him to fight. For want of 
proper information, the earl succeeded in eluding 
the Royalists, and the King in consequence lost a 
great advantage over the enemy, he having all the roads occupied by 
his troops which ought to have cut off the earl's retreat Prince 
Rupert, who was always on the alert, had given notice of the earl's 
movements ; but the King considered he was better informed, and 
consequently lost precious time. Rupert had his cavalry waiting on 
Broadway Hill, ready for immediate pursuit. Having waited in vain 
till dark, he went in search of the King; and great must have been 
his mortification, when, seeing a light at a window, he peeped in and 

Charles I. 

From an original minia- 

* The above is a copy of one of the miniatures bestowed by King Charles on cavaliers who had parti- 
cularly distinguished themselves on the battle-field. Presented to us by the Rev. R. Wedgwood, of 

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there discovered the King, seated by the fire, absorbed in a game of 

Before following the movements of the King, it must here be 
observed that it was during his visit to Sudeley that King Charles 
addressed the following letter to his Cornish subjects, a copy of which 
was ordered to be placed in all the churches. 

" C. R. 

" We are so highly sensible of the extraordinary merit of our County of Cornwall, of 
their Zeal for the Defence of our person, and the Just Rights of our Crown, in a time when 
we could contribute so little to our own Defence or to their assistance, in a Time when not 
only no Reward appeared, but great and probable dangers were threatened to obedience 
and Loyalty; of their great and Eminent Courage and Patience in the indefatigable Prose- 
cution of their great work against so potent an Enemy, backed with so strong, rich, and 
populous Cities, and so plentifully furnished and supplied with Men, arms, Money, and 
Ammunition, and Provisions of all kinds; and the wonderful success with which it hath 
j^leased Almighty (iod (though with the loss of Some most Eminent persons, who shall never 
be forgotten by us) to reward their loyalty and Patience, by many strange Victories over 
their and our Enemies, in despite of a human probability, to all imaginable Disadvantages; 
that as we cannot be forgetful of so great deserts, so we cannot but desire to publish to all 
the world, and perpetuate to all time the Memory of these their merits, and of our acceptance 
of them, and to that end we do hereby render our Royal thanks to that our County in the 
most public and lasting manner we can devise, commanding Copies hereof to be printedt 
and published, and ore of them to be read in Every Church and Chapel therein, and to be 
kept for ever as a Record in the same ; that as long as the History of these Times and of 
this nation shall continue, the Memory of how much that County hath merited from us 
and our Crown may be derived with it to posterity. 

** Given at our Camp at Sudley Castle, 
the loth of September^ 1643." J 

The following Cornish translation is here given by the kind per- 
mission of Henry Jenner, Esq., of the MS. Department of the British 

An woolak da disquethye an Pow Kernow ganz y brostereth an kcnse migh\ern 

* " Prince Rupert's Diary." 

+ In the translation given below, a word is employed meaning literally ** oil-iron." 
% In Lysons' *' Cornwall," p. xix., reference is made to copies of this letter being to be seen in Truro, 
Stratton, and Poughill, close to the scene of one of those brilliant victories to which it principally alludes ; 
the letter being written to show the King's sense of those repeated proofs which the Comishmen gave of 
their attachment to his cause. We obtained the original board from Philleigh through the kindness of the 
Rev. C. W. Carlyon, of St. Just's Rectory, Grampound, in 1S62, when the church was restored and a nevv 
board thought preferable to the old. On a visit to Cornwall in 1870, I saw with regret that in several 
instances the board was broken in pieces \ and in one church where the tower was under restoration, it was 
used as a plank for the workmen. 

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Charles ef boz gwithys in disquethyans es umma sywya, dewelas ; — />., The 
great respect that his late Majesty King Charles the First expressed to his country 
may be read in the Declaration following, viz : — 


" Ytho ny mar ughell kemerys gans an pethyw moigh vel mear pemys theworth ny 
ganz agan Pow Kemow, an kirense y the gwitha saw agan honan, han gwyr^composter agan 
curyn (en termyn a alga ny dry mar nebas tha gan sawder, po aga gwerthas yi yn termyn 
pan na oyagh gober vyth boz gwelys, mez wherriow braz peroghas gowsas gerriow tyn 
erbyn gwylvry ha kolonnow leall) aga braz hag ughell kolonnwik ha ga perthyans heb 
squithder yth mar vraz wheal erbyn mar cref tus a drok scoothyes garis mar trevow leun 
a tuz, ha mar tek teklys gans clethyow, arghans, dafyr lathy sa, ha kenyver ehan a vooz 
daber, ha gans an merthus sawynyans o both Dew Olgallousek (saw ganz coll a van tuz 
a bryz neb ny vyth nefra ganz ny ankevys) the talviga ga kolonnow leall ha ga perthyans 
mysk leas merthus omdowlow war tuz a drok thens y ha ny en ate ol pederyans mab- 
den hag ol an drokter alga boz kevys, kepari ny yll ny ankevy mar vraz galarow, yndella ny 
yll ny buz gawas bonogate da the kaws da anothans then bys, ha perricof yn oil termyn aga 
oberrow da, han kemeryans da ny anothans. Ha rag henna theren ry agan mighterneth 
gorseans then Pow na gans an ughella lef, ha en fortha ell moygha dyrria hag a ellen 
kawaz mez. Ha theren ryger fatel reysthan ha vatorow a hemma boz screfys ganz 
oleow horen ha danvenys a leaz ha pregowthyes 3n[i minz egliz ha Ian es enna ha boz 
gwethys enna bys ricar yn cef, pella (mar pell tra clap an terminnyow ma han wlas dyrrya) 
an cof kemmys es pemys theworthan ny han curyn ny gans an Pow na boz tennys meas 
than ffleghes es tha denethy. 

" Reys yn gwent milchamath ny yn Castell Sudley yn dekvas dyth mys Heddra in 
blethan myll whegh cans dewghans ha try." 

The Cornish translation of this letter was written by Mr. John 
Keigwin, of Mousehole, author of an English version of some of the 
Cornish Miracle Plays. In his letter to Mr. Gwavas, another Cornish 
scholar, the original of which is in the possession of Mr. Borlase of 
Laregan, Penzance, he states his reason for giving it in order that 
" tho' * the royal thanks ' may be kept as a monument to posterity 
m the English tongue, yet Cornish men may not do amiss to record 
their meritts in their own." * 

Mr. Keigwin was born in 1641, consequently his translation was not 
official, though it is probable " one was made at the time of the publi- 
cation of the English version, seeing that (according to Symonds' Diary 

* Sir £. Smirke on one occasioa sent an original proclamation of Charles I. to the Archaeological 
Institute, with a concurrent version in the Cornish language, upon which Sir jolin Maclean made some 

M M 

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of the Civil War), the Cornish language was then very generally spoken 
in the extreme west, and in some places to the exclusion of EngUsh." 

A curious piece of needle-work of the period in beads, presented 
to us by Mrs, Sexty, of Gretton, in 1870, appears to be a representa- 
tion of Sudeley Castle, with battlements and a tower which formerly 
stocxl to the left of the gateway. The King stands in the centre, 
apparently being received by Lady Chandos and her sister with 
musical instruments. Lord Chandos stands behind the King, bare- 
headed. In the back-ground is the royal tent, suggestive of the 
aJx)ve letter 

The King's departure from Sudeley was followed by reverses in 
quick succession. Essex displayed great skill as a general and in 
deceiving the Royalists as to his movements. With the greatest 
rapidity he appeared now in the vale of Evesham, flitting from 
Tewkesbury, making a bridge over the Severn ; feigning to go 
towards Worcester, suddenly returning to Ripplefield, skirmishing 
now at Upton, and now at Oxendon, but the greatest mortification for 
the Royalists was in seeing him steal away with his army in the night 
for Cirencester, which was easily retaken through the carelessness of 
those in command. It is somewhere said that the Cavaliers were 
often surprised and defeated through their " too great love of clean 
sheets," and in this instance at all events it proved so, as all were 
asleep in Cirencester but the sentinels, who were soon silenced. 
Thence the retreat was continued, and they marched away with their 
prisoners ; Rupert followed them with his usual energy, up hill and 
down dale, by day and night, while the King with his artillery and 
foot pursued them in another direction. 

Prince Rupert overtook them at Auldborn Chase, ^ their retreat 
was checked, and the battle of Newbury followed on the 20th of 
September ; the victory was claimed by both sides, and thousands 
of brave Englishmen were slain by their own countrymen without 

• One of the rooms of Sudeley Cn**t!e is furnished with hangings of airious needlework from Hill Court, 
in this county, said to have Ix^en worked by the ladies of the Fust family, and hung on the occasion of one 
of Prince Rupert's visits there. The Fusts were staunch Cavaliers, and of the two who fought for Charles I., 
one followed him into exile, and the other received from Charles II. a baronetcy, a full-length portrait of 
himself, and a sword with tlie twelve apostles engraved on the hilt. * 

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any satisfactory result for either side. Lord Chandos greatly dis- 
tinguished himself, at this batde where he had three horses killed 
under him ; and mounting a fourth, was mainly instrumental in 
breaking the cavalry of the Parliament.* Upon it being suggested 
that his impetuosity might lead him too far, the King exclaimed, " Let 
Chandos alone, his errors are safe." In consideration of his splendid 
conduct in this action, Lord Chandos had an offer from the King to be 
created Earl of Newbury ; but he modestly declined, until it should 
please God to restore his Majesty to the crown. 

On the 2 1 St November following, Lord Chandos had intelligence 
brought him that Colonel Massey was purposing to plunder Cheltenham 
on the 25th, and that he had ordered divers carts to be in readiness 
for the carrying away the goods of the town ; upon which the Sudeley 
troops were called out, 100 foot and 120 horse, and under the loyal 
and enthusiastic young Chandos soon fell upon the rebels, some of 
whom were killed, others sent prisoners to Oxford, to the great delight 
of the country people. The rebels had a garrison at Prestbury House 
at that time, and they sallied out to cut off the retreat of Lord 
Chandos, but without success, f 

Again and again the unfortunate Charles must have crossed our hills 
a fugitive or pursuer. Early in May, 1644, he joined Prince Rupert at 
Stow-in-the-Wold. In June, after a council of war at Oxford, which 
was surrounded by the Earl of Essex on one side and Sir William 
Waller on the other, at dead of night he silently stole out of the city, 
and when the sun rose and our Cotswold Hills were bathed in the 
summer morning's early light, the fugitive King with all his remaining 
effective cavalry, and 2,500 musketeers under Sir Jacob Astley, were 
hurrying away towards Evesham, which they reached on Wednesday 
night Meanwhile Waller followed in hot pursuit, and Sudeley hills 
were again alive with the rebel army. Charles, still pursued, reached 
Worcester ; again returned to Pershore and Evesham, where he 
destroyed the bridges, and regained the Broadway hills, whence Sir 

• Dagdale*s ** Baronage," vol. ii., p. 395 ; also Banks' *' Extinct Peerage." No mention of this is made 
in Clarendon's " History of the Rebellion." 
t Fosbroke's " History of Cheltenham." 

M M 2 

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John Digby wrote the interesting letter to Prince Rupert, dated ** Broad- 
way Down, June 17th," from which this information is extracted.* 
On the 29th of the same month followed the battle of Cropredy. 

Waller retired ; and the King then 
turned all his attention to the relief 
of Exeter, where the Queen was 
with her infant of two weeks old. 
But we know they had parted in 
April never to meet again on earth, 
and when the King relieved Exeter, 
it was to find his beloved wife had 

It was during this same month 
of June, 1644, that Sudeley Castle 
was again the scene of contest be- 
tween the conflicting parties. Sir 
Wm. Waller on his way to Wor- 
cester " persuaded rather than forced 
the garrison " to deliver up the castle 
which its noble owner had placed 
under the care of Sir Wm. Morton, a gentleman of the long robe, who 
at the beginning of the war had espoused the Kings cause, and served 
as lieutenant-colonel under Lord Chandos. He showed a true military 
spirit, and on several occasions distinguished himself for his great 
courage, receiving many honourable scars. 

Waller appointed Colonel Massey to meet him on a certain day 
before Sudeley, but, according to Corbet, he did not wait for his 
arrival. At all events, guns were placed on the heights to the east 
of the castle, especially on Dunn s Hill. The Royalists were beaten 
in, and twenty horses were taken from under their very walls. They 
seemed resolved to die rather than yield up or lose their garrison ; 
they discharged their ordnance from within, and fired their outhouses, 
thereby hoping to keep off the enemy. In the evening, Sir William 

Sir William Waller. 

* Prince Rupert's ** Memoirs." 

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Waller summoned the governor of the Castle to surrender, and on 
his refusal, the battery was placed within half-musket shot. The 
Castle however could not be taken by battery, and the great pieces 
are described "as doing little execution upon the soft and yielding 

Sword found on Dunn's Hill, 1846. " Black Jack," time of Charles I. 

Stone, but one shot by chance took off the head of their cannoneer, 
and exceedingly daunted the common soldier."* 

The spot where this occurred is still to be seen on the octagon 
or Watch-tower ; it is clearly indicated by the perforation near the 
top, evidently caused by a cannon shot. While proceeding up 

• Corbet's ** Military Government of Gloucester." 

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the Watch-tower to reconnoitre, the unfortunate cannoneer must 
have met with an instant death by the ball penetrating the stone- 
work. The following stafza of an ancient ballad descriptive of the 
siege of the Castle, seems to confirm this statement : 

** Bounce ! bounce ! again go Waller's guns, 

And Morton began to swear, 
* rd rather have lost ten thousand pounds 

Than the head of my cannoneer.' '* 

Clarendon thus continues the history of the siege : ^ 

" Sir William Morton did in his own thoughts incline to a surrender, whether out of 
a natural fear or free choice. He was known to be active and violent in the King's 
service, of a high spirit and bold, bearing before him the semblance of valour, and sup- 
posed by a high degree of enmity most obnoxious to the justice of the Parliament, one 
that had the repute of a knowing man, able in the profession of the law, and versed in 
the ways and actions of men. He was likewise more strongly linked into that cause by 
the late honour of knighthood, which by the state is held no better than a note of infamy 
to stigmatize those persons that have been eminent in the dis-service of the common- 
wealth. Notwithstanding this, being lost and desperate in the opinion of the Parliament, 
he gave up that stronghold and himself into their hands, having not provided for the 
indemnity of his own person, when by his own party likewise he must needs be branded 
with treachery or cowardice, and so lost on all hands. So that no faction seems to be 
assured of its principal ' confidents,' and that no resolved nature or judgment can secure 
the strongest enterprize to a wise and honourable conclusion. After the surrender Sir 
Wm. (Waller) advanced thence to seek out the King's ai:my, and left the Castle to be kept 
by the Gloucester forces." 

In this unexpected termination of the active part Sudeley Castle had 
hitherto taken in the sad drama of those civil wars, Sir William 
Morton was more unfortunate than at fault, as he would never have 
surrendered had he not been betrayed by one of his officers, who con- 
trived to steal out of the Castle and acquaint Waller of the scarcity of 
everything within its walls. So the Castle surrendered. Nine captains 
and twenty inferior officers were made prisoners of war, a quantity of 
cloth was found in it to the value of ;^4000,t and Morton also taken 
prisoner. He remained some years in confinement, which he sustained 
with great dignity and constancy. 

♦ *'Hibtory of the Rebellion.' + Atkyns, p. 717. 

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Sir William Morton. 

From a painting by Vandyke, formerly in the possession of T. Bulkeley Owen, Esq., of Tedsmore Hall, 


" Loyalty is still the same, 
Whether it lose or win the game ; 
True as the dial to the sun, 
Although it be not shined upon." 

He lived to see the reward of his merit, and after the Restoration 
was promoted to be a Judge of the Kings Bench. His portrait is 
among those of the Judges in Guildhall, painted in token of the 

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gratitude of the citizens for their services in settling, without recourse 
to law, the questions about property that arose out of the great Fire in 

Massey appointed one of his brothers, Captain George Massey, to be 
the Governor, but his task was no easy one, as his garrison, like many 
others, was destitute of any regular means of subsistence. At Sudeley 
Castle the soldiers mutinied while the Governor was out to borrow 
money for their pay ; but in this instance the mutiny was soon quelled, 
for Captain Massey. shot the ringleader, and the rest were reduced to 

Here it may be interesting for a short time to turn from the civil to 

the religious divisions of the period; 
especially as it brings one of the 
leading schismatics to Sudeley. 
From a pamphlet published in 1646, 
entitled " The Spirit of Prelacy 
yet Working, or Truth from under 
a Cloud," it appears that " Robert 
Bacon, M.A., Minister of the Gospel" 
was persecuted in Gloucester for 
preaching unorthodox doctrines. 
The Governor. Colonel Massey, 
Governor also of Sudeley Castle, 
however, seems to have befriended 
and treated him with great kindness 
and consideration. On the day ap- 
pointed for propounding ten ques- 
tions which touched upon " Sancti- 
fication," " Covenant of Grace," *' The actual state of a man that is 
saved " (such were the *' vital questions " of that day), he was escorted 
by a soldier to Gloucester Cathedral, the place where the council of 
war was usually held, was there met by his opponents (among whom 
was Corbet), and the theological trial took place, the disputants sur- 
rounded by a rabble, men of all degrees, armed soldiers, the Governor 
of the Castle, and a marshal with halberd in hand, standing by the 

Colonel Edward Massey. 

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heretic, to daunt him if possible out of his heresies. It ended in his 
being obliged to leave Gloucester the following day, notwithstanding 
his earnest petition to remain on account of his wife's illness ; his 
opponents were inexorable, and he was hurried away on a horse so 
unmanageable by the unfortunate theologian, that the Governor of 
Sudeley Castle, to which place he was then being sent, took compassion 
on him, and placed him on one more tractable, and so under the guid- 
ance of two troopers he safely reached the Castle ; there he was well 
entertained by his friend Colonel Massey and his lieutenant. The fol- 
lowing day, being Sunday, at their request he preached in Sudeley 
Chapel, and on Monday, escorted by the troopers and seated on the 
same quiet horse (our schismatic was no equestrian), he proceeded to 
Warwick, thence to London, where he found a powerful friend in Lord 
Say and Sele. 

The loss of Sudeley Castle was a heavy blow to the royal cause, 
but the defection of Lord Chandos was a still more lamentable circum- 
stance. The Parliament as early as March 31, 1643, ^^^ ordered the 
sequestration of the property of all persons who appeared in arms 
against them, or who contributed to the support of the King's army. 
Lord Chandos had done both these things, and to all appearance seemed 
determined to brave all the consequences of loyally doing his duty. 
But the far-seeing rebels hit upon a device before which he and 
hundreds of others fell. They, in conjunction with the Scottish 
Estates, issued a Declaration on the 30th of January, 1644, offering to 
remove the sequestration from the property of those who would 
abandon the King, take the Covenant, and pay such fine as should be 
imposed on them.* Lord Chandos embraced these terms, and his 
future melancholy history is to be fully traced in the Royalist Compo- 
sition Papers now in the Public Record Office,t but ere we narrate it 
we must carry on the tale of the war to its conclusion. \ 

♦ Rushworth's Collections, cd. 1692, vol. v., p. 499. 

t They fill 250 folio volumes, of about looo pages each, lettered " Particulars of Estates and Fines there- 
on/' contain at least 2000 cases of composition, and show the payment of fines amounting tOjf 1,304,957 2s, id. 
The papers relating to Lord Chandos are contained in vol. xv., second series, pp. 95 — 133 ; of these we 
have copies at Sudeley. An Index volume, giving the names and amounts, is marked ** G. 43." 

X Thomason't Collection of Tracts issued during the reign of Charles I. and the Interregnum, and 
preserved in the British Museum, gives a great deal of information relating to these times, chiefly political. 

N N 

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The month after the surrender of Sudeley Castle the King was 
again at Evesham, whence he wrote to Prince Rupert, dating his letter, 
'' Easam, July nth, 1644." On the 12th he was at Sudeley. So it is 
stated in the " Iter Carolinum," which gives a daily account of the 
Kings course from his setting out on this expedition from London 
to his return, collected by an attendant, Thortias Manty. The items 
referring to Sudeley are : on the 7th of September, 1643, three days 
prior to the date of his letter to the Cornishmen, " from our Camp at 
Sudeley;" and on this second occasion, when on his way from Evesham, 
thus : 

Night. Miles. 
" Wednesday the 3rd to Evesham, Alderman Martin's . . 9 ... 10 
P'riday the 12th to Coverley, the Earl of Downe's, by Broad- 
way and Sudeley I ... 16 

Saturday the 12th to Sapperton," &c. &c 

From this it is not clear whether the King lodged at the Castle or 
camped in the field. If the former, Sudeley must have been quickly 
retaken by the Cavaliers ; if the latter, it is strange the item is not 
more explicit. 

It must have been in one of these hurried, circuitous routes, as 
between Sudeley and Salperton, that the unfortunate King visited 
Kineton, and there snatched a few hours' rest on the bed to which 
tradition has long assigned that honour. The royal arms must have 
been added at a subsequent period.* The curious painting on wood 
and the angels carved on the roof make it even of greater interest than 
the Cumnor Bedstead, the angels being highly suggestive of the well- 
known prayer : 

" Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, 
Bless the bed that I lie on. 
Four comers to my bed, 
Four angels at their head, 
One to read and one to write, 
And two to guard my bed at night." 

* When this interesting relic came into our possession it was in the most dilapidated condition, but it has 
been successfully restored by Mr. Fred. Simmons, of Sudeley, and facsimiles of the painting made on panels 
by my sister, Marianne Brocklehurst. 

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Charles I. Bedstead. 




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Another tradition belonging to the neighbourhood, refers to Hawling, 
where it is believed that the whole of the village was destroyed by the 
Parliamentarians on their way to Sudeley Castle. The foundations of 
many houses are still to be seen ; a fact which seems to corroborate 
the general opinion of the present inhabitants. 

In May, 1645, Prince Rupert and his brother Maurice were together 
marching towards Woodstock to meet the King, and escort his Majesty 
to the fatal field of Naseby.* Their progress is traced by an intercepted 
letter from Massey to Alderman Brown, lately a wood-merchant, now 
a general. 

^^ For Major-General Brown^ Governor of Abingdon, 

" I have endeavoured by all ways and means to give you advertisement of 
Prince Rupert's and Prince Maurice's march this morning. They marched from 
Broadway before day, and were at Stowe by ten of the clock. Their march is exceedingly 
speedy, and towards Oxford. I humbly desire that his Excellency may have timely 
notice, and also Lieutenant-General CromwelL I rest. Sir, 

" Your most humble servant, 

"Edward Massey. 
" Sudeley Castle, May 3, 1645. " 

In the following May, 1646, after twelve months more of alternate 
victory and defeat, the Royalists w^ere at Campden, the Roundheads at 
Sudeley, when once more poor Winchcombe suffered, being plundered 
by a party of Cavaliers coming suddenly down from Campden with an 
impetuosity and force not to be checked by the rebels. 

" Then spur and sword was the battle word, and we made their helmets ring, 
Shouting like madmen all the while, * For God and for the King 1 ' 
And though they snuffled psalms, to give the rebel dogs their due. 
When the roaring shot poured thick and hot, they were stalwart men and true."t 

Reverses now followed in quick succession. By August the Royalists 
had lost Bristol, Berkeley Castle, Hereford, and all hope was gone ! 

Once again, and for the last time, they were within a few miles of 
Sudeley, so near that we may suppose men and horses would be called 

• Memoirs of Prince Rupert. f **01d Cavalier.'* 

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out for the skirmish. The sad story is told in a very few words in an 
old register book* at Child's Wickham, near Broadway. 

**A Battell fought between S' Jacob Astle for the King's ... and Sir William 
Brereton and Colonell Morgan for the Parliament, bye Stowe on the Old, the 21st day of 
March, 1646, at which time Sir Jacob Astle was taken and most of his friends." 

The rebels had lain in wait for him six days. They watched him 
ascend Broadway Hill, then they followed him all night, and at day- 
break the battle commenced, ending in the defeat of the Royalists. 
Pursuing and pursued, both parties entered Stow, where many gentle- 
men were killed in the streets. Sir Jacob a prisoner, and wearied of 
this war "without an enemy," old and grey-headed, is graphically 
described by an eye-witness as being seated on a drum to rest himself, 
and saying to the soldiers who surrounded him : " Gentlemen, you may 
now sit down and play, for you have done all your work, if ye fall not 
out amongst yourselves." 

When the wars were over and Prince Rupert's work was done, he 
turned his thoughts to the pursuit of studies which had interested him 
in his youth, finding inexhaustible stores of pleasure in the forge, the 
laboratory, and the painter s studio. An interesting description of his 
discoveries and improvements is given in the Memoirs so often quoted.f 
We will take leave of our hero, who was so often dashing over our 
hills in those turbulent times by quoting Hudibras, where Fame is 
compared to the philosophical puzzle, " The Rupert Drop," which was 
introduced into England in 1660 : 

" Honour is like that glassy bubble 
That finds philosophers such trouble, 
Whose least part crack'd, the whole does fly, 
And wits are crack'd to find out why.*' X 

And of King Charles, that most unfortunate of Sudeley's royal 
guests, we take our leave with the touching lines descriptive of his 
death : 

• I am indebted to the vicar, the Rev. John Hartley, for a copy of this interesting entry. The register 
dates from the time of Queen Elizabeth. 

t " Memoirs," p. 433. % By E. Warburton. 

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" While round the armed bands 
Did clasp their bloody hands : 
He nothing common did or mean, 
After that memorable scene ; 

But with his keener eye 

The axe^s edge did try ; 
Nor called the gods with vulgar spite 
To vindicate his helpless right, 
But bowed his comely head 
Down, as upon a bed.*' * 

• Andrew Marvel's ** King's Memoirs." 

Old Pewter Communion Plate, formerly used at St. Mary's, Sudeley Manor. 

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** Rqx>it me and my cause aright. 
To the unsatisfied." 


WE now return with pain to the fallen Lord of Sudeley. 
Lord Clarendon, after mentioning the surrender of 
Sudeley, says, " The lord of that castle was a young man 
of spirit and courage ; and had for two years served the King very 
bravely in the head of a regiment of horse, which himself had raised 
at his own charge ; but had lately, out of pure weariness of the fatigue, 
and having spent most of his money, and without any diminution of his 
affection, left the King, under pretence of travel ; but making London 
his way, he gave himself up to the pleasures of that place ; which he 
enjoyed, without considering the issue of the war, or shewing any 
inclination to the Parliament ; nor did he, in any degree, contribute 
to the delivery of his house ; which was at first imagined, because 
it was so ill, or not at all, defended." * 

Whitelock merely mentions, under the date of June, 1644, "The 
Lord Chandois left Oxford and came in to the Parliament;"! which 
would seem to imply that he passed direct from the one to the other. 
But the Composition Papers contain a pass granted to him as early as 
April I, 1644, by the Earl of Essex, though he did not surrender him- 
self to the pro tent. Speaker of the House of Lords (Lord Grey) till 
June I. On the 6th of the month he was committed to the custody 
of the gentleman usher, but released on the loth, "on his humble 
petition," " provided he appears before the Lords in Parliament when 

• ** History of the Rebellion," 8vo. edit., p. 486. 

t "Memorials of the English Affairs," vol. i., p. 263, ed. 1853. 

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he shall be summoned thereto ; " for all members of either House 
who opposed the measures of the majority had been deprived of their 

What became of him when thus reduced to private life does not 
appear, but we find " the committee for the county of Gloucester, sitting 
at Grocers* Hall, London," busy enough in dealing with his property. 
He had in 1635 (Sept. i) conveyed Sudeley Castle and some other 
hereditaments to the earls of Manchester and Coleraine as trustees, 
to secure to his mother (then Dowager Countess of Castlehaven), the 
sum of j^6oo a year, and when the Castle came finally into the hands 
of the Parliament, the countess sought redress by her petition of 
August 30, 1644.* The case was shifted about between the local 
and the Grand Committee for Sequestrations until October 6, 1645, 
when it was determined that the countess should rent the estate at 
the sum of ;^i40 per annum, with the exception of certain portions 
to be held along with the Castle, by the Governor, as the Holme Park, 
the Forbury, the Hopyard, Belknapp's Orchard, Hollow Meadow, 
Clark's Close, and Barn Meadows, and the allowance of 100 loads of 
wood for fuel for the garrison, who should pay for any further quantity 
that they might require, " the true intention of this committee being, 
that no excess, waste, or destruction shall be committed to prejudice 
the inheritance," and that the royalty and game of deer and coneys, 
and the customary rights and privileges of the tenants, should be 

By this time, the battles of Marston Moor and Naseby had been 
fought, and the royal cause was seen to be irretrievably lost. It must 
have been a painful humiliation for the descendant of the heroes of 
Cressy and Poitiers and Agincourt, but Lord Chandos no doubt felt 
that he had no other course left if he would escape absolute ruin, and 
accordingly he took, on the same day (30 October, 1645), the National 
Covenant at the hands of "Sa. Gibson, Minister at Magrets, West- 
minster," X and the Negative oath, required from all who came in 

* Royalist Composition Papers, 2nd Series, Vol. xv., p. loi. t R. C. Papers, p. 117. 

: Ibid., p. 97. 

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from the King's quarters, before Henry Grey, earl of Kent, the Speaker 
of the House of Lords.* These documents, together with his pass 
from the earl of Essex,f and a " Perticular " of his estates, he sent 
in to the ** Honourable Committee of Goldsmiths' Hall for compound- 
ing with Delinquents," some time before the close of the year, as on 
1st January, 1646, Abel Spakeman and Thomas Higginson were 
examined on oath, J concerning some of the statements made. His 
statement concludes thus \ : 

" This is a true and full particular of my estate real and personal for which I desire 
to compound, and do submit unto and undertake to satisfy such fine as by this Committee 
for Compositions with delinquents shall be imposed and set to pay, in order to the 
freedom and discharge of my estate. 

(Signed) " Chandos." 

The Particular || is too long to print, and an abstract (except as 
regards Sudeley) will suffice : — 

Per Annum. 
His estates in Sudeley and Winchcombe he values at . ;£i8oo 

In Pirton, Wiltshire 105 

In Harefield and Denham, Middlesex and Bucks 1215 

Total 3120 

Deductions for various purposes . . 133 1 

Net ;^i789 

The deductions are : — 

Annuity to his mother y^6oo 

„ his wife 400 

„ his brother William 150 

Tithe to Sudeley 40 

„ Guiting 4 

To the Poor of Winchcombe 12 

„ Minister of Harefield 80 

„ Hospital at Harefield 35 

Repairs of Sudeley Castle 10 

The following statement is of so much interest that it must be given 
in full ; unfortunately the document is damaged in several places : — 

* R. C. Papers, p. 122. f Ibid., p. 131. % Ibid., p. 127. 

§ The spelling is modernized. || R. C. Papers, p. 123. 

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"16 Octobris, 1645. 

"Particulars of the value of Ix)rd Chandos' lands in Sudeley, Winchcombe, 
Comdon, and Rowell, lately sequestered, and now granted to Anne, countess dowager 
of Castlehaven, for one whole year from Michaelmas, 1645. 

" The Particular of the full value of the manor and lordship of Sudeley, site and 

demesnes of the late dissolved Monastery of Winchcombe, alias Winchel , together 

with the several farms of Comdon, Rowell, and one tenement in Cowlesbome, with every 
of their appurtenances, situate, lying .... within the county of Gloucester, belonging to 

George Lord , lately sequestered by Ordinance of Parliament, and now .... to 

Anne, countess dowager of Casdehaven, for one year from Michaelmas last, 1645.* 

" The freehold or chief rents of the said manor of Sudeley, for one whole jQ s. d, 
year 500 

" The yearly rents of the customary tenements and cottages in Sudeley 10 2 5 

" The yearly rent of the farm with the appurtenances called Comdon Farm, 
in Sudeley, held by lease for lives, and now in the tenure of Mrs, 
Hester Williams 

" The perquisites of a court leet and court baron, with waifs, estrays, and 
such other casualties, within the said manor of Sudeley, valued 
communibus annis 100 

" The yearly rents of the site of the said Abbey of Winchcombe, with so 

much of the demesnes of the said Abbey, and of the manor of obliterated. 
Sudeley, and farm of Rowell, as is now set [211 10 9I] 

"The yearly value of the rest of the demesnes of the said Abbey of 
Winchcombe, of the manor of Sudeley, and of the farm of Rowell, 
with the tenement in Cowlesbome, being all unset, yet valued pro- 
portionably, according to the rate for quantity and quality as the 
other grounds are set respectively 489 3 o 

"The yearly value of the park, woods, underwoods, and royalty of the 
game of deer and coneys there, besides the keepers' and wood- 
wards' yearly wages 100 o o 

' Sum total of the yearly value of the lands and premises 
so granted 


" Vera copia, Examined per 


" This is a true transcript or copy of the original particular, as it remaineth upon 

record before the Committee .... Gloucester, attested by Mr. Halford, clerk 

to ... . Committee, and exactly compared and examined by " 

The business of settling the composition went slowly on, the com- 
missioners having extensive powers, and, as may well be conceived, 
little caring to spare the feelings of their subjugated opponents, or to 

♦ R. C. Papers, p. 133. 

o O 

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bring their own profitable employment to an end. Hence they called 
unceasingly for further particulars and explanations, and one of these 
(undated) from Lord Chandos, shews how his property had been 
ruined, and how humbly he threw himself on their merciful considera- 
tion. By the compounding Declaration of March i, 1644, all "delin- 
quents " who cfame in before the last day of October were promised 
comparatively favourable treatment All estates were to be valued at 
twenty years' purchase, and their fine was to be but one-tenth, whilst 
those who overstaid the term mentioned were to pay one-third. Lord 
Chandos estate was valued at £iy^<) per annum, and the fine in the 
one case would be ;^4976, and in the other ;^i 2,440. Apparently the 
commissioners were inclined to impose the smaller sum, but they would 
take no account of the fearful depreciation in value that the property 
had suffered in consequence of the war. In his appeal, Lord Chandos 
states * that his Sudeley property is reduced in value one-half, the 
Castle occupied by soldiers, and the taxes so heavy, that his mother 
receives but half her annuity, and he yearly runs ;^300 in her debt 
His Wiltshire property was a recent inclosure from the Forest of 
Braydon,f which formerly yielded about ;^ioo a year ; now it has been 
thrown open, and yields him nothing ; on the contrary, he is charged 
with several annuities and payments, one being ;^io to the minister in 
lieu of tithes. All his Middlesex property, formerly worth ;^I2I5 per 
annum, has been seized, except two mills which yield ;^20. He has, 
as he has before stated, payments to the amount of £66^ per annum 
to make, to his wife, his brother, the hospital, and the minister of 
Harefield, " so that there remains clear to my Lord but ;^550 per 
annum, and that subject to Parliament taxes, besides ;^ 10,000 debts 
for himself and father." 

He goes on to say, " Besides what is before-mentioned, ;^6ooo will 
not repair and make good the ruins of the Castle of Sudeley, the 
wainscot, leads, stables, and other buildings pulled down by the soldiers 
and burnt, as also the destruction of the woods, since it hath been a 
long time a garrison for the Parliament. 

R. C. Papers, p. 129. f See his petition to the King about this inclosure, p. 254. 

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" This being the true condition of his Lordship's estate, how possible 

it can bear such a fine is humbly prayed to be taken into consideration." 

The matter still hung in hand for a while,* when he again addressed 

The Grange, Sudeley. 

the committee in a petition, which is touching in its brevity and 
simplicity t : — 

^^ To the Hon, Committee of Goldsmith^ Hall for Compounding with Delinquents, 
"The Humble PETrnoN of George Lord Chandos, 

" Shewing, 

" That he was in arms against the Parliament, and rendered himself to the lale 
Earl of Essex, then Lord General of the Parliament's forces, the ist of April, 1644, and 
prays to be received to compound accordingly. 

" Chandos. 
** Sept, 24, 1646." 

This seems to have been effectual, as on the 24th of the same month 
his fine was settled at one-tenth, or ;^4976,J j^iooo of which he paid on 

* In the interim, on May 25, 1646, the House of Ix>rds made an order forbidding Lord Chandos and 
Lord Campden to proceed any further in a quarrel. This, I believe, is the only notice of Lord Chandos 
to be found in the Lords* Journals. f R. C. Papers, p. 120. X R. C. Papers, p. 95. 


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March 24, 1647,* and gave bond for the remainder. He then retired to 
Harefield, and lived there in an obscure condition ; but his chaplain, 
Dr. John Conant, gave a week-day lecture at the neighbouring town of 
Uxbridge. Among the Composition Papers isone,t undated, promising 
that, on the payment of his fine, " His Majesty's Solicitor-General " J 
shall prepare a pardon for him, restoring his property, except the 
patronage of any churches or chapels that he may possess, § but with a 
proviso, that if his lands should eventually prove to be of greater value 
than he had returned, or if he had any lands, goods, or chattels undis- 
closed, he should be liable to such further composition as the Houses of 
Parliament should appoint Nothing came of this for a time, but, some 
jealousy apparently arising, he was, on the 7th October, 1648, obliged 
again to take the Negative oath, and other troubles were in store for him. 
Soon after the murder of the King the new Government found itself 
in desperate straits for money, and the estates of the Royalists were 
looked to for a supply.|| In May, 1649, Whitelock tells us,f the 
Parliament appointed a new committee to sit at Goldsmiths' Hall, to 
examine afresh the compositions and fines of delinquents, of course 
with the view of raising further sums from them, and Lord Chandos' 
composition came before them with the rest Surely nothing short 
of a sense of impending utter ruin could have drawn such a petition 
as the following from the once high-hearted nobleman who had borne 
himself so gallantly at Newbury. 

'^ To the Hon, the Commissioners appointed by Act of Parliament for Compounding with 


"The Humble Petition of George Lord Chandos 

" Sheweth, 

"That your petitioner did make it appear to the Committee at Goldsmiths' 
Hall that he came in within a month after the Declaration of the ist of March, 1643 

• Interregnum Papers, Vol. G. 43, p. 19. t R. C. Papers, p. 109. 

X This name the Parliament chose to continue to Oliver St. John, although the King bad long before 
dismissed him, and appointed Sir Thomas Gardiner in his stead. 

§ This was by virtue of a general order to that effect resolved on by the House, Feb. 1 1, 1646. 

II In disregard of their Declaration of 1644, they now voted (March 14, 1649) that all delinquents who 
had been members of either House should pay ** one full third " by way of composition ; but this was not 
enforced in the case of Lord Chandos. 

IT '* Memorials,*' vol. iii., p. 34. 

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[1644], and that the Committee upon the proofs made by your petitioner did most of 
them acknowledge, if they were not bound up by rules, equity would discharge your 
petitioner from paying anything, but being obliged to rules, they thereupon concluded 
your petitioner's fine at a tenth, being the rule of the propositions coming in after, and 
not having the benefit of the said Declaration. Your petitioner accordingly submitted to 
this fine, paid in the moiety, and secured the residue by bond, all which was accepted by 
the Committee, and the sequestration thereupon discharged. Now the rule of the 
proposition for paying a third extends only to such members of either House of Par- 
liament as rendered not themselves before the last of October, 1644, and in this respect 
your petitioner coming in long before the last of October, 1644, 

" Your petitioner desires the justice of this Committee, that they will confirm the 
composition at a tenth, there being no ground for a third ; and if this Committee have 
power, your petitioner humbly begs the equity and consideration of his case, that he may 
have the benefit of the Declaration of the ist of March, coming in so suddenly after. 

" And your petitioner shall pray. 

(Signed) " Chandos." 

There is no date to this petition, but from an indorsement on the 
first leaf of his papers (p. 95) we learn that it succeeded ; for we there 
read, *'9th May, 1650. The fine confirmed at a tenth." 

Before this, however. Lord Chandos had been in communication with 
the Government about Sudeley Castle. It had now been a garrison 
for nearly five years, when, on April 3, 1649, the Council of State 
ordered it to be " slighted," or rendered untenable as a military post, 
and this he was directed to see done. He raised various objections, 
and thus obtained a short delay ; but on April 24 he abandoned all 
opposition, and petitioned for compensation. This was promised 
when the work was done, and the task was entrusted to Sir 
William Constable, the Governor, who was also a member of the 
Council of State. On the 3rd of August Lord Chandos obtained 
a pass for himself and his wife to go beyond sea. During his 
absence the Castle was demolished, and on the 29th of September 
the Council acknowledged that the work had been done to their 

When Lord Chandos returned to England does not appear, but on 
the 30th of May, 1650, the Council voted that, as a compensation for 
the destruction of the Castle, ;^iooo of the balance of his fine should be 

• Interregnum Papers, Vol. i., pp. 66, 73, 93, 106, 283, 323, 543. 

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respited until his actual loss thereby should be ascertained.* Whether 
this was ever done we know not ; but on the following day he paid in 
the sum of ;^i976,t and he seems henceforth not to have been molested 
as to money matters, though he is charged as still owing ;^iooo at 
August, 1652. " Delinquents,'' however, commonly had an uneasy time 
under the Commonwealth, their place of residence being assigned, and 
no coming to London allowed except by special licence. Lord 
Chandos had a licence for this purpose, dated October 21, 1650, per- 
mitting him to remain in London during the Michaelmas term, on his 
own recognisance for ^2000, and two sureties of ^500 each for his 
good behaviour. J On the 16th of April, 165 1, he, with Lords Beau- 
champ and Bellasis, was committed, " upon suspicion of designing new 
troubles," § and in the same month he lost his wife, who was buried at 
Harefield. 11 When he was released we do not find, but in May, 1652, 
he had a difiR^rence with his friend. Colonel Henry Compton ; a duel 
was the result, on the 1 3th of that month, in which the colonel was 

It is sad to think so melancholy a circumstance should have 
embittered the closing years of the eventful life of the last Chandos of 
Sudeley. He was imprisoned for a long time, and after more than a 
year's delay he was tried in the Court of the Upper Bench, on May 17, 
1653, ^^d found guilty of manslaughter. IF Somewhere about this time 
he married his second wife, Jane, daughter of John Savage, Earl 
Rivers. He did not survive to see the Restoration, dying of the small- 
pox on the jst of February, 1655, at his house near Covent Garden, 
on the site of the present Chandos Street ; he was buried with his 
ancestors in the vault of Sudeley Chapel, and with him the glory of his 
House departed. He left two daughters by his first wife, and three by 
his second, but no son, and the title consequently passed to his brother 

• R. C. Papers, p. 115. 

t R. C. Papers, G. 43, p. 19. X Interregnum Papers, vol. ii., p. 564. 

§ " Whitelock," vol. iii., p. 298. 

II His grandmother, Alice, Countess of Derby, and her three daughters, are buried in this church, 
under a very stately monument. The countess reclines under a domed canopy, the curtains of which, 
being partially drawn aside, display the dowager Lady Chandos (who died in 1647) and her sisters kneeling 
in niches. Lysons* ** Parishes of Middlesex," Supplement, p. no. 

^ Collins' "Peerage," vol. i., parts, P- 689. 

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William, who survived him more than twenty years, but whose life 
would seem to have been singularly uneventful. 

His name appears but once on the State Papers, and then it is only 
as one of five signers of a certificate in favour of Edmund Green, an 
old Cavalier officer, who desired the place of an almsman in the hospital 
of St. Cross, Winchester.* The only other notice that I have met 
with of him is the following uncomplimentary one in Pepys* Diary : 

^^ Dec, 21, 1662. — ^To Whitehall, and there to chapel, and from thence upstairs, and 
up and down the house and galleries on the King's and Queen's side, and so through the 
garden to my Lord's [Sandwich] lodgings, where there was Mr. Gibbons, Madge, 
Mallard, and Pagett ; and by-and-by comes in my Lord Sandwich, and so we had great 
store of good music. By-and-by comes in my simple Lord Chandos, who (my Lord 
Sandwich being gone out to Court) began to sing psalms, but so dully that I was 
weary of it"t 

He married Susan Keere, by whom he had a son, William, who 
predeceased him, and three daughters. He died in August, 1676, 
and was buried at Harefield ; the title went to a distant cousin, James 
Brydges, the heir of Charles, second son of John, the first Lord 
Chandos of Sudeley. The son of this James was " the great Duke 
of Chandos," of the time of George I., so mercilessly and so ungrate- 
fully satirized by Pope, under the name of " Timon ." With his 
grandson the dukedom became extinct, in 1 789, but it was revived in 
1822 in favour of the late Duke of Buckingham, his son-in-law. In 
the meantime the barony of Chandos had been claimed by the Rev. 
Edward Tymewell Brydges, as the representative of Anthony, third 
son of the first Lord, but the House of Lords resolved, on the 13th 
of June, 1803, ^^^ *'h^ h^d not made out his claim." -Sir Samuel 
Egerton Brydges, the antiquary, was his son, and many years of his 
life were passed in fruitless endeavours to procure a rehearing of the 
matter, and he lost no opportunity of urging it through the press, 
bringing it forward, whether appropriately or not, in most of his 
numerous publications. 

Jane, the widow of George, had Harefield bequeathed to her, which 

• S. p. D. Car. II., Vol. xxix., No. 69. + Chandos Edition, p. 131. 

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had been the jointure of his first wife ; it is strange to find she had also 
Sudeley, " the head of the barony," as old feudal writers term it ; but 
such appears to have been the case. She did not sorrow long for her 
young husband, for in the October after his death she married Sir 
William Sedley, who dying in 1656,* she next became the wife of 
George Pitt, of Stratfield Saye, son of Sir William Pitt, comptroller of 
the household to Charles I. He had been an officer of the old Cavalier 
army, but apparently of very modest means, as he was allowed to com- 
pound for his "delinquency" for the small sum of ^244 65.t He sold 
Harefield to the Newdegates, its old possessors, J and turned his atten- 
tion to an endeavour to get some compensation from the Parliament 
for the havoc wrought at Sudeley. Among the Exchequer documents 
of the years 1657 and 1658 are petitions from George Pitt and Jane his 
wife, Lady Chandos, and a commission to inquire into their allegations. 
They pray that the remainder of the fine imposed on Lord Chandos 
may be remitted, and state the damage done to Sudeley, and name 
lands seized by the Government. 

On the 30th of March, 1658, at the George Inn, Winchcombe, 
witnesses were sworn to having been employed by the soldiers or 
agents of the Parliament, to pull down parts of the Castle so as to make 
it untenable. Reeve and Hall of Didbrooke, Bell, Bloxam, and 
Baswell of Winchcombe, masons by trade, deposed that by the demoli- 
tion of the Castle, Lord Chandos sustained damages to the extent of 
from four to ten thousand pounds. Of these documents we have copies 
at Sudeley.§ It is not known whether the claimants succeeded in their 
petition, but from the utter neglect which followed we may form our 

* About this time we meet with a mention of Lady Chandos in a quaint little extract from Mr. Arnold's 
Manuscript Journal of the House of Commons : — '* 1656, May 4th, Reed, of the Ladye Shandois for 
riding in her coach on the Sabbath day, i6j." (In Covent Garden.) 

t They had exchanged it in 1585 with Sir Edmund Anderson, the chief justice, for Arbury, in Warwick- 
shire, and he sold it in 162 1 to Sir Thomas Egerton, who left it to his step-daughter, Anne, the mother of 
George, Lord Chandos. 

J R- C. Papers, Index Volume, G. 43. 

§ We learn from the ** Bibliotheca Gloucestrensis," Appendix, p. 388, that a copy of the Engagement 
of 1659, undertaking to support the Commonwealth, was found behind a wainscot at Sudeley Castle. 
Where it may be now, we have failed to learn, but it is described as being a roll headed with the declaration, 
and with spaces left below for signatures. A fac-simile of the declaratory part, signed by Fairfax and 
others, will be found in '* Cromwelliana,** Westminster, 1810. 

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o^ ■ n>c a di^/ (xs^r /itm oa.t :' _ . 

let him Hmn^.... cover, , 

r^X -' / (^r/i/y// v// 

^Hiu :T~:r:r . . // v 

Caricature of a Roundhead, 

Sketched in Charcoal on the Wall of the Mess-room at Sudeley Castle in 1^*-/^^ y-vy-y|-|^T/> 
Copied by Edm. T. Browne, Esq., 1828. Digitized by VirOOV IL 

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CHAP, xxil] paintings BY HOGARTH, 289 

own conclusion. Mr. Pitt was succeeded by his son George, whose 
grandson, also named George, was, in 1776, created Lord Rivers of 
Stratfield Saye, and in 1 802 obtained a fresh patent as Lord Rivers * 
of Sudeley Castle. 

Though a departure from the chronological order of our Annals, a 
description may be here given of two curious pictures now at Sudeley. 
They came into the possession of the late Mr. Dents about the year 
1836, with the tradition that they had been painted by Hogarth for 
the " Old Elephant," a public-house in Fenchurch Street,* much fre- 
quented by the artist ; that on the occasion of an alarm of fire, they 
had been removed to a house in the neighbourhood and there for- 
gotten, or the knowledge of their existence confined to the possessors. 
With the pictures was found a printed paper,, entitled "Paintings by 
Hogarth," from which is copied the following description of some of 
the innumerable figures therein delineated : — 

" In a picture composing ^\^ compartments each about 5 feet by 2, this eminent 
artist exhibits to us a portrait of Fortune blindfold, standing on a globe elevated 
considerably above the earth, holding in each hand a large bag inverted, from wh;ch 
her favours and evils are descending indiscriminately on the inhabitants of this world : 
those on her right side producing apparent happiness and pleasure ; those on her left, 
misery and pain. Beneath the figure of the goddess, this allegorical inventive Genius 
represents the stream of life, over which a bridge is erected : at a short distance above it 
a fall of water is perceived, emblematical of the rapidity which characterises the fleeting 
hours of human existence. On the centre arch of this bridge the artist himself is standing 
with his pallet in one hand, and the other extended towards a person presenting a bag of 
money, whose portrait strongly resembles that of Richardson the novelist 

" The gifts of the Bona Dea seem to have escaped the painter, who stands between 
her good and evil showers: he has lost his hat in his attempt to obtain a bag of money 
which is falling into the stream. 

" On the right of the stream, above the bridge, advancing towards the place where the 
benignant showers of Fortune are descending, Alexander Pope appears, drawn in a car by 
a swan with seven necks, — emblematical of what was then called the seven liberal arts and 
sciences. The poet is followed by a host of critics, and others who have been affected 
by the force of his satire : they are armed with sticks and spears, typical of the shafts 
of calumny with which they attempt to assail the bard ; but he looks back on them with 
indifference, apparently impressed with a feeling similar to that which he describes in the 
following extract from his imitation of the first Satire of Horace : 

♦ For further particulars relating to this old inn and Hogarth's pictures, see the " Mirror " for 3 Jan., 
1829, p. 8, also p. 246 in the vol. for the same year. 

p P 

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* To virtue only and her friends, a friend, 
The world besides may censure or commend : 
Know, all the distant din, that world can keep, 
Rolls o'er my grotto, and but sooths my sleep.' 

" Amongst the personages who are attempting to attack the poet, may be distin- 
guished Dennis^ Gilbon, Theobald^ Welsted^ Curl, and Mist; the authors and publishers of 
vile sarcasm against him; — Bladen, a black man, a notorious gamester; Henley, the Orator; 
Knight, the Cashier of the South Sea Company, who fled to Paris with a large sum 
belonging to his employers ; and Cither, the Laureate ; the whole of whom are celebrated 
in the Dunciad, which was published about the lime when these beautiful paintings were 

" The two compartments on the right contain a representation of the beneficial gifts 
which the goddess bestows on man. Hogarth conveys this idea in a most elegant and 
poetical manner. The emblems introduced by him to perform this office are crowns, 
mitres, coronets, bags of money, crosiers, cardinals' hats, books, musical instruments, and 
gold coin. 

" The group on whom those favours are bestowed consists of characters from almost 
every station in life. 

* " In the front, some conspicuous person, apparently a lawyer, has caught a bag ot 
money, which is viewed attentively by a lady on his left, — whilst another gentleman 
behind is addressing her ; — but she seems to give the preference to the money, if not to 
its owner. On the other side of this newly-become Croestts, stands a female votary of 
pleasure, very much resembling the celebrated * Nancy Dawson,' who displays a strong 
inclination for part of the treasure, and exhibits her blandishments most unsparingly, to 
accomplish her wishes : — by her side stands a little girl, holding out her hand as if claim- 
ing a portion of the contents of the bag, which Fortune has bestowed. Near this lady a 
person in the character of Harlequin is observed, who may probably be intended to 
represent Rich, the manager of Covent Garden Theatre at that time. 

**The group behind these persons consists of musical and theatrical performers, 
admirals, bishops, doctors, lawyers, and mercantile persons. 

" In the next compartment, religious characters of different parts of the earth, and of 
different ages, characteristic by their respective costumes, are advancing from beneath an 
archway, towards the place where they observe the bounties of P^ortune so copiously 
showering down on their neighbours. Two are extending their arms to catch them as 
they fall, others are viewing the scene with wonder depicted on their countenances. 
Royalty is represented in the person of King David; Religion by the Pope, Cardinals, and 
Bishops ; and Philosophy by Diogenes. 

"On an edifice above the archway, Bacchanalians are represented huzzaing with their 
bottles and glasses in their hands, and appear • flushed with the juice of the grape.' 

" On the front ground lie scattered a crown and sceptre, money bags, gold coin, 
coronets, oil flasks, rolls of parchment and deeds ; typical of the beneficial gifts of 

" Instead of adopting the Grecian mythological fable of Pandora's Box to account 
for the introduction of the evils which afflict mankind, this ingenious and immortal 


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artist assigns that unpleasant duty, with a much greater degree of plausibility, to the 
goddess Fortuna ; who, being represented blind, may charitably be excused for bestowing 
her favours without discrimination. He has delineated infants in swaddling-clothes 
amongst the evils incidental to life, and bestowed by Fortune ; and the diseases to which 
mortals are liable, he has personified in the form of little imps, or nondescript reptiles : 
gibbets, axes, halters, and scourges for criminals, commonly called cat-o'-nine-tails, 
allegorically represent some of the sufferings which accompany vice, however prosperous ; 
and rods of correction exhibit the sorrows of childhood. Crutches and spectacles denote 
the miseries attendant on age ; dice and cards display the incentives to gaming ; and 
swords and drums show us thfe exciting causes of war !— whilst violins and other musical 
instruments are emblematical of the allurements to evil which often originate with the 
fascinating science of harmony. 

" Several females appear extremely anxious to catch some of the infants ; particularly 
two of the former, who are disputing the possession of a child which one of them has 
nearly caught in her arms. The attention of another woman is diverted from this 
subject by the vociferation of a female preacher, probably one of the sect of religious 
fanatics, who obtained the appellation of Jumpers, and who rose into notice about the 
period which our artist is representing. 

" Soldiers appear in the pursuit of glory with drawn swords rushing into the jaws of 
hell ; which is represented as the mouth of an animal vomiting flames. The shades of 
mortals are discovered in them, and Satan himself appears ready to receive those who 
approach, for the purpose of conducting them to final perdition. The black gentleman 
has laid hold of a young military man just arrived at the entrance, who, disliking the 
appearance of the place, seems to express a wish to return to the world, — pointing back 
to it with his sword, as if he had left a family behind him which claimed his protection ; 
while a female is endeavouring to pull him back by the skirt of his coat, and prevent his 
leaving her. The Arch-demon does not, however, seem disposed to relinquish possession 
of his object. In the foreground some of the infernal fiends are advancing cautiously as 
if they wished to seize the artist himself; but they are opposed by a dog — probably his 
favourite animal Trump — who prevents them from approaching near enough to accom- 
plish their object A diminutive imp is also represented beating a drum, apparently for 
the purpose of overpowering the cries of those who have become the victims of satanic 

** Contiguous to the jaws above mentioned, appears a house, with a remarkable man's 
head fixed against it ; probably the residence of some person notorious for vicious habits, 
— and therefore represented near the abode of the Demons. The back part of it seems 
to be on fire, as if the enormities of the crimes committed in it had occasioned the 
spontaneous conflagration ; and doves, the emblems of innocence, are observed flying 
from a cage attached to so contaminated a place. 

"Among the immense crowd of persons who are looking out for the pernicious gifts 
bestowed by Fortune, several gallows are erected, and criminals suspended therefrom. 
This may be considered as emblematical of the speedy punishment which sometimes 
follows even the most successful villany. And in the distance a village in flames appears, 
in the most vivid colours, one of the greatest calamities which await man. A flock of 
crows, emblematical of approaching death, are hovering over the scene. 

p p 2 

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" The second picture consists of a most animated and humorous allegorical repre- 
sentation of a Bacchanalian Procession, contained in a picture about four feet broad, by 
five in height The characters in it are strongly marked with all the vigorous conception 
and imagination of the great master. The portraits are numerous and diversified ; and, 
in all probability, delineated chiefly from nature, when he caught their originals within 
his mental grasp.'' 

This procession is represented on its way to a temple from which 
hangs the sign of an elephant ; a fact corroborative of the idea that 
the paintings were executed for Hogarth's favourite resort 

Hogarth, pinxt. 

M. B., delt 

The March of Intemperance. 

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" For modes of faith let senseless bigots fight, 
His faith is clear whose life is in the right." 


A CHARACTER of no small reputation next appears in our 
chronicle in the person of Clement Barksdale, Rector of 
Sudeley, better known as the *Xotswold Muse." Winch- 
combe boasts as being his birth-place. Born on the 23rd of November, 
1609, educated at Abingdon, in "grammar learning," passing several 
years of study first at Merton College, and then at Gloucester Hall, he 
was ordained, and in 1637 was officiating minister at All Hallows (now 
called All Saints), in Oxford. Thence he went to Hereford, where he 

Autograph of Barksdale. 

was master of a Free School. During the disturbed times that followed 
he was removed from the dangerous vicinity of Hereford, and placed 
for safety at Sudeley Castle, with the appointment of rector of the 
parish. But Sudeley soon ceased to be a place of security, and we 
next find him sheltered at Hawling, where he occupied himself in a 
private school with much success. Finally, after the Restoration, tie 
was settled in the parsonage at Naunton, where he died in 1670, and 
was buried in the chancel of the church. According to Wood's 
"Athense," Atkyns, and others, this event occurred in 1687. An unsuc- 
cessful search was made some years ago for his memorial. To 
the present Rector, the Rev. E. A. Litton, we are indebted for dis- 

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covering, after some search, the brass in the tower of the church, 
which supplies us with this corrected date, and the following Latin 
epitaph : 

D.S. /« English. 

Clemens Barkdallus, Clement Barksdale, 

Artium Magister, Master of Arts, 

Evangelii Minister, Minister of the Gospel, 

Quotidie orans. Daily praying, 

Quotidie moriens, Daily dying, 

Jubet te, viator, Exhorts thee, O traveller, 

Caelestem Patriam To meditate 

Cogitare. on 

ixb XXIII, MDCLXX, The heavenly country. 

iEtat Lxi. ixb XXIII [Sept. 23] 1670, 

Aged 61. 

Below the Latin epitaph there is another small tablet, containing 
the names of some of his children or other members of his family. 
According to a note in one of his works, by Sir Thomas Phillipps, 
Mary Charlton, his wife, was buried at Winchcombe, in 1653. 

Clement Barksdale was a good and frequent preacher, an earnest 
disputant, a great admirer of Hugo Grotius, several of whose writings 
he translated, and, above all, he was a good man and worthy neighbour. 
His chief works consist of " Nympha Libethris, or the Cotswold 
Muse, presenting some extempore Verses to the imitation of young 
scholars. In four parts, Lond., 1651;" ** Monumenta Literaria ; '* 
and " The Disputation at Winchcombe, Nov. 9th, 1653." 

This dispute was between Barksdale, then minister of Sudeley, 
respondent, Christopher Helme, minister of Winchcombe, and John 
Wells, minister of Tewkesbury, opponents. The subjects of disputation 
were church matters, relating to the Government of the Church, Form of 
Public Prayer, Ordinations, and Administration of the Sacrament* It 
appears that in some of the large parishes and market towns there were 
ministers, who, though professing to belong to the Church of England, 
were preaching against her forms and discipline, going about to other 

* The Winchcombe Papers Reviewed, Lond., 1657. 

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parishes, and alienating the people from their lawful pastors. Until 
this could be stopped by authority, the orthodox clergy considered it 
their duty to warn their congregations, and show them the errors of the 
new teachings. Among these was our Sudeley Rector. The dispute 
is described as having taken place in Winchcombe parish church, on 
the 9th of November, 1653. Mr. Barksdale was the first to arrive, 
then his opponents, Mr. Helme, minister at Winchcombe ; Mr. Tray, 
minister at Oddington ; Mr. Wells, minister at Tewkesbury; Mr. Chaffy, 
at Naunton ; and Colonel Ayleworth, justice of the peace, from Naun- 
ton. As soon as these all took possession of "the ministers Pue," 
Clement Barksdale took possession of a " Pue ex opposito " which he 
had had erected, Mr. Towers of Toddington and other orthodox 
clergy being seated near him. Then the dispute commenced, which 
must have lasted some hours, and probably was carried on with as 
much charity as could be expected, considering the times. 

To a question proposed by a minister of the sectaries, Mr. Barksdale 
replied, " i. I am a member of the parish church; which although it be 
much distracted by a minister of separation, yet it is not yet destroyed. 
Although we cannot come to the usual place for the present safely, and 
without danger of being engaged in prayers against our conscience, and 
of being seduced by erroneous doctrine, and much offended and grieved 
by uncharitable sentences, yet we preserve the practice of our religion 
at home, and sometimes partake of the public ordinance abroad. 2. I 
am a member of the national Church of England, which we acknow- 
ledge a true visible Church of Christ, though somewhat clouded now, 
and defaced by the modern innovations, to which yet there are many 
thousand professors that have not bowed. 3. I am a member of the 
Church Catholic, into which I was received at my baptism." The dis- 
putation, in which Mr. Barksdale's mention of Christmas produced 
a cry of " Popery ! " from his learned opponents,* terminated by 
the Winchcombe minister saying : " You see, brethren, what he is : we 
have enough of him. It is high time to conclude. Sir, I desire to 
conclude all with prayer : " to which Barksdale replied : " Sir, I have 

♦ Lathbury's " History of the Book of Common Prayer,*' 1859, p. 304. 

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observed your objections, and I take my leave of you, for, to your 
prayers I fear I shall not be able to answer Amen." 

Often was the good Rector sorely tried by the divisions that sprung 
up around him, so that ** he increased his diligence and doubled his 
pains at Sudeley, considering how many of his friends at Winchcombe 
and of his most honourable patron s tenants were become almost like 
sheep without a shepherd, some frequenting their parish church indeed, 
but bringing home their ears tingling with the strange doctrines and 
uncharitable censures and reproaches of the preacher ; others absent- 
ing themselves from the church, and contented with their private 
reading and devotions at home."* 

On one occasion he composed and presented to some friends a model 
for '* The Congregation at Sudeley," f which is too long for insertion. 
It would provide the Rector with discreet men of the congregation as 
assistants with whom he could advise, and treats of their duties ; of 
preaching on the Lord's Day ; of the repetition of the Catechism by 
children ; of explaining the same during the week ; taking the names 
of communicants, giving them tokens on the eve of the communion 
day ; and of the charity which the Sudeley congregation was to have 
towards all others ; and how they were to pray for unity amongst all 

Again, under trying circumstances, he wrote the following beautiful 
epistle : 

" To HIS Congregation at Sudeley Castle. 

" And now. Beloved, I end with a request to you, in St Peter's words : * Giving all 
diligence, adde to your Faith, Vertue ; to your Vertue, Knowledge ; to Knowledge, Tem- 
perance; to Temperance, Patience; to Patience, Godliness; to Godliness, Brotherly- 
kindness ; and to Brotherly-kindness, Charity ; ' for if these things be in you and abound, 
the greatest objection of our opponents will be then fully answered, if it be not yet. Let 
no man suffer sin upon his Brother, but let us exhort and admonish one another, lovingly 
zxA faithfully^ and let the most knowing and zealous amongst us assist the Minister in the 
discharge of his duty, that no open and notorious liver may presume to come with us to 
the Holy Table. Let us pray for a settled Publick Discipline, but in the mean, let us 
settle ourselves, and keep as good order as we can ; Let us show the sincerity of our 

* Disputation at Winchcombe. 

t " Memorials of Worthy Persons,'* The Third Duad. By C. Barksdale. 

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religion by our mutuall Love, and by our meekness and charity to our Enemyes and 
Calumniators ; Let us evidence our having the Spirit not by bold intrusion into offices 
not committed to us, but by bringing forth the fruits of the Spirit^ Love, Joy, Peace, 
Long-suffering, and the rest Finally, let us not be weary of well-doing, but go on in 
every good work with courage and alacrity y with our eyes fixed upon Heaven. So shall the 
mouth of the adversary be stopped ; and the Lord shall open our lips, and our mouth 
shall show forth His praise. Amen." ♦ 

His translation of Hugo Grotius on '' The Authority of Sacred 
Things," dated Sudeley, January 6th, 1651, is dedicated "To the 
Illustrious Pair, my Lord and my Lady Chandos ; " the Preface 
explains that he wishes to cast in his mite to the Church of England, 
by the translation of so good a book, and to leave a grateful, and he 
hopes a lasting monument in those gracious hands, that have supported 
him in his worst and weakest times, with these closing words : " May 
your Honours both live to see the public breaches both of Church and 
State fairly made up ; and particularly the ruins of your Sudeley." 

His writings were numerous ; most of them are in the Sudeley 
Library. Higford s "Institutions, or Advice to his Grandson/' was also 
published by Barksdale. It is a work of great merit, showing that the 
squire of Dixton, two hundred years ago, was "a perfect gentleman," 
and that the Gloucestershire gentry of the seventeenth century were not 
the boors described by Lord Macaulay. In one of his lettersf on the 
subject of good neighbours, he congratulates his grandson on having 
two whose estates encircle his own, — one, the Right Hon. Viscount 
Tracy, the other. Lord Chandos. Of the first he says he had the 
pre-eminence of all the families in those parts for antiquity, that his 
ancestors had received much honour and trust from the Tracy hands ; 
differences that had arisen between the respective tenants of Dixton 
and Alderton had always been amicably settled, and entreats him to 
assist in paying the deep debt of duty and service due to that honour- 
able family. Of Lord Chandos then living, and also of his predecessors, 
he writes in the highest praise, making mention of the honour they had 
done his family on various occasions. In his own words : 

* Sir Thomas Phillipps was much interested in Clement Barksdale's works, and strongly advbed their 
republication for the honour of Sudeley and Winchcombe. 
\ Institutions, p. 20. 

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" The Lord Edmund Chandos, Knight of the Garter, in much infirmity of body did 
adventure towards Glocester to do Sir John Higford honour, when he was first High 
Sheriff, but falling more sick in the journey, returned to his Castle (Sudeley), and died 
before the Assizes were ended The Lord Giles Chandos employed Sir John Higford 
in the government of his estate, and in the Lieutenancy of the county, and for his 
good service done therein promoted him to the Queen's Majesty, a great housewife of 
her honour, who dignified him with the order of a Knight (in those days communicable 
only to persons of worth and quality), 14 Sep. 1591." 

Barksdales " Nympha Libethris" is the work by which he is best 
known, and from which has been given him the cognomen of ** the 
Cotswold Muse.*' His poetry cannot lay claim to any great merit, but 
as a native of Winchcombe and rector of Sudeley he calls forth our 
sympathy, and his subjects, being local, cannot fail to arouse our 

Being a great favourite with Lord and Lady Chandos, we may 
suppose it was by their tender solicitude for their poet that he was 
removed out of harm's way, first to Sudeley and then to Hawling. 
From his poems we conclude they must both have occasionally resided 
at Sudeley after the termination of the wars, and it was not till after 
they found there was no hope of Parliamentary aid for the restoration 
of their Castle that they finally abandoned it. 

The picturesque and secluded farm of Rowell,* about four miles from 
Sudeley, is frequently mentioned in his " Nympha Libethris." In his 
Preface he says : " A little house, Roell, is near a palace, when her 
lord is there." Again, in the " Consecration " of his work to Lady 
Chandos, he designates himself " her Roell Muse." 

Why Lord and Lady Chandos from time to time retired to that 
secluded spot may be gathered from the two following poems : — 

"Sudeley to Rowill. 

" Rowill, the hills on which thou sit'st do not 
So much exalt thee, as my Lord, thou'st got 
Into my bosom, when I desert lie, 
Vouchsaf t perhaps a glance of 's passing eye. 
I must confess, at present thy low roof 
(The hills too 're fitter for his horse's hoof) 

♦ Rowell belonged to the Chandos family, and was afterwards purchased by George Townsend. 

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Wist Vikw, showing remains of Church Buttress 

Part of Ancient Church and Window, now 
Window. dividing Kitchen from Staircase. 

Ancient Manor House, Rowell. 

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Excels my turrets, and whilst he is there, 
Suddey is scarce said to continue here. 
The time will come, if our hopes be not vain, 
When Sudeley shall be Suddey once again. 
And thou, my env/d Rawill (no more harm 
I wish thee) shall return into a Farm." 

" RowiLL TO Sudeley. 

" What, if my Lord, well knowing the unrest 
Of palaces and courts, doth think it best. 
Sometimes to choose a solitary place, 
And it with his beloved presence grace ? 
Envy not, stately Sudeley ; it's not thy crime 
That is the cause, but troubles of the Time. 
Peace, banish'd from great Houses, is retired 
To me, and such like corners. I desired 
My Lord should breathe himself awhile with me : 
When war is ended, let him dwell with thee." 

Rowell was then, as now, a farm-house, but of much greater preten- 
sions, with a chapel attached to it, in which Barksdale must often 
have officiated. We must suppose that the Chandoses retired to 
Rowell during the wars, and that it was a specially safe refuge for 
Lady Chandos and her sister when the Castle was in the hands of the 
rebels. One of the poems is headed : ** Upon the Scholars succeeding 
Soldiers at Sudeley Castle." Another expresses thanks for a gift of 
Sudeley venison. The best is, 

" NoN Nobis Domine," etc, in the Great Chamber at Sudeley. 

" To my Lady C. 

" Chandos, wh* adom*d the princely chamber, where 
So many friends and tenants welcomed were. 
Caused the artificer on the wall to write 
This sentence, and exposed to all men's sight 
So when our works are brought to end, must we 
All sing aloud, jfton jftobtit Somtne ; 
And I, my Lord, that for my Muse I may 
Favour obtain, must Kyrie Eleison say. 
Twas her ambition her notes to sing 
To the great grandson of the Cotswold King." 

Q Q 2 

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So much for our " Cotswold Muse," and the insight he gives us of 
the family and " congregation " then belonging to Sudeley. After the 
CcLstle was " slighted," Divine Service was held in the side chapel as 
seen in the annexed woodcut — an arrangement which was continued 
till the restoration of the Church in 1862. In ancient times as now, 
the advowson belonged to the Lord of the Manor ; but we find that 
twice in the reign of Elizabeth the right of presentation was exercised 
by the Queen, also once by King James, though we know not under 
what circumstances. Thus we read in Atkyns, p. 703 : — 

Clerks. Patrons. 

1583. John Perinchafe Giles, Ld. Chandos. 

1585. Thomas Pembridge Queen Elizabeth. 

1585. Thomas Moreland Giles, Ld. Chandos. 

1588. Thomas Moreland Queen Elizabeth. 

1588. John James Giles, Ld. Chandos. 

1590. Henry Hurst Giles, Ld. Chandos. 

1603. Thomas Potter Franc. Lady Chandos. 

1505. George Osbolston King James. 

Clem. Barksdale 

1703. John Heam George Pitt, Esqre. 

1707. Samuel Shipton George Pitt, Esqre. 

East View of Sudeley Chapeu 

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** The master must be a man of sound religion, neither Papist nor Puritan, of a grave 
behaviour, and sober and honest conversation, no tippler or haunter of alehouses, and no 
pufer €/ foAacco" 

(Rules of Archbishop Harsnett*s Grammar School, Chigwell, founded in 1629.) 

WITH the destruction of its Abbey, Winchcombe lost its 
importance, and its history will not detain us long. 
In Leland's days, like many of the neighbouring towns 
it " stood by clothing," but when Queen Elizabeth paid her first visit 
to Sudeley, the noble owners interested her in the affairs of their poor 
neighbours, and in the following year the queen bestowed a mark of her 
favour on them. In the grant allusion is made to the lamentable 
decline of the town, and the distress among the poor : " By the relation 
of Dorothy the Lady Chandos, and the humble petition of the in- 
habitants of the borough or town of Winchcombe, the said borough 
appeared to be fallen into so great ruin and decay, that its inhabitants 
were not able to support and repair it, for the great poverty that 
reigned among them." 

The grant further states that, by Letters Patent, the inhabitants 
henceforth should enjoy the privilege of holding an annual fair* 
" upon the eve, upon the feast, and upon the morrow after the feast 
of St Martin the Evangelist ; and that one market should be held 
every week upon Tuesday." This charter is dated 7th of April the 
17th year of Elizabeth's reign (i575).t 

Another benefit resulting from Queen Elizabeth's visits to Sudeley 

* Till within the last few years it was the custom in Winchcombe to hang out bushes to show where 
beer was sold at private houses. 
+ Rudder, p. 771. 

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Castle, was the solid basis given to the Grammar School of Winchcombe, 
founded in 1522 by Henry VIII., and whose endowment of ;^9 4^. td. 
per annum was confirmed by her. 

In 162 1, Frances, Dowager Lady Chandos, the widow of Giles, 
third lord, founded a second school in Winchcombe, in a street 
called St. Nicholas Street, with convenient rooms for the habitation 
of such schoolmaster as should be appointed, to have the charge 
of educating fourteen children of the town of Winchcombe, and by 
feoffment of the 13th of November, 19th year of James I. (1621), 
directed that when the trustees should by death be reduced to two, 
such two should make a new feoffment of the said premises to such 
other persons as the said Lady Chandos during her life, and after 
her decease, her daughter the Lady Catherine, countess of Bedford, 
should nominate. This school was united to the one founded by 
Henry VIII., of which the first master appears to have been Valentine 
Blake, appointed in 1539. The last was Mr. Charles Lapworth, who 
was appointed in 1832, and died in 1871. His long residence of 40 
years in the parish gave him many opportunities of collecting infor- 
mation ; and great thanks are due to him for preserving numerous 
and valuable notes referring to Winchcombe, which have been kindly 
placed at my disposal by his widow, who still remains among us. 
Beside this, there is the Townsend School, founded in 1683 by 
George Townsend, who left lands in Wormington for that purpose, 
and for the apprenticing of boys.* 

A matter which considerably affected the prosperity of the neigh- 
bourhood is associated with the reign of Elizabeth, namely, the 
introduction of tobacco, Winchcombe being reputed to have been 
the first place in England honoured with the growth of ** this barbarian 
weed, and by which many got great estates," t the inhabitants making 
planting their chief business, and turning it to good account. J 

This, however, did not long continue. Proclamations had been 

• A good account of the present condition of our schools was published in the "Evesham Journal," 
Feb. 27th, 1875, ^^ ^^c occasion of the election of the first School Board. 

t Fuller. 

X There is a tradition that Sir Walter Raleigh once resided at Brockhampton, which would possibly 
account for its first introduction in this locality. 

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issued by Elizabeth against the smoking of tobacco, and disregarded ; 
but when James I. came to the throne, he took the far more effectual 
step of raising the duty from id. per lb. to 6^. \od. by his order 
of October 17, 1604. His power to do this was questioned, but 
it was solemnly affirmed by the judges in the year 1606, in what 
is known as " the great case of Impositions," which was almost as 
famous in its day, as that of shipmoney afterwards became. Not 
long after an act was passed forbidding the cultivation of tobacco 
in England, on the plea that it hindered the growth of the English 
plantations in Virginia and the Bermudas, lessened the revenue 
of the customs, and spoiled much ground that would be far better 
employed in raising corn or cattle. 

All through the time of the Stuarts, the trade in tobacco was a 
royal monopoly, and the duty levied greatly varied, but it always 
remained high enough to cause illegal cultivation. Frequent pro- 
clamations were issued, directing that all tobacco planted in England 
should be rooted up, but they were only partially executed ; and 
there is in the Public Record Office* a curious petition from William 
King, a messenger of the Chamber (a.d. 1631), complaining of " many 
great affi*onts" received by him in various places in Gloucestershire, 
in endeavouring to " displant" the forbidden weed. It kept its ground, 
however, long after, and when the Commonwealth, in 1652, passed 
a new act for its restraint, we hear of ** The humble petition and 
cries of many landowners and labourers of Cheltenham, Winchcombe, 
&c." complaining of the ruin that it threatened them with, and praying 
for its repeal. Soon after the Restoration a new act was passed, 
ordering all tobacco plants in England and Ireland to be rooted 
up, with a penalty of 405. for every rood of land so employed. It 
was apprehended that there might be a difficulty in enforcing this 
measure, and accordingly, on May 10, 1662, Sir Humphrey Hooke, 
the Gloucestershire high sheriff, was ordered at once to leave London 
and repair to his *county, " it being now the season for planting 
tobacco," to put in execution the commands formerly given him.t 

D. S. P., Car. I., Vol. ccv.. No. 53. f D. S. P., Car. II., Vol. liv., No. 40. 

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He did so ; and he, in the following December, was formally thanked 
for his activity in putting down rioters who opposed the destruction 
of the tobacco.* In spite of this, however, the cultivation was persisted 
in, and in 1663 we find the farmers of the customs asking that their 
surveyor, Thomas Delavale, may have soldiers to assist him in 
preventing it, and that the sheriffs of Gloucestershire and the neigh- 
bouring counties may have special directions to put the acts in 
execution, t Their prayer apparently was granted, but the measure 
was not immediately successful, as we read in Pepys' Diary, as late 
as 1667, th^^t the lifeguards were sent to Winchcombe, "to spoil the 
tobacco there which the people do plant, contrary to law, and have 
always done, and although under force and danger of having it 
spoiled, as it hath been oftentimes, yet will continue to plant it" 

In 1685 and 1692 lands were given by George Harvey and Lady 
Juliana Tracy for the benefit of the Winchcombe poor. For the 
same charitable purposes money was given by Wm. Thorndale, Thomas 
Compere, John Harvey, and Anne Blaby, between the years 1692 
and 1 75 2. J 

The church of Winchcombe, as has been already stated, was built 
about the beginning of the reign of Edward IV. It is a large 
handsome edifice, in the Perpendicular style, consisting of nave 
with aisles and chancel, and a tower of good proportions at the 
west end. 

In 1690, owing to the falling in of the battlements of the chancel, 
which did immense damage, the chancel and east end of the two 
aisles were rebuilt. At the same time, the top of the tower was 
repaired, the whole structure white-washed and painted, and unsightly 
timbers put up to support the west end of the nave. The Rev. 
Henry Thorne was the vicar, and Wm. Pearson and James Glover, 
churchwardens. From that time the roof remained in a dilapidated 
state till 1850, when, being pronounced absolutely dangerous, a parish 
meeting was convened, at which it was resolved to restore it A loan 
of ;^500 was obtained, the repayment of which was effected by instal- 

• D. S. P., Car II., Vol. Ixv., No. 46. t Ibid., Vol. bcxvi., No. 5. 

X Rudder, p. 830. 

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Ancient Pulpit, disused in 1872. 

Ancient Font, retained in present use. 

Position of Communion Table in Winchcombe Church before the Restoration in 1872, showmg AiiTAKX^j^orrH said to^O I P 

have been the gift of Queen Catherine of Arragon. ^Dzecm ^^ i>^ 




ments of church-rates during the following ten years.* In 1872 a 
thorough restoration of the church was effected. 

Up to this time the arrangement of the space around the communion 
table was very peculiar, as may be seen from the opposite engraving ; 
something similar still exists in Langley in Shropshire, and at Over 
Winchendon, near Aylesbury. At the east end of the church was the 

Interior of Winchcombe Church. East view, showing " the Indies' Gallery," 
before the Restoration in 1872. 

Ladies' Gallery, which would seem to have occupied the place of the 
ancient rood screen. 

There was a stone octagonal pulpit, of good Perpendicular work, of 
the time of Henry VI., used near the centre of the nave prior to the 
year 1872, when it was thought desirable, owing to its small dimen- 
sions — ^being only 2 feet 2\ inches across — to substitute a larger one in 
a more convenient position. The stone font, bearing the date 1635, is 
still retained. 

• From Mr. Lap\roith*s notes. 

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We are indebted to Mr. Cripps for the following valuable description 
of the 


The earliest chalice, or properly speaking, communion cup, dated on the cover 1570, 
is one of those which were procured in obedience to the visitation articles and orders of 
the commissioners at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and was exchanged 
with some goldsmith for the chalice previously used, the latter being considered "a 
monument of superstition," in consequence of having been used at Mass, and so unfit for 
use by staunch Protestants. There are many of these cups still extant, probably as many 
as three out of five Gloucestershire churches have one or more of them ; and their covers 
were the only patens in most cases. The smaller villages on the Cotswolds had nothing 
but one such cup and cover for chalice and paten. 

The second cup was given by Henry Harvey in 1677, and is of the usual rude pattern 
of that date. It was made in London in the same year by a well-known maker, initials 
T. C. ; a similar cup by the same maker is amongst the plate belonging to Kensington 
parish church, London. 

The plain paten or alms-plate was made in London in i686, and was no doubt 
intended to replace the cover of the chalice, which was small and insufficient for the 
purpose of paten as population increased. 

The large upright flagon is of the usual pattern, made in London in the year of its 
gift, viz., 1709, and it is of the higher standard of silver then in use ; a standard which 
was soon afterwards disused in consequence of its purity and softness rendering it less 
durable and serviceable than the usual quality previously in use and used at the present 
time for both plate and coinage. The oval gilt alms-plate is unmarked, and probably of 
foreign manufacture. 

It should have been said, that the old chalice, though bearing no mark but a maker's 
mark, is undoubtedly English, and that the engraved belt is characteristic of the times, 
being almost invariably found on the comihunion cups, and often on the domestic plate 
of that time. 

The Registers, as before stated, commence as early as 1539, and 
the entries appear to have been made very regularly down to about 
1639, between which and 1669, many irregularities occur both in the 
order of dates and other matters. During a part of the time the 
clergyman was one Carshew Helme, an independent or congregation- 
alist, who describes himself in the entries of his children's births as 
" Preacher of the Gospel in this place." It does not appear when he 
was appointed, but he signs the Register as minister in 1655, and in 
1660 it is signed by another clergyman. 

Among the entries of marriages made by Carshew Helme are several 

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which were evidently celebrated elsewhere than at the parish church ; 
one in 1652 speaks of the parties as ^'married at Stow," and two others 
subsequently as " married at Swell." Whether these were civil mar- 
riages does not appear ; probably they were. 

This is the same Carshew Helme who held a public controversy 
with the Rev. Clement Barksdale, the orthodox minister of Sudeley, 
in the Winchcombe parish church, on 9th November, 1653, particulars 
of which were published in 1654, under the title of "The Disputation 
at Winchcomb, Nov. 9, m.d.cliii." of which we have a copy ; the par- 
ticulars of the disputation are given in another page, devoted to our 
" Cotswold Muse," as Mr. Barksdale was called. 

Our Registers, like others, contain many entries of matters of local 
interest. The following selection could be considerably enlarged, did 
space permit. 

1757. Foxes must have been a trouble to 
the neighbourhood ; there are many 
entries of the payment of \s, per 
head for their destruction. 

1764. The salary of the Master of the 
Workhouse was ;^ 10 per annuuL 

Nov, 1764. Rate made of 4^. on every one 

possessing ;£^ioo, and of 2«. on every 

labourer, to repair the highways. 

Paid for the Dove on the Font, ds. 

Paid for ringing when Lord Tracy and 

Mr. Tracy came to the Workhouse, 

March 25, 1770. Dr. Wm. Reynolds agreed 
with to inoculate at 5^. per head 

1773. First entry of cost of wine for the 
sacrament ; bill, J[^\ ^s. Sd. 

May s, 1778. Churchwardens ordered to 
fix up the tables of the Ten Com- 
mandments at the Altar, in letters 
of gold in a gilt frame. 

May 19, . . . Churchwarden to take down 
the remaining part of the old gal- 
lery, and place up the Creed and 
the Lord's Prayer at the Altar in 
gold letters. 

Nov, 17, . . . The King's arms drawn, 
painted, and fixed up on the new 
gallery, lately erected. 

1789. Richard Warner farms the poor for 
;^49o, and is bound to deliver to 
them all goods and furniture they 
may bring to the Workhouse with 
them, to take the same away when 
they leave. 

Julyy 1789. John Chadbom to teach 40 
boys every Sunday for ;^6 ioj., and 
to have %s, extra in firing. 
Mary Clark and Sarah Cartwright to 
teach 30 girls (each at \s, 6d, a week) 
every Sunday, and 8j. for firing. 

1790. Fire-engine purchased by voluntary 

1 79 1. Winchcombe troubled with mad 
dogs. Here follow threats to be 
carried out against those who do 
not destroy or put away their dogs. 

March 12, 1791. John Chadbom always 
gets something out of vestry for self. 

April 7, 1795. A Vestry Meeting. " We, 
the churchwardens, overseers of the 
poor, and principal inhabitants of 
R R 2 

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the several parishes of Winchcombe defrayed by the several "parishes : 

and its hamlets; Temple Guiting W. ;£'23 19J. ; Sud. ;^s 5^.; Haw- 

and its hamlets; Hawling, Rowell, ling, £,2 19^.; Guiting^ ;^4 df . ; 

Charlton Abbots, and Sudeley Rowell, £,2 is. ; Charlton Abbots, 

Manor, being assembled for the £^2 9X. Total, £^\ is, 

purpose of taking into consideration March^ 1 797. The Booth Hall to be re- 

the most effective means of raising paired. 

two men to serve in his Majesty's Jan, 15, 1798. To cash paid for 253 spar- 
Navy, Mr. Wm. Cox, of Sudeley rows' heads between Sept 4 and 
Lodge, agrees to do it, and gets Oct 27, 5^. 2\d.'y 16 dozen and 5 
;^4o paid to him, which sum is sparrows' heads, 4r. \\i. 

There is a monument in the chancel of a man kneeling, with the 
following inscription : 

This is the Effigies of Thomas 
Williams Esq. of Cornden 
The second son of S' David 
Williams Baronet* of Gwer- 
newett in Brecknockshire 
on of his Magesties Judges in 
Westminster who was Bu- 
ried here the 28*^* day of 
May in the year 1636, 

Sir David Williams made a large fortune by his profession, and pur- 
chased estates in several counties. His eldest son, Henry, was 
created a Baronet, May 4, 1644, ^tnd gave King Charles shelter at 
Gwernewett, when a fugitive from Naseby. His second son, Thomas, 
born in 1582, married Hester, daughter of James Hawkens, of Great 
Washbourne. They had children who must have died young, as 
Corndean passed to his nephew David Williams, second son of the 
baronet. David married a daughter of Sir Mathew Carew, and the 
names of their children may be found in the Winchcombe Register. 

The Winchcombe bells are six in number, but none are of ancient 
date. They bear the following inscriptions : 

First Bell, — Tho^ Tovev : Gent : Anno : Dom : 1693. 

Second Bell. — Henry : Rigforde : Rector : of : Frethome : Anno : Dom : 94 — ^Abra : 
RuDHALL : cast : us : all : 1693. 

This is an error : it should be " Knight." 

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M M k 



Door-way of an Old House, Gloucester Street, Winchcombe. ^ j 

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Third Bell, — I : will : ring : for : the : King : A : R : Anno : Dom : 1693. 

Fourth Bell — ^Tho^ Rxn>HALL Glocester Founder 1776. 

Fifth Bell. — Sam^ SMrra John Heavens Churchwardens 1776. 

Sixth BdL — ^JoHN Philups & John Johnson Churchwardens A : R : 1759. 

There is a tradition in Winchcombe that the bells of Bishop's Cleeve 
were made and intended for Winchcombe, but that by some mistake 
they v^rere changed. 
^ The bell of Gretton Church bears the inscription 

Ave Maria Gracia Plena Dominus Tecum, 

without any date or name of founder. 

The Rev. H. T. Ellacombe informs us that ancient English bells 
are never dated ; and judging from the stops and crosses, with absence 
of date, he is of opinion the Gretton bell is of about the year 1400. 
Several letters of the inscription are reversed or upside down, thereby 
showing the great ignorance or carelessness of the moulder. 



Remains of Cross in Winchcombe Churchyard. 

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*' Let's talk of graves, of worms, and epitaphs. 

For heaven's sake, let us sit upon the ground, 
And tell sad stories of the death of kings." 


** Oh, a dainty plant is the ivy green. 
That creepeth o'er ruins old ! 
Of right choice food are his meals, I ween. 

In his cell so lone and cold. 
Creeping where no life is seen, 

A rare old plant is the ivy green." 


FROM the time when Sudeley Castle was "slighted," as it was 
termed, by the order of Parliament, it went rapidly further 
and further to decay, left as it was to the ravages of time, the 
weather, and, worst of all, the unsparing hand of man ; for now it 
became, as Winchcombe Monastery in bygone years, a quarry for the 
neighbourhood, so that for the sake of the materials, 

" Temple ahd tower 
Went to the ground." 

Henceforth only the verdant carpet of nature spread within those 
walls which had so often re-echoed to the merry voice of the festive 
throng, where the sons and daughters of pomp and pleasure, the 
** curled darlings " of their day, were wont to assemble ; henceforth the 
solitary bird of night would usurp possession of the turret over which 
the feudal banner had so proudly waved ! 

" Thy sun is set ; thy battlements are fallen, 
And sunk to ruin thy baronial hall, 
Once far-famed Sudeley ! waves the cross no more 
On thy reft towers ; nor grins the leopard rude • 
His feudal fierceness on thy tumbling roofs/* f 

• A leopard's face appears in the centre of the cross in the arms of Brydges. t Sir E. Biydges. 

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' Where is thy glory, Sudeley? though thy wall 

With stubborn strength the hand of Time defies, 
The sun looks down into thy roofless hall, 

And through thy courts with splendour's mockery pries ; 

Where are thine ancient Lords ? the brave ? the wise ? 
Crumbled to dust in yonder Gothic fane. 

Where are their children's children ? None replies. 
Swept from their trunk in Chance's hurricane, 
The branches wave no more on Cotswold's old domain. 

Hagioscope, and small grating which protected the last fragment of 
Queen Katherine Parr's Monument. 

" Now savage elders flourish in thy courts ; 

The thistle now thy lorn recesses haunts ; 
Perch'd on thy walls the wild geranium sports, 

And the rude mallow, deck'd in purple, flaunts : 

Behold, proud Castle, thine inhabitants ! 
See how their nodding heads the zephyr hail, 

As if they mock'd thee with triumphant taunts, 
As victory's banners to each passing gale 
From some dismantled fort relate their boastful tale." * 

From Stanzas written at Sudeley Castle, by Edward Quillinan, Esq., addressed to Sir E. Brydges. 

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Thus was left the whole of the south quadrangle, including the 
Banqueting Hall, a tower which terminated the opposite corner to the 
Keep, and the cloisters which led from the Queen's apartments and 
joined the north side of the inner quadrangle. The Keep, or dungeon 
tower, shows remains of buildings, as if a smaller tower had once 
joined it on the eastern side ; on the north-west is a small but higher 
tower, which must have served as ** garde-robes,^' on the summit and 
exterior of which are remains of iron work, once belonging to the 
beacon. This tower must have been of great strength, with three 
stories of considerable height ; several of the windows are still protected 
by massive iron grating. In the north angle are the dungeons, which 
consist of three strongly arched and deep cells, rising one above the 
other, and having no entrance but a narrow doorway at the top of each, 
communicating only with the several stories of the Keep. The 
hopeless victims there immured must consequendy have been lowered 
with cords to a depth of many feet 

" For him who to yon vault confined, 
Has bid a long farewell to human kind, 
His wasted form, his cold and bloodless cheek, 
A tale of sadder sorrow seem to speak — 
Of friends, perhaps now mingled with the dead, 
Of hope, that like a faithless flatterer, fled 
In th' utmost hour of need, or of a son 
Cast to the bleak world's mercy." 

This is not a mere imaginary scene of what may have passed within 
Sudeley's dungeon walls; some years ago, when an opening was 
effected at the bottom of a lower cell, a human skeleton was discovered, 
perhaps that of the last inhabitant of this dreadful abode of darkness 
and despair. 

Owing to the indifference of its owners, the chapel continued to 
be desecrated, and the soil and rubbish to accumulate up to the very 
doors and windows of the Castle. 

Of the habitable part of the Castle, the only side was to the north, 
and that occupied by the tenants of the surrounding lands. The 
Gateway, of which The Buttery Hatch forms part, originally stood 

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Drawn by Fred. Simmons. 

Ground-plan of Sudeley Castle. 

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alone, and it is not known when it was incorporated with the buildings 
which now flank it on either side. 

And so for a hundred years and more the silence of the grave rested 

,.■ iilil*^' 

The Buttery Hatch. 

upon Sudeley. The changes of the season came and passed over 
her : seed-time and harvest, reaping and gathering into barns. The 
chronicler has nothing to record of her during that long sleep; but here 
and there crops up a notice like the following, and then all again is 

In the legal documents called Fines (a species of common assurance 
to pass lands and bar entails like recoveries) mention is made of the 
following names as proprietors of lands in Sudeley : 1649, Thos. 

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Freeman, Sir Ed. Mansel, G. Montagu, Sir Charles Cotterell ; 14 
Geo. II., Charles Bassett ; 26 Geo. II., J. PhilUpps.* 

All this time, strange to say, it was not known that the remains of 
Queen Katherine Parr were buried within the precincts of the ruined 
chapel. The following letters, dated 1768, throw the first light upon 
this interesting discovery. The first two are from the Rev. Mr. 
Huggett, an antiquary, as will be seen from their perusal, and are 
addressed to ** George Pitt, Esqre. in Half Moon St., Piccadilly, 

" Sir, — Mr. Trapp, my near neighbour at Hartley, having hinted to me, y* it w^ be 
agreeable to you to have (what I had before told him for your information) an account 
of the death and burial of Q. Kath. Parre, at your Estate of Sudeley Castle, I here 
send you an exact copy of what I took from y« Herald's Office, mark'd as above. 
I believe this piece of history, as to y* day of y* death, and place of sepulture of 
this Queen, is not noticed by any of our antiquarians; for in a book lately printed 
at Oxford, of the lives of famous women, the author having mentioned this Lady 
in that learned list, laments, that he cannot acquaint his readers with any thing relative 
to her death or burial. This anecdote is altogether at your service. If it proves 
in the least to your satisfaction my end herein is answered : and if in any future 
time you may have enquiries to make, w** may lay within the compass of myreading to 
resolve, you may readily command, Sir, Your very humble Servant, 

"R. Huggett. 

** Hartley- Waspaill, Hants, July 2nd, 1768." 

The next letter, dated a few days later, is a reply to Mr. Pitts 
acknowledgment of the above : 

" Sir, — I was this day favoured with your letter of y* 7**** Inst. Your approbation 
of that piece of intelligence which I coihunicated to you, and your thinking it worthy 
a place in history, is doing honour to the Herald's office — that faithfull repository of 
. . . many such usefull pieces of rare and curious memoranda— and w*'*^ you have 
full liberty to make use of in such way & manner as you may think best for public 
utility. P'haps the work you mention as intended for the Press may be Sir Rob** 
Atkyn's Hist'' of Glouc*' a book now grown extremely scarce, & y'^ can be no 
question but a 2"** Edit", especially if with additional Historical Notices continued 
to the pnscfit timesy w'** be very acceptable to the public To the above anecdote 
of Q. K. Parre is to be added, y* she was twice a widow before she married 

♦ Among Sir Thomas Phillipps' MSS. is one in the autograph of Eliza or Elizabeth, Lady Chandos, 
daughter of Sir Henry Bernard, containing entries in full of the births, deaths, and marriages, and of the 
places where they occurred, of the children of her husband, Sir J. Brydges, Lord Chandos, and other 
memoranda, from 1665. There are also other MSS. referring to the Chandos family, but chiefly copies of 
law proceedings. — Communicated by the Rev. J. Fen wick, Thirlestaitle House. 

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Henry VIII. her 1* husband being Edw** Burghe, her 2°^ John Nevill Lord Latimer, 
& y' by S' T. S. her 4^ husband she died in childbirth. This I find am^^ my 
heraldrical MSS., and reference is made to R. Brooke, York Herald, for proof of 
the two former marriages; while yet the few historians w*'^ I have here by me (and 
I believe of historians in general) mention her only as y* widow of Neville L"** Latimer, 
&c., &c, &c. " Y' most obed' hum : servant, 


•* Hartlky-Waspaill, near Basingstoke, July^tk, 1768." 

The third letter is from Mr. Lucas to Lord Rivers, dated " Sudely, 
July II, 1768." It contains a repetition of Mr. Huggett's paper, and 
refers to a two-days visit from Mr. Rudder, who was then collecting 
local information for his County History, and of his ordering for the 
same a reprint of Sudeley Castle from Buck s engraving. 

The fourth letter is endorsed : " Copy of the remaining inscrip- 
tion or engraving on the upper part of the Leaden Cofifin of Qu" C. 

Par, &c. &c 1783 


235 years ago. 

Qu : wh'. Lord R. will order a slab of stone to be laid over the 
grave ? " * 

Lead Coffin of Queen Katherine Parr. See Archaeologia, Vol. IX. 

Mr. Lucas was the first whose curiosity prompted him to open the 
tomb. The following account of his proceedings was supplied to the 
Editor of " Notes and Queries," by Mrs. Julia R. Bockett, daughter to 
Mr. Brookes, of Reading, who was present at the opening of the cofifin 
in the previous year : 

In 1867 Lord Rivers kindly presented these interesting papers to us. 

s s 2 

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"In the summer of the year 1782 the earth in which Qu. K. Par lay inter'd 
was removed, and at the depth of about two feet (or very little jnore) her leaden coffin 
or chest was found quite whole, and on the lid of it, when well cleaned, there appeared 
a very bad though legible inscription of which the under written is a close copy : 

*K. P. 

' Vlth and last wife of King Hen. the Vlllth, 1548.' 

" Mr. Jno. Lucas (who occupied the land of Lord Rivers whereon the ruins of the 
chapel stand) had the curiosity to rip 'up the top of the coffin, expecting to discover 
within it only the bones of the deced, but to his great surprize found the whole body 
wrapp'd in 6 or 7 seer cloths of linnen entire and uncorrupted^ although it had lain 
there upwards of 230 years. His unwarrantable curiosity led him also to make an 
incision through the seer cloths which covered one of the arms of the corps, the 
flesh of which at that time was white and moist. I was very much displeased at the 
forwardness of Lucas, who of his own head opened the coffin. It would have been 
quite sufficient to have found it ; and then to have made a report of it, to Lord Rivers 
or myself. In the summer of the year following, 1783, his Lordship's business made it 
necessary for me and my son to be at Sudeley Castle, and on being told what had been 
done the year before by Lucas, I directed the earth to be once more removed to satisfy 
my own curiosity ; and found Lucas's account of the coffin and corps to be just as 
he had represented them; with this difference, that the body was then grown quite 
fetid, and the flesh where the incision had been made was brown and in a state of 
putrefaction \ in consequence of the air having been let in upon it. The stench of 
the corps made my son quite sick, whilst he. copied the inscription which is on the 
lid of the coffin ; he went thro' it, however, with great exactness. I afterwards directed 
that a stone slab should be placed over the Grave to prevent any future and improper 
inspection &c" * 

The coffin was again opened in 1 784 and 1 786 : on the last occasion 
by Mr. Nash, who gave a description of his proceedings to the Society 
of Antiquaries, June 14, 1787 ; at the same time he expressed surprise 
that "Mr. Ballard, the industrious antiquarian of Campden, a town 
about ten miles from Sudeley, should not have known of the burial of 
the Queen, as his business as a stay-maker must often have led him 
into those parts ;" and he ended his " observations " with the regret 
that the spot where the body lay was used for the keeping of rabbits, 
which made holes, and scratched very indecently about the Royal 
Tomb Again, in 1792, the tomb was violated; the tenant then 
occupying the Castle, in the most incredible manner allowing a party of 

* This excellent order was never executed, as the Royal coffin was not finally rescued from desecration 
till 181 7. 

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inebriated men to dig a fresh grave for the coffin. The details of their 
work are too dreadful to give or dwell upon ;* but the tradition lingers 
in Winchcombe, that each one of that Bacchanalian band met with an 
untimely and horrible end ! 

A few years prior to this, Sudeley had been frequently visited by 
George III. The King, hoping to derive benefit from the Cheltenham 
waters, arrived at Lord Fauconberg s house in that town on Saturday, 
1 2th of July, 1788, where he remained till the i6th of August following. 
Between those periods, the King not only made several visits to Sudeley 
Castle, but also to the Lodge, which was then tenanted by Mr. Joseph 
Lucas, where he was engaged in the purchase of a very fine black 
horse, f 

On one of these visits to the Castle, the King was so intent on 
exploring part of the ruins, that he incurred considerable danger of 
losing his life by being precipitated down the turret staircase, which 
was then in a most* dilapidated state. But this catastrophe was 
prevented by the timely, though unceremonious, interference of Mrs. 
Cox, who inhabited a part of the edifice, and was then in attendance on 
his Majesty ; the King, in order to express his sense of the signal 
service rendered, graciously conferred a commission in the Guards 
on one of her relations, a young man of the name of Perrin, who soon 
after changed it for a commission in the Line.J 

The annexed view was taken to commemorate one of these royal 
visits, dr^twn by Perrin, possibly the, same young man who received 
this royal favour. The coloured engraving, from which this is taken, 
was given to me by the late Mr. Fulwar Craven, who well remem- 
bered, as a boy, how the King, after visiting Sudeley and the Lodge, 
proceeded to Brockhampton to inspect a beautiful horse belonging to 
his father. The visit to the stables ended, the King, whose arrival 
was wholly unexpected, was invited to partake of the family dinner, 
which in those good old days was at the early hour of one ! and con- 

* Extract from "Town and Country Magazine," Sept., 1792 ; also Hall's "Graves of our Fathers." 
t The family of the present worthy tenants, John and William Staite, have occupied this same farm the 

last seventy-six years, their grandfather, Mr. Richard Ireland, having entered on Lady Day, a.d. 1800. 
X This anecdote was related to me by our friend, Mr, Ed. T. Browne, who, when a boy, frequently saw 

the King both at Winchcombe and Sudeley. 

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sisted, as my narrator distinctly remembered, of a leg of mutton and 
batter pudding ! The Cotswold air had sharpened the King's appetite, 
and the far-famed Cotswold mutton was perhaps never more appre- 
ciated than on that occasion. The King invited Mr. Fulwar Craven 
to visit him in Cheltenham, and, as he said himself, no youngster ever 
felt more proud than he, when he found himself on the Promenade 
escorting the Princesses in their walk. 

The next owner of Sudeley was Richard Grenville, Marquis of 
Buckingham, who purchased the Castle and 60 acres of land from 
George Lord Rivers. in 18 10.* He was born in March 1776, and 
took the surname of Brydges Chandos, in addition to Temple Nugent 
Grenville, by royal licence, in 1 799 ; he was advanced to the dignity 
of Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, and Marquis of Chandos, in 
1822. His wife was Anne Eliza, daughter and heiress of James 
Brydges, third and last Duke of Chandos. At her request a very 
interesting and beautiful series of water-colour drawings was made 
on the occasion of her visit to the Castle, the restoration of which 
she is said to have contemplated. These were bought at the Stowe 
sale by the late Sir Thomas Phillipps, and they are now at Thirlestaine 

At the time the late Mr. Dents purchased the Castle, the Wynns 
were the tenants, and resided there; before them, a man of the 
name of .Attwood ; it was then a public house (the Castle Arms). 
He also kept a stud of horses, and in his time it was said that 
some of the stable-boys found in the Dungeon Tower a box con- 
taining money and some articles of apparel. So careless were 
the owners, that Attwood pulled down a great deal, and sold oak 
beams, and lead, and other materials, which were used freely in the 

Among some papers relating to Sudeley, belonging to the late Mr. 
Browne, and which were kindly placed at my disposal by his nephew, 
Mr. Smith Wood, I met with one entitled " A copy of a MS. found 

* The sale took place at the Plough, Cheltenham, and the first lot, which consisted of the above, was 
knocked down to the Duke's agent, the auctioneer mistaking him for one of his own bidders. The bulk of 
the estate was not sold. 

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Inscription on the Leaden Coffin of George Lord Chandos. 

From an impression taken by E. T. Brown, Esq, 1828. 

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among some old papers at Sudeley Castle." This contained an account 
of the funeral of the Queen (the same as in the Heralds' Office, already 
given), a description of the chapel, and these words : " The only 
vestige we find in the chapel of any monumental memorial is a shape- 
less block of alabaster lying in the ground. It is impossible to ascer- 
tain now what was its original form, but tradition says it was once a 
part of Q. Parrs effigy. Annexed to the chapel is a small one, 
tolerably entire, where the few inhabitants of the hamlet still assemble, 
once a fortnight, to hear divine service, which is performed by the 
Vicar of Winchcombe." From this we might suppose that a tradition 
of her burial existed here long before the fact was discovered by Mr. 
Huggett, or search had been made by antiquaries. 

In 181 7, the frequent violations of Queen Katherine Parrs tomb 
were terminated by the then worthy Rector of Sudeley, the Rev. 
John Lates, taking upon himself to remove the coffin into the 
stone vault of the Chandoses, there at last to find a shelter from the 
eye of the inquisitive and the vulgar. This was effected in company 
with Mr. Browne (the Winchcombe antiquary, so often quoted), who, 
in a very interesting letter, described how — 

" Mr. Lates judged it expedient to repair the chapel. In effecting this, the pews 
were removed, and the Chandos vault became easily accessible. Desirous of ascertaining 
what it contained, Mr. Lates ordered the ponderous stones which closed the entrance 
to be removed. It contained only one lead coffin, which from the inscription inclosed 
the remains of George, the sixth Lord Chandos — and a few fragments of a wooden 
coffin, with a skull and a few bones strewed on the floor, and the mutilated trunks of 
two marble effigies, with the remains of some richly wrought marble cornice, piled in 
a disordered heap in one comer of the vault. On our return homewards, I was 
speaking of the Queen, and Mr. Lates told me that he had been entertaining a thought 
of causing search to be made for her remains in the unroofed chapel, and of removing 
them into the Chandos vault, as being a place where they would be much less subject 
to future disturbance. 

" Delighted at his proposal, I spurred him to the undertaking ; and accordingly on 
the morrow morning (18 July, 1817) after considerable search, and aided by the re- 
collection of Mrs. Cox, the coffin was found bottom upwards in a walled grave, where 
it had been deposited by the order of Mr. Lucas. It was then removed to the Chandos 
vault, and after being cleaned we anxiously looked for the inscription. To our great 
disappointment none however could be discovered, and we proceeded to examine 
the body ; but the coffin having been so frequently opened, we found nothing but the 
bare skeleton, except a few small pieces of sere cloth, which were still under the 

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skull, and a dark-coloured mass, which proved to contain, when washed, a small 

quantity of hair, which exactly corresponded with some I already had. The roots 
of the ivy, which you may remember grew in such profusion on the walls of the 
chapel, had penetrated into the coffin, and completely filled the greater part of it 

" I then suggested to Mr. Lates, that as the inscription could not be found, 
for the benefit of future antiquarians, it would be well before the vault should be again 
closed, to engrave upon it another inscription from that given by Dr. Nash. Mr. Lates 
then entrusted the work to me, and placed in my hands the piece of lead which had 
covered the breast As it was of a very uneven surface, I was about to hammer it 
even, to facilitate the engraving, when, to my great delight and surprise, I discovered 
the words * Thomas Lord ' and * Sewdley,' with some others, which left no doubt 
that we had discovered the original inscription, and which, in the course of a few 
hours' cleaning, was so free from all incrustation, that the inscription was perfectly 
visible — from it I took a number of impressions in soft blue paper,* one of which I 
have now the pleasure of begging you to accept. By it, the inaccuracy of the one 
given by Dr. Nash will be self-evident 

"We then had the different pieces of lead,' which from time to time had been 
cut from the coffin, firmly nailed together, so as to present the original form of the 
coffin, and it was placed on two large flat stones by the side of that of Lord Chandos. 
Dr. Nash said, * the Queen must have been low of stature, as the lead which enclosed 
her corpse was but five feet four inches in length.' I measured the coffin accurately, 
and found the dimensions as follows : — 

" Length, 5 ft 10 in. Width in the broadest part, i ft 4 in. Depth at the head, 
and ditto in the middle, 5J in. 

" The coffin which contains the remains of George, Lord Chandos, is immensely 
large, and the lid not being fixed down, we examined it, but found it to contain 
nothing more than the skull and a few* bones. The bones we found on the floor, we 
( onjectured were those of his body, and therefore replaced them in his coffin. I fear 
this long detail will tire even your antiquarian patience, &c., &c., and I hasten to 
subscribe myself, 

" My dear friend, 

" Yours ever, 

"E. T. Browne." t 

There is a tradition of an ivy berry having fallen into the coffin on 
one occasion when it was opened, and of its having been discovered 
to have woven itself into a green sepulchral coronet round the dead 
Queen's brow. The following lines, by Miss Clara Payne, dedicated to 
our friend, the late Miss Agnes Strickland, touchingly tell the tale : — 

* One of these is framed, and hangs in the Queen's room at Sudeley. 

f This letter was written to Mr. Hogg, then residing in London, and whose nephew, Mr. Ho^, is now 
residing with his father-in-law, Mr. Daintry, of North Rode, Cheshire. They have in their possession a 
piece of the Queen's coffin and a lock of her hair. 

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Kflfer;n Wtfdo Kyna 

H^myihe Vlll And 
Last tl|e Wife of Thovfias 

Lord of Suoe^ey hio/f 
AbwyvaS of Erxqhiib 

Edv^aid tfje Vf 


, yn'CCCCC 

^ VIM 

Copy of an Impression prom Queen Katherine Parr's Coffin, taken by E. F. Brown, Esq. 

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" lis rappellent rimmortalite sur I'autel meme de la mort. " 

In Sudele/s ruin'd chapel, lo ! 'twas there ! 

Royal Katherine's neglected tomb they found, 
More than two centuries had pass'd while here 

Reposed her corpse within the hallow'd ground. 

Yet time had not her lineaments effaced, 

She seem'd as slumbering in Death's tranquil sleep — 

For perfect might her features then be traced, 
So well in death, their form of life they keep. 

What though no queenly crown adom'd her brow, 

** Nature " a verdant chaplet round it spread, 
A living wreath of ivy bloom'd there now — 

With solemn majesty it crown'd the dead. 

The ivy faithful to the ruin clings — 

And o'er some scene uncared for and forgot, 
A beauteous mantle gracefully it flings. 

To deck in grandeur the forsaken spot. 

So in the grave this " ivy wreath " we find — 

Whence all else living had for ages fled — 
A green sepulchral coronal enshrined, 

Around the temples of the honoured dead. 

But now the time was coming when this monument of historic interest 
was to emerge from its long sleep. In 1830 the bulk of the Sudeley 
estates became the property of John and William Dent, to whom it was 
sold by private contract by Lord Rivers, and finally they purchased 
the Castle and remaining sixty acres from the Duke of Buckingham in 
1837. With their great taste for archaeology, it soon became manifest 
that a restoration of Church and Castle was not improbable. This 
expectation was rendered into verse by one to whom we might justly 
give the title of " the Winchcombe Muse " (Miss A. M. Wood, of 
Winchcombe) ; for, like her cousin, Mr. Edmund T. Browne, with 
whom she resided, her love of antiquity centred in Sudeley ; and while 
he cherished in his heart all the sterner records of its history, her 
enthusiasm broke forth into song, and on this occasion with rejoicing. 

T T 

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Ac;es had pass'd since yonder beauteous ruin 

Had roofless stood, and many a passer-by 
Had paused, its mournful desolation viewing, 

And o'er its fate had heav'd a pensive sigh. 

Ages had pass'd since there the matin-bell 

Had summoned worshippers to early prayer ; 
Or vesper sound had echoed in the dell, 

Or masses for the dead been offered there. 

But, ah ! let not imagination, straying 

O'er bygone scenes, departed days deplore, 
When Popery, its pageantry displaying, 

There taught the dogmas of its erring lore. 

Rather let Faith, futurity revealing. 

Behold yon pile restored for purpose holy, 
While Fancy hears the solemn organ pealing 

Its Hallelujahs to the God of Glory, 

Yes, from Time's shadowy cloud a ray is shedding 

Its light prophetic on yon hallow'd pile ; 
And future worshippers may yet be treading 

Its sacred courts, *neath Heaven's approving smile. 

And so It came to pass that in 1840 a considerable portion of the 
Castle again became habitable ; and the Chapel, under the skilful direc- 
tion of Sir Gilbert Scott, changed her sombre hues and mossy floor to 
restored walls and polished marbles, the carved roof and painted 
windows shut out heaven's rain and sunshine, creeping flowers and all 
the swallows that for so many summers had nestled among the ruins. 
Finally, on August 2nd, 1863, the little temple, so cruelly desecrated 
by the Puritans, was, by our good and beloved Bishop Ellicott, re- 
dedicated tp Divine worship according to the rites of our English 

To a friend and neighbour we are indebted for the following poetical 
description of what may be considered the centre of interest in the 
Chapel, the restored tomb of England's first Protestant queen. 

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From a Drawing by J. D. Wyatt. 

^amb at Quttn Eathtrine |3arr* 


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I KNOW not how it fared, sweet Queen, 

With thee, in days that saw thee pass, 

Unscathed, as from a sea of glass, 
To these calm shades and bowers of green. 

Mayhap, thy spirit found deep rest, 

No longer chafed by Monarch's frown, 

Or empty bauble of a crown, 
In this fair palace of the West ; 

Where thou didst reign, with gentle sway. 

Among thy happy sisterhood ; 

Communing with the wise and good — 
Meek Coverdale, and saintly Grey. 

Now thrice a hundred years have fled, 

Like summer shadows o'er the land, 

And lightly touched with crumbling hand 
The holy walls that hold thee dead. 

And they who move where thou art laid. 

Have decked thy shrine with pious care. 

And bid thy o\^ti loved House of Prayer 
Enwrap thee in its holy shade. 

So rest thee evermore, fair Queen ! 

Heaven's light, in glory or in gloom. 

Falling upon thy sculptured tomb, 
Through blazon'd pane, and carven screen. 

So rest thee, till the holier light 

Of earth's great Easter Morning break. 

And all the dead in Christ awake 
In garments pure of stain, and white. 

F. R. TRAILL, Vicar of Stanwav. 

T T 2 

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But here these Annals close, for to the past they belong rather than 
to the present ; and here I end my pleasant task (would that it had 
been done by abler hands!); for very pleasant it has been to gather 
up the records of the past, and to retrace Winchcombe and Sudeley s 
many historic paths, so often trodden with equal pleasure by those who 
have gone before. Equal, did I say ? Nay, that can never be ! for 
who among them all have had the pleasure and the privilege of buildmg 
up the waste places, and seeing life and beauty creep like sunshine once 
more over her crumbling and fallen walls ? 

In the words of our Sudeley poet I take my leave : — 

Chandos, wh' adorned the princely chamber, where 
So many friends and tenants welcomed were, 
Caused the artificer on ^he wall to wirite 
This sentence, and exposed to all men's sight 
So when our works are brought to' end, must we 
All sing aloud, j^on nobtit Somtnt ! 

Maces belonging to the Borough of Winchcombe. 

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Abbey property after the Dissolution. 142 
Abbey refectory, the . • "3 

Abbot's House, Winchcombe . .149 
Abbots of Winchcombe, list of . . 35 
Abingdon, King Kenulf a benefactor to 33 
Abingdon, Chronicle of, associates 

Dumbleton with Winchcombe 75 

Abridges, Sir John . . . 214 

Act of Uniformity, temp. Elizabeth . 216 
" Adulterine Castles " -77 

Agelwy, abbot of Evesham . . . 71 
Albans, St., abbey founded . 21 

battle of . . ..121 

Alderton 293 

Alexander III., pope . . . . 86 
his bull in favour of Winchcombe 

Abbey 86 

Alfgar, Earl, enters Hereford . . 63 
Ahen cells, suppression of . .100 
Almonry, the Winchcombe . . . 97 
Alnwick Castle, Starchamber papers 

at 247 

Aired, bishop of Worcester . . 64 
Ancelme (or Mounslow), Richard, last 
abbot of Winchcombe' . . 36,140 
surrenders his abbey . . . 141 

his seal 141 

his pension 142, 144 

Angd, a gold coin, its value . 247 

Angles, the 15 

Annals of Tewkesbury . . - 97 
Annals of Worcester . . . 98 

Anselm, canons of, rule concerning 

fountains 54 

Ascham, Roger, a friend of Queen 

Katherine Parr . . . . 203 
Ashley, Mrs., governess of the Princess 

Elizabeth . .162, 164, 185, 188 

Askaperius, the murderer of St. Kenelm 5 2 
Astle [Astley], Sir Jacob, a prisoner 

at Stow . . . . . . 276 

Athelhard, archbishop of Canterbury. 23 

Athelstan, bishop of Hereford . . 63 

Attwood, tenant of Sudeley Castle . 318 

Atwood, Sir John .... 114 

Augustine, St 30 

Auldbom Chase 266 

Aulus Plautius 18 

Avery, parson of Dene . 52 


Baal 4 

Bacon, Robert, persecuted at Glou- 
cester 272 

preaches in Sudeley Chapel . . 273 

Bailiff, origin of the word ... 63 

Ballard, antiquary of Campden . . 316 

Barksdale, Clement . . . 293 

presented to Sudeley . 294, 300 

his epitaph . . . .294 

" the Disputation at Winchcombe " 294 

Epistle to his congregation at 

Sudeley 296 

at Rowell 298 

Bamet field, battle of . . . . 131 

Digitized by 




Beauchamp, Alice, wife of Thomas 


Beauchamp, Emma, wife of Ralph de 


buried at Winchcombe 
Beaumont, Sir John, his lines on 

Grey, Lord Chandos 
Becket, St. Thomas, and Wm. de 


Bedford, Francis Russell, earl of 

Bedford, Katherine, countess of . 

Bedingfield, Sir Henry 

Bedstead, the Cumnor . 

Belas Knap Barrow 

Benedict, St, order of, introduced 

into Winchcombe . 
Bentley's " Monument of Matrones " 
Bemred, king of Mercia . 
Beryl, windows glazed with . 
Bishop's Cleeve, Dr. Parkhurst rector 


bells of . . 
Blaby, Anne, gives money for the 

Winchcombe poor . 
Blackheath, battle of 
Blake, Valentine, a Winchcombe 

schoolmaster .... 
Bockett, Mrs. Julia R. . 
Boniface of Savoy 
Boniface VIII., pope 
Boniface IX., pope 
Borlase, W. C, Esq., of Laregan . 
Bonvenilda, the sister of Kenehn 
Bosworth field .... 
Boteler s, their origin 
owners of Sudeley 
buried at Winchcombe . 
prayed for in the monastery of 
Kenilworth . 
Boteler, Sir Thomas 

his arms at Henley in Arden, &c, 
in Winchcombe church 
Boteler, Sir John, confirms the 

Sudeley estates to his mother 












265 j 



Boteler, Sir Ralph, in the French 
wars 116 





rebuilds Sudeley Castie and 

builds Sudeley Chapel . 
takes an active part in the Wars 

of the Roses 
resigns Sudeley 

in him the male line becomes 
extinct .... 
Bouillon, Godfrey de 
Bourchier, Ann, ist wife of the mar- 
quis of Northampton 
Bourchier, Cardinal . 
Bradeley, William, abbot of Winch 

combe . . . .36, 119, 120 
Branketre, Master John, a royal 

chaplain 109 

Braydon, inclosure of part of the 

Forest of . . . . 254, 282 

Bristow, William, abbot of Tewkesbury 1 2 2 
Britannia Secunda . . . . 
" British Ancestors, Our " . 

British road 

Brock, Mr. I^flus, his paper on Hailes 

on Winchcombe 
Brockhampton park visited by 

George III 

Brocklehurst, Marianne, drawings by 
Bronze implements found on Cleeve Hill 
Browne, E. T., Esq., his endeavour 
to save the Abbot's House, Winch- 
combe 149 

present at excavations on the 
Abbey site .... 
Brydges, Sir John, of Coberley, 
Lieutenant of the Tower 
his pedigree . ' . . . 
present at Bishop Hooper's mar- 

his services 

attends Lady Jane Grey to the 
scaffold .... 

created Lord Chandos of Sudeley 
See Chandos of Sudeley. 









2 DO 



Digitized by 




Brydges, Thomas, deputy-lieutenant 

of the Tower . . . 200,210 
Brydges, Sir Giles, his alleged mar- 
riage 247 

" Brydges, Jane," an impostor . 247, 248 
Brydges, Captain, in charge of 

Sudeley Castle 258 

Brydges, Sir Samuel Egerton . . 287 
Brydges, Rev. Edward Tymewell . 287 
Buckingham, the Duke of, purchases 

Sudeley 318 

his Duchess contemplates its re- 
storation 318 

Bulwer's story of " Harold " . .62 
Bushell, Thomas, his complaint against 

Giles, Lord Chandos . . . 245 

Butler, Lady Eleanor, wife of Edw. IV. 128 

Buttery Hatch, at Sudeley . .313 

Buttone, William de, bishop of Bath 

and Wells 99 


C^SAR, Julius .... 

2, 10 

Caesar, Sir Julius 

. 245 

Campden, Lord, his quarrel with 

George, Lord Chandos 

. 283 

Castellans, their power curbed 


Castle, Mr. Richard, presents clocli 

from Hailes .... 

. 162 

Castlehaven, Earl of . . 

. 254 

Cavaliers suffer themselves to be sur 

prised at Cirencester . 


Ceolwulf, king of Mercia 


Chandos almshouses and bell . 


mantelpiece .... 

. 218 

MSS. at Thirlestaine House 


vault in Sudeley Chapel 




" Chandos, the Great Duke of" . 


Chandos, Lady Elizabeth . 


Chandos, Sir John 




Chandos, Roger, Lord . . 


Chandos Street, Covent Garden 


Chandos of Sudeley Pedigree 
Chandos of Sudeley: — 

portraits . 
John Brydges, ist Lord 

buried at Sudeley 

his wife Elizabeth . 

her letter to Sir W. Cecil 
Edmund, 2nd Lord . 

his services and honours 

buried at Sudeley 

his will . 

his wife, Lady Dorothy . 217, 

her benefactions to Winchcombe 
241, 243, 

his daughter, maid of honour to 
Queen Elizabeth . 
Giles, 3rd Lord . . . . 

entertains Queen Elizabeth three 

" complaints " against him . . 

appointed to model a standing 

portrait of his wife, I^dy Frances 

he and Lady Frances receive 
Queen Elizabeth . . . • 

Lady Frances founds a school 
in Winchcombe 
William, 4th Lord, succeeds his 
brother Giles . . . . 

charges against his men 

disputes with his widowed sister- 
in-law about Sudeley . . 

his services .... 

marries Mary, daughter of Sir 
Owen Hopton . . . . 

their daughters .... 

accusation against their daughter 
Frances, countess of Exeter . 

her innocence proved 

their grandson. Sir William, mar- 
ries Marial, daughter of Lord 


Grey, 5th Lord, made a Knight 
of the Bath .... 
















Digitized by 




Chandos of Sudeley — continued: 

author of " Horse Subsecivae " . 250 
termed " King of the Cotswolds " 251 
marries Amie, daughter of the 

Earl of Derby . . .252 

his death — buried at Sudeley . 252 

lines on his death . . . 252 

(iEORGE, 6th Lord . . .252 

whilst a minor, prosecutes " Dame 

JaneBrydges" . . 247,254 
espouses the Royal cause . .255 
mentioned in " Mercurius Aulicus " 257 
his Castle plundered . . .260 
letter to, from Sir Wm. Morton . 261 
gives a welcome to Charles I. . 263 
declines being created Earl of 

Newbury . . . .267 
his defection . . . 273 

his character given by Clarendon 278 
takes the "National Covenant" 279 
and the Negative oath . .280 
the Particular of his estates . . 280 
his appeal to the sequestrators . 282 
residence at Rowell . . .298 
his Castle " slighted " . . . 285 
obtains a pass to go beyond sea . 285 
returns, loses his wife, fights a 

duel, is imprisoned . .286 

marries Jane, daughter of John 

Savage, Earl Rivers . . . 286 
his death — burial at Sudeley . 286 
his widow marries into the Pitt 

family 288 

William, 7th Lord, succeeds his 

brother 287 

his death — the title goes to a 

distant cousin . .287 

Charles L at Sudeley. . 263, 274 
his miniature .... 263 
his letter to the Cornish men . '264 
the same in Cornish . . . 265 
escapes to Evesham . . .267 

his bedstead 274 

his death 277 


Charlton, Dr. E., his description of a 
book belonging to Queen Kathe- 

rine Parr ^82 

Charlton Abbots, leper-house at, 29, 35, 82 
Cheba, Master John de . . -99 
Cheltenham, John, abbot of Winch- 
combe 36 

Child's Wickham, stone from . » . 9 

register with entry of defeat of 

the Royalists . . . .276 

Cirencester taken by the Cavaliers . 260 

retaken by the Roundheads . 266 

CleeveHill 9 

Clent Church, its restoration . . 45 
Cliff Hoo, Council of . . • • 33 
" Collection of Ceremonials," by 

Ralph Brooke . .174 

Compere, Thomas, gives money to the 

Winchcombe poor . . . 304 

Compton, Col. Henry, killed in a 

duel by George, Lord Chandos . 286 
Compton, Wm., constable of Sudeley 136 
Conant, Dr. John, chaplain to Lord 

Chandos 284 

Constable, Sir William, the Parlia- 
mentary Governor of Sudeley • 285 
Contest between civil power and the 
Church ...... 138 

Cope, Rev. Sir W., has a MS. from 

Winchcombe Abbey • . .146 
Corbet, Ismenia, daughter of Roger . 95 
Corbet's " Military Government of 

Gloucester" . 258, 268, 269 

Comdean, Winchcombe . . . 308 
Cornwall, Edmund, earl of, buried at 

Hailes 102 

Cornwall, King Charies' letter to the 

people of 264 

in Cornish 265 

Cotswold Muse, the . . 293, 300 

Courtenay, Edward, earl of Devon . 210 
Coverdale, Miles, the Reformer, 197, 203 
Cowbacke, the valley of . . .41 
Cox, tenant of Sudeley Castle . . 317 

Digitized by 




" Crania Britannica "... 6 
Craven, Fulwar, Esq., his recollections 

of George III 318 

Crecy, battle of . . .107 
Crida, founder of the Mercian King- 
dom 17 

Cripps, Wilfrid, Esq., abstracts of 

• records by 124 

his " Royal North Gloucestershire 

Militia" 226 

on the Winchcombe Church Plate 306 
Crispin, abbot of Winchcombe . . 36 
Cropredy, battle of . . . .268 

Crusades, the 82 

Curfew Bell, the . . . -71 
Cuthbert, Archbishop . . . . 29 
Cymri, the, descended from Gomer . 2 

" Dead Man's Gate," on the Foss 

Road 12 

Deincourt, Alice, wife of Thomas 

Boteler 55 

D^lavale, Thomas, employed to hinder 

the cultivation of tobacco . . 304 
Dent, John and Wm., purchase the 

Sudeley Estate . . . .321 
Derby, Alice, dowager countess of, 254, 286 
" Devotional Tracts," a volume belong- 
ing to Queen Katherine Parr 182 
Dining-table of the Saxon Kings . . 17 
" Disputation at Winchcombe," . 294 
Disputes between abbot and vicar of 

Winchcombe . . 105, no, 114 

between Honeyboume and 

Winchcombe . . .122 

Dixton, the Squire of . . . . 297 

Dobuni, inhabitants of the Cotswolds 16 

Domesday, explanation of various 

terms therein . . .69 

Dominic, prior of Evesham . . . 74 
Dorset, Henry Grey, marquis of, at 

Sudeley 187 

Dover's Games 258 

Druids, their customs and religion . 3, 10 
Ducking Stool, origin of Duck 

Street 143 

Dugdale, Sir W., list of the Abbots of 

Winchcombe . • • 35 
his account of the Botelers . . 108 
note on the Register of Winch- 
combe 146 

Dumbleton finds lodgings for the 

Abbey chamberlain of Abingdon . 75 
Dungeon Tower, Sudeley . . .312 
Dunn's Hill, near Sudeley . . . 268 
Dunstan, the primate . . -57 
Dutton, Sir John, MSS. formerly in 

the possession of . . . . 143 

Eadburga, daughter of Offa . . 20 

F^des, George, Esq 123 

Eadwine (or Godwine), abbot of 

Winchcombe . . . -35 
Eanbald, archbishop of York . . 23 
Ecgfrith (or Egbert), successor of Offa 20, 22 
Edgar, King, appoints Oswald to re- 
store the churches . . • • 57 
Edonia, wife of Peter of Cutsdean . in 
Edward the Confessor, uncle to the 
first Lord of Sudeley 
his seal 

his sister Goda . 
Edward L, time of 
Edward II., time of 
Edward III., time of . 
Edward IV., time of 
Edward V., time of 
Edward VI., time of 

. 58, 61, 65 
. 81 — 102 
103 — 106 
107— 113 
124 — 127 
. . 127 
162, 186, 188, 197 
Egbert, said to be buried in Winch- 
combe 56 

Eldersfield Manor .... 238 
Elizabeth, Princess, rejects Sey- 
mour's offer of marriage . .163 
resides with Queen Katherine Parr 1 64 
importuned by Seymour to a 
clandestine marriage . • 1 83 

Digitized by 




Elizabeth, Princess — continued: 
arrested, with Mrs. Ashley, her 

governess, and others . . i88 

denies the accusations . .189 

is sent to the Tower . ..211 

removed to Woodstock . .211 

Elizabeth, Queen, her first visit to 

Sudeley 223 

her second visit to Sudeley . 224 
description of her third visit 226 — 238 
her portrait, from the Bemal Col- 
lection 229 

picture of Henry VIII. and his 
Family, presented by her to 
Walsingham . . . . 231 
table used by her at Sudeley 232 

her charter to Winchcombe . 301 
Elizabeth of York related to the Lord 

of Sudeley 132 

Ellacombe, Rev. H. T., on ancient 

bells 309 

Ellandune, battle of, gained by Egbert 55 
Ellenborough, Lord, architectural sug- 
gestion by 166 

Ellicott, Charles J., bishop of Glouces- 
ter, re-dedicates Sudeley Chapel . 322 
Elmley Castle . . .81, 224 

Ely, Thomas Thirlby, bishop of . 191 
Engagement, the, of 1659 . . 288 

Enstone, possessions of Winchcombe 

Abbey in ... . 105, 106 
Erasmus* Paraphrase translated by the 

Princess Mary . . .. 159, 178 
Erdbury Priory founded ... 80 
Esseburne Brooke (the Isbourne) . 136 
Essex, earl of, the Parliamentarian, in 

the vale of Evesham . . . 266 

Ethelbert murdered by OfTa . . 20 
Ethelred, King, owns Sudeley . . 58 
grants it to Goda, his daughter . 58 
escapes to Normandy . . 59 
Eugenius, Pope, settles a quarrel 
between Honeyboume and Winch- 
combe . . . . . . 122 


Eustace de Boulogne . . .61 

his first wife, " Goda comitissa " 61, 67 

his second wife, Ida . . . 68 

at the battle of Hastings . . 67 

Evesham, Mr. Batt's paper on . . 149 

battle of 103 

Ewyas Harold enriched by Harold de 

Sudeley 72, 73 

Ewyas, Robert of, ancestor of the 

Brydges 73 

Exeter, Miles Coverdale, bishop of . 204 
Frances, countess of, charge 

made against . . . . 248 
her portrait by Vandyke . . 249 

Fairs at Sudeley .... 96 
in Winchcombe . . 114, 128, 301 

Farm rents 84 

" Father Nicholas of St. Katherine's" 2 1 3 
Fell, Dr. Sam., in possession of the 

Register of Winchcombe . . . 146 
Finch, Lord Chief Justice . .248 

Fisher, bishop of Rochester . . . 140 
Fitz-Osbome, favourite of William the 

Conqueror . . . .66, 68, 69 
Fitz-Scrob, a retainer of Ralph de 

Sudeley 62 

Flint implements found on Sudeley . 5 

Flodden field 155 

Foss Road, the, passes through Sudeley 1 2 
Fox's " Book of Martyrs " . . . 505 
Fryer, Mr. R. H., paper on the 

Gloucester Archives . . .225 
Fust family, staunch Cavaliers . . 266 
needlework at Sudeley, executed 
by the ladies . . . .266 

Galandus, abbot of Winchcombe . 35, 71 
Garter, Order of the, bestowed on six 

owners of Sudeley Castle . .112 
Gascoigne, George, in praise of the 

Fair Bridges 220 

Digitized by 




Gates, Timothy, a clergyman . . 247 
George Inn, Winchcombe, witnesses 
sworn at, to having "slighted" 

Sudeley 288 

George III. visits Sudeley . .317 
and Brockhampton . . . 318 
Gennanus, abbot of Winchcombe . 35, 57 
Gervase, abbot of Winchcombe . 35 

Gibson, Sa., "Minister at Magret's, 

Westminster" 279 

Gist, Mr., of Wormington Grange . 150 
Gloucester Archives, Paper on the . 225 
Gloucester Hall, Oxford . , -137 
Gloucester, Richard, duke of, has a 

grant of Sudeley Castle . . 126 

Gloucester, Charles J. EUicott, bishop 

of 322 

John Hooper, bishop of . 204, 205 
Goda, the Countess, possesses Sudeley 58 
her two marriages ... 61 
her possessions . . . . 65 
Godefrid(or Godfrey), abbot of Winch- 
combe .... 35> 74 
Godric, abbot of Winchcombe . 35, 64 
God\idn, Earl, tried in the Witenage- 

mot 62 

Godwine (or Eadwine), abbot of Winch- 
combe 35 

Golden Legend, the . . i, 37, 44 

Goldsmiths' Hall Committee, the . 280 

its deaUngs with Lord Chandos 282, 

283, 284 
Gorges, Sir Arthur . . . .240 
Gorges, Sir Thomas . . . . 199 
Greet and Gretton, grant of Court- 

leet in 81 

lands held in trust in . . . 106 
in the manor of Sudeley . .142 
Gretton bell inscription . . . 309 
Grey, " Dame Elizabeth," wife of Ed- 
ward IV. . . . . .128 

Grey, Lady Jane, at Sudeley, 186, 201, 202 
entrusted to the care of Seymour 186 
imprisoned 200 

Grey, Lady Jane — continued: 

portrait 201 

her execution . . . . 210 

Grey, Lord 278 

Griffith, prince of Wales . . . 63 
Grosteste, Bishop .... 99 
Guiting, lands held by the Knights 

Templars in ... 81, 104 

Guy, abbot of Pershore . . 74 

Gwavas, Mr., a Cornish scholar . 265 

Gwernewett, King Charles sheltered at 308 
Gymund, abbot of Winchcombe . 35 
Gyves, Robert, gives Hawling to 

Winchcombe Abbey . . .100 


Hailes, a church built in . 
Hailes Abbey, foundation of . 

paper on, by Mr. Loftus Brock 
Hancock, Thomas 


Harefield, George Lord Chandos re- 
tires to . 

Lady Chandos buried at . 

sold to the Newdegates 
Harold, King, erroneous statement 

relating to . 
Harold, Lord of Sudeley 

his lands . 

his grants to religious houses 

Harrington, Sir John, a friend of Lord 


his lines on his fall . . . 
Hartley, Rev. J., of Child's Wickham 


Hardey, Mr., of Chipping Sodbury . 

Harvey, George and John, give lands 
and money for the Winchcombe 

Hastings, batde of . . . . 

Hawkens, James, Esq., of Great Wash- 

Hawling destroyed by the rebels . . 

Hearn, John, rector of Sudeley . 

u u 2 





72, 73 







Digitized by 





Helme, Carshew . . 224, 306, 307 
Heneage, Sir Thomas, his letter from 

. 238 

. 75 


95 — 102 








the Court at Sudeley . 
Henry, abbot of Winchcombe 
Henry L, visions of . 
Henry II., time of 
Henry III., time of . 
Henry IV., time of 
Henry V., time of . 
Henry VI., time of 
Henry, earl of Richmond . 

becomes King Henry VIL 
his portrait by Mabuse 
Henry VIII, time of . 

portraits of . . 140, 158, 231 
carved by Holbein . 140, 158 
Hereford, battle near ... 63 
Hereford, earldom of, given to William 

Fitz Osborne (i\ 

Higford, John, of Dixton, Esq. 226, 228 
" Institutions, or Advice to his 
Grandson " . . . . 
employed by Lord Chandos in 
the management of his estate . 
Higginson, Thomas .... 
Hill Court, Gloucestershire . . . 
Hogarth's Paintings .... 
Hogg, Mr., of North Rode, in posses- 
sion of relics of Queen Katherine 


Holbein's carvings in stone and box- 
wood . . . . 140J 
miniatures .... 
portraits, copied by Venue . . 
Hone, Archdeacon, his sermon on re- 
opening of Clent church 
Hooke, Sir Humphrey, high sheriff of 
Gloucestershire .... 
" Huddlestone's Table " . 
Huggett, Rev. R., letters from, to 

Cieorge Pitt, Esq 314 

Humblebee Wood . . . 8, 219 
Hume's description of the feudal 
Baron 93 








Hurst, Henry, rector of Sudeley . . 300 
Huyck, Dr. Robert, attends Katherine 
Parr on her death-bed . . .173 

Ideburv, Richard de, abbot of Winch- 
combe 36, 106 

Ignitege bell of Winchcombe . .114 
Ingram's House, Gloucester. . . 206 
Innocent III., Pope, the interdict of. 94 
Ippewell, Robert de, abbot of Winch- 
combe 36, 113 

Ismenia, daughter of Roger Corbet . 95 
Ivy Castle, Winchcombe . • . . 92 

Jack of Winchcombe (John Small- 
wood) 152 

marries his master's widow . . 153 

his second marriage . . .154 

entertains Henry VIII. . . . 155 

his descendants . . . .156 

James I., time of . . . . 249, 253 

presents to the living of Sudeley 300 

his hatred of tobacco . . 303 

James, John, rector of Sudeley . . 300 

Jasper, duke of Bedford . . 129,130 

has grant of Sudeley Castle . 131 

his services and death . . . 132 

his wife, Catherine Woodville . 132 

Jenner, Henry, Esq. . . . • . 264 

John, King, time of . . . . 02 

Keigwin, Mr., his Cornish translation 
of King Charles' letter . . . 265 
letter to Mr. Gwavas . . . 265 
Kempson, Rev. Howard . • . 45 
Kenelm, King of Mercia . . -37 
his life and death, from the 

" Golden Legend " , . . 44 
his Church and Well on Clent 

Hill 45 

his furrow ... -47 

Digitized by 





Kenelm, King of Mercia — continued : 
his sisters Borwenilda and Quen- 

rida . . . .23, 38, 47 
his tutor, Askobert . -52 

his Palace, remains of . . . 151 
Kenelra's Well water, analysis of . 54 
Kennedy, Lady Elizabeth . . . 239 
Sir John . . . . . 239 
Kennett, Bishop, his " Parochial An- 
tiquities " quoted . . . -137 
Kent, Henry Grey, earl of . . . 280 
Kent, Sam., Esq., portrait of Kathe- 

rine Parr, the gift of . . . 180 

Kenulf, King of Mercia ... 23 
restores the see of Canterbury to 

its former pre-eminence . . 24 
takes Eadbert, King of Kent, 

prisoner . . . .24 
sets him free . . . . 28 

founds Winchcombe Abbey . 27 
grants a charter to Abingdon . 28 
parts with his guests at "Huddle- 
stone's Table" . . .31 
is buried in Winchcombe . . 33 
his coffin discovered . . .150 
Kineton, Charles I. at . . . . 274 
King, William, employed to hinder 

the cultivation of tobacco . . . 303 

Knights Templars . . 81, 104 

Kyderminster, Richard, abbot, 36, 137 — 145 

his letter to Cardinal Wolsey . 139 

his History of Winchcombe Abbey 144 

Laci, Gilbert de, gives burgages in 
Winchcombe to the Knights Tem- 
plars . . . . . '. 81 

Lake family, their false charge against 
Frances, countess of Exeter . .248 
their punishment . . . . 249 

Lampreys, a favourite dish with the 
monks 140 

Langley, position of the Communion 
Table at 305 


, 44 

• 37 

• 47 
. 104 
. 88 

66, 301 

. 66 


^2, 88 

h 37 

Lapworth, Mr. Charles, Master of the 

Chandos School .... 

Lates, Rev. John, removes Queen 

Katherine Parr's coffin into the 

Chandos vault 

Latimer, one of the Reformers 

attends Seymour in prison 

preaches on his death 

his martyrdom 
Laws for branding vagabonds 
Lees, Mrs., her recollections 
Legend, the Golden 

of St Kenelm . 

of King Kenulph's daughter . 

of the Monk's Hole . 

of Ralph de Sudeley 
Leland, quoted . 124, 151, 158, 
Leo VII., Pope 

Leofric, earl of Mercia, averts war 
Lepers' House at Charlton Abbots 
Lichfield raised for a time to an arch- 
bishopric ..... 
** Life of Katharine Parr," by Miss 


Litton, Rev. E. A., rector of Naunton 
Livingus, abbot of Winchcombe . . 
Lubbock, Sir John, quoted 
Lucas, Mr., letter from, to Lord Rivers 

his proceedings at Sudeley 
Lunell, W. P., had a lock of Queen 
Katherine Parr's hair . . . 
Lupus, first Earl of Chester . . . 
Luxuries curtailed by law . . .112 

Mabuse, paintings by . . . . 133 
Macaulay's opinion of the Gloucester- 
shire gentry 293 

Mallet, Dr., one of the Reformers . 203 
Manchester, Henry, earl of . .254 
Mantes, Walter of . . . 58, 61 
MS., copy of an old, found at Sudeley 

Castle 319 

March, the, or Boundary . . . i6 









Digitized by 




Marriage of Henry VII. to Elizabeth 

of York 132 

Marvel, Andrew, his "King's Me- 
moirs " quoted 277 

Mary, Princess, translates Erasmus's 
Paraphrase . . . . 159, 178 
offended with her step-mother's 

hasty marriage . . . . 164 
writes to her, wishing her "a 

good success" . . .170 
report of Seymour aspiring to her 

hand 185 

Mary, Queen, disgraces the Marquis 
of Northampton . . . .198 
willing to pardon Lady Jane 

Grey . . . . . 202 
letter to Lord Chandos for the 
execution of Bishop Hooper . 204 
Massey,Colonel Edward, takes Sudeley 

Castle 258 

his portrait 272 

letter from . -275 

Massey, Captain George, in charge of 

Sudeley 272 

Matilda, the Empress . -78 

Maurice, Prince, at Sudeley Castle . 259 
Mercia, of which Winchcombe be- 
comes the capital . . . • iS 
Mercians become Christians . . 17 

" Mercurius Aulicus " . . .257 
" Mercurius Rusticus " . . . . 260 
Merscwarum country ravaged by 

Kenulf ..... 24 

Miller, Hugh, his remark on St. 

Kenelm 47 

Milo, constable of Gloucester, re- 
pulsed at Sudeley . . . -79 
Milton, Rev. William . . . 152 

Mistletoe called All Heale . . 3 
Monastic pensions, Winchcombe, 142, 143, 

Monk's Hole, Legend of the . .104 
Montfort, Simon de . . . . 96 
Monasteries, suppression of the . 300 


Monument of Matrones . . . 


More, Sir A., Henry VIII. and his 

Family, by 


Moreland, Thomas, rector of Sudeley 


Mortmain, statute of . . . . 


Morton, Sir William .... 


in charge of Sudeley . . . 


letter from .... 


described by Clarendon . . 


is made a Judge 




Mortuary or Precatory Rolls . 


Musselborough, battle of . . . 


Mounslow (or Ancelme), Richard, 

last abbot of Winchcombe, 36, 140, 




Naseby, battle of . . . .275 
Nash, the antiquary, opens Queen 

Katherine Parr's tomb . . . 316 
Needlework, the gift of Mrs. Sexty, of 

Gretton 266 

from Hill Court . . 266 

Newbury, battle of . . .266 

Newman, Dr., of Winchcombe . . 150 
New Year's gifts, Lord and Lady 

Chandos' 238 

Nichols' ** Progresses " quoted . 232, 250 
Nilsson, Professor, quoted . . 8 
Norbury, Sir John, heir to Ralph, 

Lord Boteler 127 

Northampton, William Parr, marquis 

of 170 

visits his sister at Sudeley . . 170 
receives grant of Sudeley . .196 
his services and plots . . . 197 
disgraced, restored, death . .198 
his marriages . . 199 

Northumberland, John Dudley, duke 
of, his intrigues . 197 

executed 202 

" Nugae Antiquae " . .191 

" Nympha Libethris "... 298 

Digitized by 





Obedientiarii, the, of Winchcombe 

monastery . . . . . loo 
Offa, Kingof Mercia . . . . i. 19 
his son, Ecgfrith (or Egbert) 20, 22 
his wife and daughter 20 

founds St Alban's abbey 21 

his liberality to the English school 

at Rome .... 22 
his place of burial . . 22 

Order of the Garter conferred on six 

owners of Sudeley . . .112 

Order of St Michael, ceremony in 

honour of 216 

Ordericus quoted . . -72 

Oriel Room, Sudeley, slept in by Queen 

Elizabeth 229 

Ormerod's '* History of Cheshire " 

quoted 72 

Osbolston, George, rector of Sudeley, 

presented by James I. . . . 300 
Oswald, bishop of Worcester . . 57 

Otford, battle of 19 

Over Winchendon, position of the 

Communion Table in . . .205 
Oversley, the Botelers of . . . 108 
Owen, T. Bulkeley, Esq. . .271 

Paddy, Sir William . . . 240, 241 
Palace of the Mercian Kings . . 20 
Palgrave, Sir F., quoted . . . 2, 61 
Palmer, John, when sick promises 

lands to Winchcombe . . . 104 
Palmer, Julins, the martyr 157 

Parkhurst, Dr., rector of Bishop's Cleve 206 
attends Katherine Parr on her 

death-bed . . -173 

writes her epitaph . . . 176 

made Bishop of Norwich . . 207 
Parr, Katherine, her early life and 

marriages 158 

her friendship with her royal 
step-children . . . .159 

Parr, Katherine — continued : 

receives Seymour as her suitor . 160 
married to him . . . 163 

her establishment at Sudeley . 167 
encourages the Reformers . . 167 
purposes to restore Sudeley to the 

King 169 

gives birth to a daughter . .171 

her death 172 

her Will 173 

character, burial . . 174, 175 

Monument . . .176 

her Works 178 

portraits and relics . . 180, 182 
seal and letters . . 183, 184 

her burial-place not known . 314 
her tomb discovered and opened 315 
opened again in 1784 . .316 
tradition of her effigy . ..319 
inscription of her coffin discovered 320 
" Parrs of Kendal Castle," by Sir G. 

Duckett . . . . -159 

Payne, Clara, lines on "The Ivy 

Wreath" 321 

Pembridge, Thomas, rector of Sudeley 300 
Penda, King . . . . .17 
" Perfect Diurnal," the . . . 256 

Perinchafe, John, rector of Sudeley . 300 

Perrin, , receives a commission 

from George III 317 

Phillipps, Sir Thomas, prints an* Ab- 
breviation of the Winchcombe Car- 
tulary 80 

his Chandos MSS. . • 3^3 

on Clement Barkstone's works . 297 
Phythian, Dr., of Winchcombe . .. 150 
" Piers Plowman," quoted . . 82 

Piscina in Winchcombe church . . 119 
Pitt, George, marries the widow of 

George, Lord Chandos . . .288 
Pitt, George, his great grandson, 

created Lord Rivers of Sudeley . 289 
Poole, Sir Henry, of Saperton . . 249 
Poor fed at the Abbey refectory 113 

Digitized by 





Portmare Tower, Sudeley . . .118 
Postlip Church . . . . . 79 
Potter, Thomas, rector of Sudeley . 300 
Power, Thomas, vicar of Winchcombe, 

sued by the abbot . . . . no 
Prodigies preceding the Great Rebel- 
lion 256 

Proprietors of lands in Sudeley . . 313 

Public Record Office, transcripts from 

the, at Sudeley, 136, 164, 200, 215, 216, 

217, 224, 240, 247, 250, 251, 254, 255, 

273—288, 303, 304 

Pudens, monumental tablet . . 18 


QuENDRiDA, wife of Offa . . . 20 
Quenrida, sister of King Kenelm 38 — 52 
Quillinan, Edward, Esq., lines by . 311 


Radulphus L, abbot of Winchcombe 35 

Radulphus II., abbot of Winchcombe 36 

Raleigh, Sir W., at Brockhampton . 302 

Ralph de Wircestre at Hailes . . 80 

Rectors of Sudeley .... 300 

Register of Winchcombe Abbey burnt 1 46 

Richard, bishop of Worcester . . C15 
Richard I., King, wars against the 

infidels 88 

Richard II. confers favours on W'inch- 

combe Abbey 113 

Richard, duke of Gloucester, has 
grant of Sudeley . . . .126 
exchanges it for Richmond . . 127 
Richard III., Sudeley as crown pro- 
perty reverts to . . . .128 
journeys to Gloucester . . . 129 
Rivers, George, Lord, sells Sudeley . 318 
Rivers, Horace, Lord, papers pre- 
sented by 315 

Robert 1., abbot of Winchcombe, 35, 78, 80 

Robert II., abbot of Winchcombe 36 
Robert of Ewyas, ancestor of the 

Hrydgcs 73 

Rogers, John, the first martyr in 

Mary's reign 204 

Rogers, W., engraver of " Henry VIII. 

and his Family " .... 232 
Roman coins, list of . . . 15 

Romans, the, in Britain . .11 

in Gloucestershire . . . 18 

in Sudeley . . . .13 

Roos, Lady, daughter of Sir T. I>ake 248 
brings a false charge against 
Frances, countess of Exeter . 249 
Rowell comes into the possession of 
Winchcombe Abbey . . .100 
Manor House purchased by G. 

Townscnd . . . . 298 

occasional residence of Lord and 

Lady Chandos . .298 

Royalist Composition Papers . . 273 

transcripts of the Chandos ones 

at Sudeley . . . 273 — 288 

Rupert, Prince, letter from . . . 257 

at Sudeley .... 259 

his portrait 259 

on the Cotswolds . . .262 
on Broadway Hill . . 263 

at Stow-in-the-Wold . . .267 
at Broadway and Stow . . . 275 
" Rupert Drop," the . .276 

Russell, Frances, countess of Bedford 241 

Sackvyle, Sir Richard . .213 

Salmon, once very plentiful in 
Gloucestershire . . . . 83 

Saperton 249 

Saunderson, William . . . 247 

Saxons, the . . . . 14, 15 
Scots and Picts, the . . . 14, 15 
Scott, Sir Gilbert . . • • 77, 322 
Seymour, Sir Thomas, character of, 160, 193 
his projects for marriage . . 162 
created Lord Seymour of Sudeley 1 1 
has various grants in Glouces- 
tershire . . . . . 161 

Digitized by 




Seymour, Sir TnoMAS'-^onh'nufd : 

married to Queen Katherine Parr 1 63 
his indiscreet conduct to Princess 

Elizabeth . . . .164 
lines on, by Sir N. Throckmorton 167 
his distaste to religious services . 168 
his daughter born . ..171 

is congratulated by the Protector 172 
his ambitious projects of marriage 1 85 
Lady Jane Grey entrusted to his 

care 185 

intrigues at Sudeley . . . 187 
committed to the Tower . .188 
bill of attainder . . . 189 

his death-warrant signed .191 

leaves his child to the care of the 
Duchess of Suffolk . . 191 

his death 192 

Seymour, Mary, under the care of 
the Duchess of Suffolk . . .194 
her marriage and descendants . 195 
Shaw, Mr., his remarks on Queen 

Katherine Parr's portrait . .182 
Sherborne, Lady, information received 
from . . .... V 145 

Shirebum, Walter de . . . 36 
Ship-money, unjust assessment of . 254 
Shipton, Samuel, rector of Sudeley . 300 
Simeon, bishop of Durham . . 57 
Simmons, Mr. Fred, bailiff for the 
Sudeley estate . . . . 14, 274 

Simon, bishop of Worcester . .' 75, 78 
Skull from Belas Knap . . . 7 

Smallwood, John. See/ack of Winch- 

Smirke, Sir E 265 

Solers, William de, of Postlip . . 79 

Somerset, the Protector . 161, 169, 171. 

186, 188, 191, 197 

Spakeman, Abel . . . .280 

Spencer, Lord 254 

Staite, John and William, tenants of 

the Lodge farm . . . .317 
Stanhope, Lady Anne . . . . 191 

Stanhope, Sir H. Scudamore, Bart., 

his Chandos portraits . . . 213 
Stanley Pontlarge . . . 105, 228 
Stanley, Dean, on the murderers of 
Thomas Becket . . . . 85 

Stanton Rectory, part of Queen 

Katherine Parr's dowry . . .162 
Stanway, Baldwyn de . . . . 92 

Starchamber, cases in the . 246, 248 
Stephen, King, time of . . . 78 
Stillington, bishop of Bath and Wells 128 
Stocker, Mrs., of Twyning Manor- 
house, presents a lock of Queen 
Katherine Parr's hair . .181 

Stockport, brawlers and bad brewers, 
how punished at . . . . 148 

Stone implements .... 8 

Stow-in-the-Wold, the Royalists de- 
feated at . . . . . . 276 

Strawberry Hill, Paintings 
FROM : — 

Marriageof Henry VIL, and Chil- 
dren of Henry VIL — Mabuse 133 
Henry VHI. in stone, also in 

boxwood — Holbein . . 140* 158 
Henry VHI. and his Family — 

Sir A. More . . . 231 

miniatures — Holbein . .181 

Streona, Edric 59 

his character .... 60 
incorporates Winchcombe with 

Gloucestershire. . . . 60 

his death . . . . .61 

Strickland, Miss Agnes, 180, 181, 182, 184, 

190* 194, 320 
her "Life of Katharine Parr," 150, 

et seq. 
Sudeley, British and Roman remains 

at 2 

British road 12 

the Foss Road traverses . 12 

Roman villa on Wadfield Farm . 13 
Roman coins . . . . 15 
Roman remains in Stancomb Wood 1 5 

X X 

Digitized by 




Sviyzi^^Y ^continued : 

Chapel built on Sudeley Hill . 44 

Well 53 

forest of oaks, park, and lake . 58 
Manor House . . -59 

grants of fairs . . .96, 99 
Chapel built, Castle restored, 118, 119 
granted to Earl Rivers and others, 124 
granted to Richard, duke of 

Gloucester . . . .126 
reverts to the Crown . . . 132 
Castle moat, lakes, bam . .136 
Manor granted to Richard Ky- 

derminster . . . • 136 
Castle goes to ruin, Constables 

appointed . . . .158 
granted to Sir Thomas Seymour, 
and prepared for Queen Kathe- 

rine Parr 164 

origin of design of east window 

in Chapel . . . .176 
the Castle taken, and deserted by 

the Roundheads . . . 257 
Chapel desecrated . . .260 
tastle surrenders to Sir William 

Waller . ' . . . . 268 
the tower struck by a cannon ball 269 
Castle betrayed . . . . 270 
the Castle " slighted " . . 285 
drawings of, at Thirlestaine 

House 318 

"Sudeley venison" . . -299 
the Castle and Chapel restored . 322 
Sudeley, Lords of : — 

Ralph, ist Lord . . . .61 

assembles an army against Alfgar 63 

Bulwer's notice of him and Fitz 

Osborne in " Harold " . . 66 

Harold, 2nd Lord ... 63 

connected with Godfrey de 

Bouillon .... 68 
mentioned in Domesday . 63, 64 
his marriage . . . 69, 72 

his sons, John and Robert . . 73 

Sudeley, Lords of — continued: 
John de Sutlie, 3rd Lord . 
Grace de Tracy, his wife 
the Castle built . 
Manor House 
a royal garrison, plundered 
Ralph, 4th Lord 
gives Toddington to his brother 

marries Emma, daughter of Wil 

liam de Beauchamp . 
his brother murders Becket 
Otuer, 5th Lord 
his mother Emma buried in 

Winchpombe Abbey 

his seal .... 

Ralph, 6th Lord . . \ 

goes to the Crusades 

his 'legend 

Ralph, 7 th Lord . 

joins in the wars of the Barons 

his seal .... 

Sir Bartholomew, 8th Lord 

disputes with the Abbot of Hailes 

stands surety for Robert de 

Ferrars, earl of Derby . . 

his wife Joan buried at Erdbury. 

John, 9th Lord .... 

his services — marriage . . . 

holds lands in Greet and Gretton 

a benefactor to the canons of 


John, loth Lord .... 
follows Edward the Black Prince 

to France 

Joan his sister becomes his heir . 

See also Boteler^ BrydgeSy Chan- 

dos of Sudeley, 

Suffield, Walter de, bishop of Nonvich, 

Suffolk, Katherine, dowager duchess 

of 163, 191, 

her portrait . ... 
Swarton, Sarah, a false witness 
Swig, Sir William, taken prisoner 















Digitized by 







T£M?L£ GuiTiNG londs held in by the 

Templars . . . . 8iy 104 

Tewkesbury, battle of 
Theologian, wine so called . 
Thomas, abbot of Winchcombe 
Thomdale, William, gives money for 

the Winchcombe poor 
Thome, Rev. Henry, vicar of Winch 

Throckmorton, George, 

Frances Brydges , 

his false accusation of her 
Throckmorton, Sir Nicholas, lines by 
Thurman, Eflward 
Thurstan, archbishop of York 
Tideman. See Winchcombe, 
Tobacco, illegal cultivation of . 302 
Toddington given by Ralph de Sudeley 

to his younger brother William 
Tommaso, S., degP Inglesi, Rome . 
Tournament ground . . . . 
Townsend, George, his charities 
Tracy, William, a natural son of 

Henry I 

Grace, his daughter, marries John 

de Sudley . . . . 

Tracy, John, marries Elizabeth, 

daughter of the ist Lord Chandos 

of Sudeley 213 

Tracy, Lady Juliana, gives money to 

the poor in Winchcombe . . . 
Tracy, Sir Robert, sends ;^2oo to 

the King and his 3rd son to serve in 

Lord Chandos' troop . 
Tracy, William de, murders Becket . 

his seal 

Tracy, William de, serves against the 


Tracy, Master William, patron of the 

church at Toddington . 
Traill, Rev. F. R., lines by. See 

on Queen Katherine Parr's tomb. 














Transcripts of documents at Sudeley, 136, 
164, 200, 215, 216, 217, 224, 240, 247, 
250, 251, 254, 25s, 273—288, 303, 304 

Translation of the Scriptures byTyndal 
and Coverdale . . . . 233 

Tudinton, Henry de, abbot of 
Winchcombe 36 

Turville, Sir Thomas . . 249 

Twynnynge, John, abbot of Winch- 
combe 36 

Tyndal, William . . . .168 

Tyrwhit, " confessions ** of Sir Robert 
and Lady .... 169, 172 


Udal, Nicholas 
Urban IV., Pope. 
Uvedale, William 




Vertue's copies of Holbein's portraits 181 
Vikings, the, devastate Winchcombe 
Abbey. 56 

Wakefield, Henry, bishop of Wor- 
cester 114 

Waleran, Earl, plunders Sudeley 79 
Wales, Council of, when founded . . 224 
th^ir controversy with Giles, Lord 
Chandos . . . .224 
Walpole, Horace, his initials on minia- 
tures 181 

Walter. See Mantes, Suffield, 
Warwick, Isabelle, countess of . . 121 
Warwickshire, the Botelers* posses- 
sions in 115 

Washburn, Great . ... . 308 
Wateville, Roger, gives houses in 
Winchcombe to the Knights 

Templars 81 

Wedgwood, Rev. R., of Dumbleton . 263 
Wellesboume-Montford, a possession 
of the Botelers . . . . 115 

X X 2 

Digitized by 








Wells, John, a minister . 
Wem, Shropshire, the Botelers of 
Westminster, the first Dean of . 
Wiccii, formerly called Dobuni 
Wickwar, Walter de, abbot of Winch- 
combe . . . .37, 102, 106 
William the Conqueror . . .70 
William Rufus, King . . . • 73 
William, abbot of Winchcombe . 35, 80 
Williams, Mr., of the Abbey House, 

Winchcombe •. . . .150 
Willy, Jane and Margaret 247, 248 
Winchcombe, antiquity and derivation 
of name i, 15 

a district sheriffdom . • 1 7 

united to Gloucestershire . . 17 

nunnery . . . . 19, 26 

Abbey founded. See Winchcombe 

in the hundred of Kiftsgate 

a borough 

the curfew bell 


the town burnt 

streets and castles 

under excommuflication 

Booth and Guild Halls, 



63, 64 




. . 97 

fairs and charter from Edw.IV., 92, 128 
ancient names still common in *. 109 
St. Peter's Church built, St. 

Nicholas 119 

St. Pancras Chapel . . .121 
Church Register . . . 146 

whipping-post and stocks . . 147 
ducking-stool . . . . 148 
removed from the Diocese of 

Worcester . . . .148 

old Palace 151 

weather-gauge . . . .219 
Chandos almshouses . . . 222 
church property . -243 

Earl of Essex and Roundheads 

pass through . . . 262 

Winchcombe — continued : 

plundered by the Cavaliers . 275 
old sign for beer-houses . . 296 
first school board . . . 297 
fallen into decay . . . . 301 
Queen Elizabeth's charter . . 301 

schools 302 

the cultivation of tobacco . . 302 

charities 304 

church restorations » . 304, 305 
Ladies' gallery, pulpit, font, plate 306 
Registers^ curious entries . . 306 
monuments o( Sir David and 

Thomas Williams . . . 308 
church bells .... 309 

Winchcombe Abbey founded 27 

foundation charter ... 33 
list of abbots . . • • 35 
Egbert said to be buried in .56 
suffered from the Danes . . 56 
its monks restore the monastic 

life in the North . . .57 
its possessions . 70, 100, 10 1, 122 
struck by lightning . . . 73 

burnt 80 

supplied with water from Hanwell 92 
a Mitred Abbey ... 98 
visited by Henry III. and his 

Queen, a.d. 1251 . . . 98 
paper on, by Mr. Loftus Brock, 98, 

114, 149 
various officers . . . 100, loi 
the abbot permitted to use mitre 

and ring .... 103 
separated from Stanley Pontlarge 105 
permission to fortify the House . 109 
its charter confirmed . . . no 
the House robbed . . .111 
receives favours from Richard II. 114 
a Peeral Abbey . . • • i35 
the abbey seal . . . .135 
its Lodgings in Oxford . . .137 
its possessions confirmed . . 137 
its History and Cartulary, 80, 144, 154 

Digitized by 




WiNCHCOMBE ^x^YS— continued : 

systematically destroyed . . 149 
the Abbotts House destroyed 149 

Winchecombe, Tideman of, physician 

and confessor to Richard II. . . 114 
Winchecombe, William, abbot of 

Winchcombe . . . 36, 119, 120 
Wine made in this country, "Theologi- 

cum" 83 

Winfortun, Walter de, abbot of Winch- 
combe . . . . 36, III, 113 
Wingfield, battle of . . . .16 
Wolsey, Cardinal, receives lampreys 

from the abbot of Winchcombe . 139 
Wood, T. Smith, Esq., abstract of 

document by 243 

Wood, Miss A. M., lines on Sudeley by 321 
Woodville, Catherine, wife of Jasper, 

duke of Bedford . . . . 132 

Worcester burnt 
Worcester, bishops of ; — 



. 64 



78, 79 

. 105 


Worcester College, Oxford . 
Worship of fountains forbidden 
Writ, Thomas, a clergyman . 
Wulfrid, archbishop of Canterbury 
Wulfstan, bishop of Worcester . 
Wynns, tenants of Sudeley Castle 











Yan WORTH E (or Yarmouth), John, 

abbot of Winchcombe . 36, 98, 1 00 
Yate, John, a suspected murderer . 224 

Warming Pans. With date 1642, from Worcester; 1645, from an old farm-house 

at Dumbleton. 

Digitized by 



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